Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
000
UXUS97 KPUB 061109
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0509 MDT Sunday, July 6, 2014

This forecast is for Sunday, July 6, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 78.4 F/25.8 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1414 ft/min (7.2 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 20903 ft MSL (14145 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 86.0 F/30.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 0845 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 14599 ft MSL (7841 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 07/07....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 22050 ft MSL (15292 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 07/07.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:40:02 / 20:27:34 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 47 min 32 sec (887 min 32 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:03:48 MDT... 73.65 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/06/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16463 ft MSL (9705 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18568 ft MSL (11810 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 18809 ft MSL (12051 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.9
K index......................... +14.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.5 -84.1   355   26   13   0.6   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.9 -79.4   010   27   14   4.1   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -55.0 -67.0   025   21   11   7.7   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -50.4 -58.7   030   21   11   7.7   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -45.7 -50.3   035   21   11   7.7   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -39.9 -39.8   035   20   10   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -34.7 -30.5   035   19   10   8.5   4.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -30.3 -22.5   035   15    7   7.2   4.0   39.2 102.6     7.2      M    M
 29000  -28.2 -18.8   030   12    6   7.2   4.0   38.3 101.0     6.5      M    M
 28000  -26.0 -14.8   030   10    5   7.5   4.1   37.5  99.4     5.9      M    M
 27000  -23.7 -10.7   040   10    5   7.5   4.1   36.5  97.7     5.2      M    M
 26000  -21.5  -6.7   050    9    5   7.5   4.1   35.7  96.2     4.6      M    M
 25000  -19.3  -2.7   055    9    4   6.9   3.8   35.0  94.9     4.0      M    M
 24000  -17.4   0.7   050   12    6   6.5   3.5   33.7  92.6     2.9      M    M
 23000  -15.5   4.1   050   15    8   6.5   3.6   32.5  90.5     1.9      M    M
 22000  -13.5   7.7   045   18    9   7.0   3.8   31.4  88.6     1.0      M    M
 21000  -11.4  11.5   045   17    9   7.2   4.0   30.5  86.8     0.1      M    M
 20000   -9.3  15.3   040   17    9   7.3   4.0   29.6  85.3    -0.7   1337  6.8
 19500   -8.3  17.1   040   17    9   7.7   4.2   29.2  84.6    -1.0   1290  6.6
 19000   -7.0  19.4   040   17    9   9.0   5.0   29.0  84.3    -1.2   1237  6.3
 18500   -5.6  21.9   045   16    8   9.0   4.9   28.9  84.0    -1.3   1181  6.0
 18000   -4.2  24.4   045   16    8   8.7   4.8   28.8  83.8    -1.4   1125  5.7
 17500   -2.9  26.8   050   15    8   8.6   4.7   28.6  83.4    -1.6   1071  5.4
 17000   -1.6  29.1   055   15    8   8.5   4.7   28.4  83.1    -1.8   1017  5.2
 16500    0.2  32.4   055   13    7   8.3   4.6   28.0  82.5    -2.1    940  4.8
 16000    1.4  34.5   060   12    6   8.4   4.6   27.8  82.1    -2.4    888  4.5
 15500    2.7  36.9   060   11    5   8.5   4.7   27.6  81.7    -2.6    836  4.2
 15000    3.9  39.0   065    9    5   8.5   4.7   27.4  81.3    -2.9    784  4.0
 14500    5.2  41.4   065    7    4   8.9   4.9   27.2  81.0    -3.1    732  3.7
 14000    6.5  43.7   070    5    3   8.9   4.9   27.1  80.8    -3.3    678  3.4
 13500    7.8  46.0   070    3    2   9.2   5.0   27.0  80.6    -3.5    624  3.2
 13000    9.1  48.4   050    1    1   9.4   5.2   26.9  80.4    -3.6    570  2.9
 12500   10.3  50.5   310    1    1   8.5   4.7   26.7  80.0    -3.8    518  2.6
 12000   11.7  53.1   295    3    1   9.6   5.3   26.7  80.0    -3.9    461  2.3
 11750   12.4  54.3   295    3    2   9.7   5.3   26.7  80.0    -4.0    432  2.2
 11500   13.2  55.8   295    4    2  10.0   5.5   26.7  80.0    -4.0    403  2.0
 11250   13.9  57.0   290    5    2   9.7   5.3   26.7  80.0    -4.0    374  1.9
 11000   14.6  58.3   290    5    3   9.3   5.1   26.7  80.0    -4.0    345  1.8
 10750   15.3  59.5   290    5    3   9.4   5.2   26.6  79.9    -4.1    317  1.6
 10500   16.0  60.8   290    6    3  10.3   5.6   26.6  79.9    -4.1    287  1.5
 10250   16.8  62.2   285    6    3  11.1   6.1   26.7  80.1    -4.0    256  1.3
 10000   17.6  63.7   280    6    3   9.2   5.1   26.8  80.2    -4.0    226  1.1
  9750   18.2  64.8   280    6    3   7.9   4.3   26.6  80.0    -4.1    200  1.0
  9500   18.8  65.8   275    6    3   8.9   4.9   26.5  79.8    -4.2    174  0.9
  9250   19.5  67.1   270    6    3   9.3   5.1   26.5  79.7    -4.3    146  0.7
  9000   20.2  68.4   265    7    3   9.2   5.0   26.5  79.6    -4.4    119  0.6
  8750   20.8  69.4   260    7    3   7.7   4.2   26.4  79.5    -4.5     92  0.5
  8500   21.3  70.3   260    7    4   3.9   2.2   26.1  79.0    -4.8     72  0.4
  8250   21.4  70.5   265    8    4   0.4   0.2   25.5  77.9    -5.4     60  0.3
  8000   21.5  70.7   270    9    5   6.8   3.8   24.9  76.8    -6.0     48  0.2
  7750   21.7  71.1   275   10    5 -15.5  -8.5   24.3  75.8    -6.6     36  0.2
  7500   19.2  66.6   275   11    6 -33.3 -18.3   21.4  70.6    -9.6    102  0.5
  7250   17.3  63.1   280   10    5 -21.3 -11.7   19.1  66.5   -11.9    152  0.8
  7000   15.4  59.7   280    9    5 -32.2 -17.7   16.9  62.4   -14.2    202  1.0
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/06/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/06/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +13.2  LI... -0.7               | K index... +18.4  LI... -0.2
CAPE... +63.1  CIN... -46.3                | CAPE... +48.6  CIN... -35.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.6 -86.1  010  25 13  -0.1  -0.0 | -65.6 -86.1  020  20 10  -0.0  -0.0
 45000 -63.2 -81.8  020  26 14   5.1   2.8 | -63.3 -81.9  020  21 11   5.1   2.8
 40000 -55.0 -67.0  040  21 11   7.9   4.3 | -54.5 -66.1  025  19 10   8.2   4.5
 38000 -50.2 -58.4  040  22 11   7.9   4.3 | -49.6 -57.3  030  19 10   8.2   4.5
 36000 -45.5 -49.9  045  22 11   8.0   4.4 | -44.7 -48.5  030  19 10   8.4   4.6
 34000 -39.5 -39.1  045  22 11   8.8   4.9 | -39.5 -39.1  035  19 10   8.7   4.7
 32000 -34.2 -29.6  045  22 11   8.6   4.7 | -34.3 -29.7  040  18  9   8.9   4.9
 30000 -29.7 -21.5  045  17  9   7.4   4.1 | -29.6 -21.3  040  15  8   7.8   4.3
 29000 -27.5 -17.5  045  15  8   7.5   4.1 | -27.3 -17.1  045  14  7   7.9   4.3
 28000 -25.3 -13.5  045  13  6   7.0   3.8 | -25.0 -13.0  045  12  6   6.6   3.6
 27000 -23.2  -9.8  045  10  5   7.1   3.9 | -22.6  -8.7  035   8  4   6.5   3.6
 26000 -21.0  -5.8  045   7  4   7.1   3.9 | -20.7  -5.3  020   6  3   6.5   3.6
 25000 -18.9  -2.0  050   4  2   6.4   3.5 | -18.8  -1.8  355   4  2   5.9   3.2
 24000 -17.2   1.0  050   8  4   6.0   3.3 | -17.1   1.2  015   5  3   5.9   3.2
 23000 -15.4   4.3  050  11  6   6.0   3.3 | -15.4   4.3  025   7  3   5.9   3.2
 22000 -13.7   7.3  055  14  7   7.1   3.9 | -13.5   7.7  035   8  4   8.0   4.4
 21000 -11.4  11.5  060  14  7   7.5   4.1 | -11.2  11.8  035   8  4   8.0   4.4
 20000  -9.2  15.4  060  14  7   7.5   4.1 |  -8.8  16.2  030   9  5   8.1   4.4
 19500  -8.1  17.4  065  14  7   7.7   4.2 |  -7.6  18.3  030   9  5   8.2   4.5
 19000  -6.9  19.6  065  13  7   8.4   4.6 |  -6.4  20.5  040   9  5   8.4   4.6
 18500  -5.7  21.7  060  12  6   8.4   4.6 |  -5.2  22.6  045   9  5   8.4   4.6
 18000  -4.4  24.1  055  12  6   9.3   5.1 |  -3.9  25.0  050   9  5   8.5   4.7
 17500  -3.0  26.6  055  12  6   9.4   5.2 |  -2.7  27.1  055   9  5   8.5   4.7
 17000  -1.5  29.3  055  12  6   9.2   5.0 |  -1.4  29.5  055   9  5   8.6   4.7
 16500  -0.2  31.6  055  11  6   8.6   4.7 |  -0.1  31.8  055   8  4   8.7   4.8
 16000   1.7  35.1  060  11  5   8.6   4.7 |   1.2  34.2  055   8  4   8.7   4.7
 15500   3.0  37.4  055  10  5   8.6   4.7 |   2.5  36.5  050   7  3   9.1   5.0
 15000   4.3  39.7  055   8  4   8.6   4.7 |   3.8  38.8  050   5  3   9.1   5.0
 14500   5.5  41.9  055   7  4   8.6   4.7 |   5.1  41.2  045   4  2   9.1   5.0
 14000   6.8  44.2  055   6  3   8.6   4.7 |   6.5  43.7  045   4  2   9.1   5.0
 13500   8.1  46.6  060   4  2   8.9   4.9 |   8.5  47.3  040   3  2   9.2   5.1
 13000   9.4  48.9  065   3  1   9.1   5.0 |   9.8  49.6  045   3  1   9.6   5.2
 12500  10.6  51.1  085   1  1   8.7   4.8 |  11.0  51.8  050   2  1   8.4   4.6
 12000  12.0  53.6  000   0  0   9.5   5.2 |  12.5  54.5  065   2  1   9.9   5.4
 11750  12.7  54.9  200   1  0   9.6   5.2 |  13.2  55.8  075   2  1   9.8   5.4
 11500  13.4  56.1  220   1  1   9.8   5.4 |  13.9  57.0  090   2  1   9.2   5.0
 11250  14.1  57.4  230   1  1   9.3   5.1 |  14.6  58.3  100   2  1   9.3   5.1
 11000  14.8  58.6  250   1  1   8.8   4.8 |  15.3  59.5  110   2  1   9.6   5.3
 10750  15.4  59.7  265   1  1   9.0   5.0 |  16.0  60.8  115   2  1   9.7   5.3
 10500  16.1  61.0  275   2  1  10.0   5.5 |  16.7  62.1  120   2  1  10.6   5.8
 10250  16.9  62.4  285   2  1  10.8   5.9 |  17.5  63.5  130   2  1  10.9   6.0
 10000  17.6  63.7  285   2  1   9.1   5.0 |  18.3  64.9  135   2  1   9.4   5.2
  9750  18.2  64.8  285   3  1   8.2   4.5 |  18.9  66.0  140   2  1   8.8   4.8
  9500  18.9  66.0  285   3  2   9.4   5.1 |  19.7  67.5  140   2  1  10.0   5.5
  9250  19.6  67.3  280   3  2  10.0   5.5 |  20.4  68.7  145   2  1  10.6   5.8
  9000  20.3  68.5  275   3  2   9.4   5.2 |  21.2  70.2  150   2  1  10.0   5.5
  8750  21.0  69.8  275   3  2   8.4   4.6 |  21.9  71.4  150   3  1   9.4   5.2
  8500  21.6  70.9  275   3  2   8.5   4.7 |  22.6  72.7  150   3  1  10.2   5.6
  8250  22.2  72.0  275   4  2   8.9   4.9 |  23.4  74.1  150   3  2  10.8   5.9
  8000  22.8  73.0  280   4  2   9.0   4.9 |  24.2  75.6  155   3  2  10.3   5.7
  7750  23.4  74.1  280   5  3   8.7   4.8 |  25.0  77.0  155   3  2  11.4   6.3
  7500  24.0  75.2  275   5  3   8.0   4.4 |  25.9  78.6  155   3  2  12.5   6.9
  7250  24.6  76.3  275   5  3   7.8   4.3 |  26.8  80.2  150   3  2  12.3   6.8
  7000  25.1  77.2  275   5  3   8.0   4.4 |  27.7  81.9  150   3  2  12.6   6.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           07/06/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/06/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +24.2  LI... -0.3               | K index... +25.4  LI... -0.5
CAPE... +45.7  CIN... -24.0                | CAPE... +37.1  CIN... -21.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -65.6 -86.1  015  18  9   0.3   0.2 | -65.7 -86.3  015  19 10   0.6   0.4
 45000 -63.0 -81.4  015  19 10   5.0   2.7 | -62.6 -80.7  010  22 11   5.0   2.7
 40000 -54.3 -65.7  015  19 10   8.2   4.5 | -54.0 -65.2  360  20 11   8.2   4.5
 38000 -49.4 -56.9  015  18  9   8.2   4.5 | -49.1 -56.4  360  19 10   8.1   4.5
 36000 -44.4 -47.9  015  17  9   8.3   4.5 | -44.2 -47.6  355  18  9   8.3   4.5
 34000 -39.5 -39.1  015  15  8   8.3   4.6 | -39.2 -38.6  355  16  8   8.4   4.6
 32000 -34.5 -30.1  020  14  7   8.5   4.7 | -34.2 -29.6  355  14  7   8.6   4.7
 30000 -29.7 -21.5  030  12  6   7.9   4.4 | -29.5 -21.1  005  12  6   7.8   4.3
 29000 -27.4 -17.3  035  11  6   8.0   4.4 | -27.2 -17.0  010  11  5   7.8   4.3
 28000 -24.5 -12.1  035  11  5   7.1   3.9 | -24.9 -12.8  015  10  5   7.0   3.8
 27000 -22.4  -8.3  030  10  5   7.1   3.9 | -22.4  -8.3  015  11  6   7.0   3.8
 26000 -20.3  -4.5  020  10  5   7.1   3.9 | -20.3  -4.5  015  12  6   7.0   3.8
 25000 -18.3  -0.9  015  10  5   6.1   3.3 | -18.3  -0.9  015  12  6   6.7   3.7
 24000 -16.6   2.1  015   9  5   5.9   3.3 | -16.4   2.5  015  11  5   6.6   3.6
 23000 -14.8   5.4  015   9  4   5.9   3.3 | -14.4   6.1  010   9  5   6.7   3.7
 22000 -13.0   8.6  020   8  4   8.0   4.4 | -12.5   9.5  005   7  4   7.2   4.0
 21000 -10.6  12.9  025   7  4   8.0   4.4 | -10.3  13.5  025   6  3   7.3   4.0
 20000  -8.3  17.1  035   7  4   8.1   4.4 |  -8.2  17.2  045   6  3   7.4   4.0
 19500  -7.1  19.2  040   7  4   8.3   4.5 |  -7.2  19.0  055   7  3   7.7   4.2
 19000  -5.9  21.4  045   7  4   8.5   4.7 |  -6.0  21.2  065   7  4   8.1   4.4
 18500  -4.7  23.5  050   7  3   8.6   4.7 |  -4.8  23.4  070   8  4   8.0   4.4
 18000  -3.4  25.9  055   7  3   8.2   4.5 |  -3.6  25.5  070   8  4   8.9   4.9
 17500  -2.3  27.9  055   6  3   8.2   4.5 |  -2.3  27.9  070   8  4   8.9   4.9
 17000  -1.1  30.0  060   6  3   8.4   4.6 |  -1.0  30.2  075   8  4   9.0   4.9
 16500   0.2  32.4  060   6  3   8.7   4.8 |   0.3  32.5  075   8  4   9.1   5.0
 16000   1.5  34.7  060   6  3   8.7   4.8 |   1.7  35.1  075   8  4   9.1   5.0
 15500   2.8  37.0  060   6  3   9.4   5.2 |   3.1  37.6  075   7  4   9.8   5.4
 15000   4.2  39.6  065   6  3   9.4   5.1 |   4.5  40.1  075   7  4   9.7   5.3
 14500   5.6  42.1  070   5  3   9.3   5.1 |   6.0  42.8  080   7  4   9.6   5.2
 14000   7.7  45.9  075   5  3   9.3   5.1 |   8.1  46.6  080   6  3   9.5   5.2
 13500   9.1  48.4  080   4  2   9.6   5.3 |   9.5  49.1  080   6  3   9.5   5.2
 13000  10.5  50.9  085   4  2   9.7   5.3 |  10.9  51.6  080   5  3   9.6   5.2
 12500  11.9  53.4  100   3  2   9.0   4.9 |  12.3  54.1  080   4  2   9.1   5.0
 12000  13.3  55.9  105   3  2   9.5   5.2 |  13.7  56.7  085   3  2   9.1   5.0
 11750  14.0  57.2  110   3  2   9.8   5.4 |  14.4  57.9  085   3  1   9.2   5.0
 11500  14.8  58.6  115   3  2  10.6   5.8 |  15.0  59.0  085   2  1   9.6   5.3
 11250  15.5  59.9  120   3  2  10.0   5.5 |  15.8  60.4  090   2  1   9.4   5.2
 11000  16.3  61.3  125   3  2   9.3   5.1 |  16.4  61.5  095   2  1   9.1   5.0
 10750  17.0  62.6  130   3  2   9.5   5.2 |  17.1  62.8  105   1  1   9.2   5.0
 10500  17.7  63.9  130   3  2   9.8   5.4 |  17.8  64.0  115   1  1   9.4   5.1
 10250  18.4  65.1  135   3  2  10.0   5.5 |  18.5  65.3  140   1  0   9.5   5.2
 10000  19.1  66.4  140   3  2   9.7   5.3 |  19.2  66.6  165   1  0   9.2   5.1
  9750  19.9  67.8  145   4  2   9.6   5.3 |  19.9  67.8  175   1  1   9.1   5.0
  9500  20.6  69.1  145   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  20.6  69.1  185   1  1   9.5   5.2
  9250  21.3  70.3  145   4  2  10.3   5.6 |  21.3  70.3  195   2  1   9.6   5.3
  9000  22.1  71.8  150   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  22.0  71.6  200   2  1   9.8   5.4
  8750  22.8  73.0  150   4  2   9.8   5.4 |  22.8  73.0  200   2  1  10.4   5.7
  8500  23.6  74.5  155   4  2  10.3   5.6 |  23.5  74.3  200   2  1  10.1   5.6
  8250  24.4  75.9  155   4  2  10.7   5.9 |  24.3  75.7  200   2  1  10.0   5.5
  8000  25.2  77.4  160   4  2  10.3   5.6 |  25.0  77.0  200   2  1   9.7   5.3
  7750  26.0  78.8  160   4  2  11.4   6.3 |  25.8  78.4  200   3  1  10.9   6.0
  7500  26.8  80.2  160   4  2  12.2   6.7 |  26.5  79.7  195   3  1   9.8   5.4
  7250  27.7  81.9  155   4  2  11.5   6.3 |  27.1  80.8  195   3  1   7.3   4.0
  7000  28.5  83.3  155   4  2  12.2   6.7 |  27.7  81.9  190   2  1   9.3   5.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.