Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 031232
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0532 MST Tuesday, March 3, 2015

This forecast is for Tuesday, March 3, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 40.5 F/4.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 46 ft/min (0.2 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10086 ft MSL (2915 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 38.0 F/3.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast thin middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7611 ft MSL (440 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 03/04.... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:28:41 / 17:52:31 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 23 min 49 sec (683 min 49 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:10:49 MST... 44.35 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 03/03/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 19648 ft MSL (12477 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14540 ft MSL (7370 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +14.9
K index......................... -24.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.4 -78.5   240   85   44   2.9   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -56.9 -70.4   240  105   54   2.5   1.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -54.6 -66.3   240  110   57   1.5   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -53.4 -64.1   240  115   59   2.9   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -51.6 -60.9   240  127   65   2.9   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -49.9 -57.8   235  138   71   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -45.1 -49.2   240  136   70   8.0   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -40.3 -40.5   240  135   70   7.7   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -38.1 -36.6   240  129   66   7.1   3.9   30.5  86.9    21.0      M    M
 28000  -35.5 -31.9   240  120   62   7.1   3.9   29.2  84.5    20.3      M    M
 27000  -33.3 -27.9   240  114   59   7.3   4.0   28.3  82.9    19.9      M    M
 26000  -31.7 -25.1   240  106   55   4.7   2.6   26.6  79.9    18.8      M    M
 25000  -30.3 -22.5   240   98   51   4.7   2.6   24.7  76.4    17.4      M    M
 24000  -28.9 -20.0   240   90   46   4.7   2.6   22.9  73.2    16.1      M    M
 23000  -27.3 -17.1   240   84   43   5.7   3.1   21.3  70.3    15.0      M    M
 22000  -25.6 -14.1   245   82   42   5.8   3.2   19.8  67.6    13.9      M    M
 21000  -23.9 -11.0   245   79   41   5.6   3.1   18.5  65.2    12.9      M    M
 20000  -21.8  -7.2   245   74   38   7.8   4.3   17.5  63.5    12.2      M    M
 19500  -20.6  -5.1   245   72   37   7.8   4.3   17.2  62.9    12.0      M    M
 19000  -19.4  -2.9   245   69   35   7.8   4.3   16.8  62.3    11.7      M    M
 18500  -18.3  -0.9   245   66   34   7.8   4.3   16.5  61.7    11.5      M    M
 18000  -17.1   1.2   240   64   33   8.5   4.7   16.3  61.3    11.4      M    M
 17500  -15.7   3.7   245   65   34   8.7   4.8   16.1  61.0    11.3      M    M
 17000  -14.4   6.1   245   66   34   7.9   4.3   16.0  60.7    11.2      M    M
 16500  -13.7   7.3   245   66   34   2.9   1.6   15.1  59.2    10.5      M    M
 16000  -13.2   8.2   250   67   34   3.4   1.8   14.0  57.2     9.6      M    M
 15500  -12.9   8.8   255   65   34   0.8   0.4   12.8  55.0     8.5      M    M
 15000  -12.8   9.0   260   60   31   0.7   0.4   11.3  52.3     7.2      M    M
 14500  -12.6   9.3   265   56   29   2.8   1.5    9.9  49.7     6.0      M    M
 14000  -12.0  10.4   270   52   27   3.8   2.1    8.9  48.0     5.1      M    M
 13500  -11.4  11.5   275   50   26   4.6   2.5    8.0  46.3     4.2      M    M
 13000  -10.6  12.9   280   47   24   5.4   3.0    7.2  45.0     3.6      M    M
 12500   -9.8  14.4   285   46   23   6.0   3.3    6.5  43.8     2.9      M    M
 12000   -8.8  16.2   290   45   23   5.7   3.1    6.1  42.9     2.5      M    M
 11750   -8.5  16.7   290   44   23   4.2   2.3    5.7  42.2     2.1      M    M
 11500   -8.2  17.2   290   44   22   5.5   3.0    5.3  41.5     1.7      M    M
 11250   -7.7  18.1   290   44   23   7.2   3.9    5.0  41.0     1.5      M    M
 11000   -7.1  19.2   290   44   23   7.1   3.9    4.8  40.6     1.3      M    M
 10750   -6.7  19.9   290   45   23   5.9   3.2    4.6  40.2     1.0      M    M
 10500   -6.3  20.7   290   46   23   5.5   3.0    4.2  39.6     0.7      M    M
 10250   -5.4  22.3   290   45   23   5.9   3.2    3.6  38.5     0.1      M    M
 10000   -5.0  23.0   290   45   23   5.6   3.1    3.3  37.9    -0.3    229  1.2
  9750   -4.6  23.7   290   45   23   6.6   3.6    3.0  37.4    -0.6    210  1.1
  9500   -4.1  24.6   290   43   22   7.6   4.2    2.8  37.0    -0.8    186  0.9
  9250   -3.5  25.7   285   42   21   7.3   4.0    2.6  36.7    -1.0    163  0.8
  9000   -3.0  26.6   285   40   21   7.4   4.1    2.4  36.4    -1.2    139  0.7
  8750   -2.5  27.5   285   39   20   7.0   3.8    2.3  36.1    -1.4    116  0.6
  8500   -2.0  28.4   285   37   19   6.6   3.6    2.0  35.6    -1.6     94  0.5
  8250   -1.5  29.3   285   34   18   7.1   3.9    1.8  35.2    -1.9     72  0.4
  8000   -1.0  30.2   280   32   16   5.6   3.0    1.6  34.8    -2.1     50  0.3
  7750   -0.9  30.4   280   28   14  -2.4  -1.3    1.0  33.8    -2.7     38  0.2
  7500   -1.4  29.5   280   21   11 -11.0  -6.0   -0.3  31.5    -4.0     48  0.2
  7250   -2.0  28.4   280   13    7   2.9   1.6   -1.5  29.2    -5.4     58  0.3
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           03/03/2015 at 0800 MST          |       03/03/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -15.8  LI... +6.9               | K index... -13.8  LI... +5.7
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.0                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.8 -73.8  250  82 42   1.6   0.9 | -59.2 -74.6  250  73 38   2.3   1.2
 45000 -56.3 -69.3  245 105 54   1.6   0.9 | -55.6 -68.1  245  97 50   2.2   1.2
 40000 -54.6 -66.3  240 112 58   1.1   0.6 | -52.8 -63.0  240 110 57   1.9   1.0
 38000 -53.6 -64.5  235 116 60   3.0   1.6 | -51.6 -60.9  235 115 59   2.0   1.1
 36000 -51.8 -61.2  235 123 63   3.0   1.6 | -50.4 -58.7  235 119 61   2.0   1.1
 34000 -50.0 -58.0  235 130 67   3.8   2.1 | -49.2 -56.6  235 122 63   2.5   1.3
 32000 -46.1 -51.0  235 128 66   6.6   3.6 | -45.6 -50.1  235 123 63   6.2   3.4
 30000 -42.2 -44.0  235 126 65   6.6   3.6 | -41.9 -43.4  235 124 64   6.3   3.4
 29000 -40.2 -40.4  235 120 62   6.3   3.5 | -40.1 -40.2  235 120 62   6.0   3.3
 28000 -38.4 -37.1  240 114 59   6.3   3.5 | -38.3 -36.9  235 116 60   6.0   3.3
 27000 -36.0 -32.8  240 106 55   6.3   3.5 | -36.0 -32.8  235 111 57   6.0   3.3
 26000 -34.3 -29.7  240 100 52   5.3   2.9 | -34.4 -29.9  235 106 55   4.8   2.7
 25000 -32.7 -26.9  240  95 49   5.2   2.9 | -33.0 -27.4  235 101 52   4.8   2.6
 24000 -31.1 -24.0  240  89 46   5.3   2.9 | -31.5 -24.7  235  95 49   4.8   2.6
 23000 -29.4 -20.9  240  85 44   6.4   3.5 | -30.0 -22.0  235  90 46   5.7   3.1
 22000 -27.5 -17.5  240  81 42   6.4   3.5 | -28.3 -18.9  240  85 44   5.7   3.1
 21000 -25.6 -14.1  240  78 40   6.4   3.5 | -26.6 -15.9  240  81 42   5.7   3.1
 20000 -23.6 -10.5  245  74 38   6.8   3.7 | -24.8 -12.6  240  76 39   6.0   3.3
 19500 -22.6  -8.7  245  71 37   6.8   3.7 | -23.9 -11.0  240  73 38   6.1   3.3
 19000 -21.6  -6.9  245  69 36   6.8   3.7 | -23.0  -9.4  245  71 36   6.1   3.3
 18500 -20.5  -4.9  245  67 35   6.8   3.7 | -22.1  -7.8  245  68 35   6.1   3.3
 18000 -19.5  -3.1  245  65 33   7.0   3.8 | -21.2  -6.2  245  66 34   6.4   3.5
 17500 -18.4  -1.1  250  63 33   7.0   3.9 | -20.2  -4.4  245  63 32   6.6   3.6
 17000 -17.4   0.7  250  62 32   6.5   3.6 | -19.2  -2.6  250  60 31   6.5   3.5
 16500 -16.7   1.9  250  58 30   2.6   1.5 | -18.4  -1.1  250  56 29   4.1   2.2
 16000 -16.3   2.7  255  53 28   3.1   1.7 | -17.8  -0.0  250  52 27   4.3   2.4
 15500 -16.0   3.2  260  48 25   1.0   0.5 | -17.2   1.0  255  48 25   4.0   2.2
 15000 -15.9   3.4  260  40 21   0.8   0.5 | -16.6   2.1  255  44 23   4.0   2.2
 14500 -15.6   3.9  265  34 18   5.1   2.8 | -16.0   3.2  260  40 21   4.5   2.5
 14000 -14.6   5.7  270  35 18   6.7   3.7 | -15.3   4.5  260  37 19   4.8   2.6
 13500 -13.5   7.7  275  35 18   6.8   3.7 | -14.6   5.7  265  35 18   5.2   2.8
 13000 -12.6   9.3  280  34 18   6.7   3.7 | -13.8   7.2  265  33 17   5.7   3.1
 12500 -11.6  11.1  285  33 17   6.5   3.6 | -13.0   8.6  270  31 16   7.1   3.9
 12000 -10.7  12.7  285  34 18   5.7   3.1 | -11.7  10.9  270  30 15   8.6   4.7
 11750 -10.3  13.5  290  35 18   4.7   2.6 | -11.1  12.0  265  29 15   7.5   4.1
 11500  -9.9  14.2  295  35 18   5.6   3.1 | -10.5  13.1  265  28 14   7.2   3.9
 11250  -9.5  14.9  295  34 18   6.3   3.5 | -10.0  14.0  265  27 14   7.1   3.9
 11000  -9.0  15.8  300  33 17   6.3   3.4 |  -9.5  14.9  265  26 13   6.6   3.6
 10750  -8.6  16.5  300  32 16   5.1   2.8 |  -9.0  15.8  260  24 13   8.8   4.8
 10500  -8.3  17.1  305  31 16   5.8   3.2 |  -8.5  16.7  260  23 12   2.4   1.3
 10250  -7.8  18.0  310  29 15   7.3   4.0 |  -9.0  15.8  270  18  9  -2.7  -1.5
 10000  -6.7  19.9  315  27 14   6.9   3.8 |  -9.3  15.3  275  16  8  -5.4  -3.0
  9750  -6.2  20.8  320  26 14   7.0   3.8 |  -9.7  14.5  285  14  7  -4.3  -2.4
  9500  -5.7  21.7  325  26 13   7.3   4.0 |  -9.9  14.2  300  12  6  -1.2  -0.6
  9250  -5.2  22.6  330  25 13   7.4   4.1 | -10.0  14.0  325  11  6  -2.5  -1.4
  9000  -4.6  23.7  330  25 13   6.7   3.7 | -10.1  13.8  345  12  6  -0.4  -0.2
  8750  -4.2  24.4  335  24 13   6.1   3.4 | -10.0  14.0  355  12  6   5.9   3.2
  8500  -3.7  25.3  335  24 12   6.2   3.4 |  -9.4  15.1  005  12  6   8.7   4.8
  8250  -3.2  26.2  340  23 12   6.7   3.7 |  -8.8  16.2  010  13  7   8.0   4.4
  8000  -2.8  27.0  340  23 12   4.7   2.6 |  -8.2  17.2  015  13  7   8.6   4.7
  7750  -2.7  27.1  345  21 11  -1.1  -0.6 |  -7.4  18.7  020  12  6  12.5   6.9
  7500  -3.0  26.6  345  16  8  -4.6  -2.5 |  -6.3  20.7  020  11  6  18.6  10.2
  7250  -3.3  26.1  350  11  6  -0.1  -0.0 |  -5.1  22.8  025  10  5   7.9   4.4
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           03/03/2015 at 1400 MST          |       03/03/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +1.4  LI... +3.3                | K index... +8.7  LI... +0.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -57.8 -72.0  245  66 34   2.0   1.1 | -58.0 -72.4  250  72 37   2.7   1.5
 45000 -54.7 -66.5  245  99 51   2.0   1.1 | -53.9 -65.0  245  94 48   2.7   1.5
 40000 -52.5 -62.5  240 111 57   1.4   0.8 | -51.8 -61.2  245  98 50   1.2   0.7
 38000 -51.5 -60.7  240 115 59   2.3   1.3 | -50.8 -59.4  240  99 51   2.4   1.3
 36000 -50.1 -58.2  235 116 60   2.3   1.3 | -49.3 -56.7  240 101 52   2.5   1.4
 34000 -48.7 -55.7  235 117 60   2.0   1.1 | -47.8 -54.0  235 103 53   2.3   1.3
 32000 -45.7 -50.3  235 118 61   5.4   3.0 | -45.3 -49.5  235 105 54   4.5   2.5
 30000 -42.4 -44.3  235 118 61   5.3   2.9 | -42.6 -44.7  240 107 55   4.5   2.4
 29000 -40.6 -41.1  235 115 59   6.2   3.4 | -41.0 -41.8  240 108 55   5.8   3.2
 28000 -38.3 -36.9  235 111 57   6.2   3.4 | -39.3 -38.7  240 108 55   5.8   3.2
 27000 -36.4 -33.5  235 107 55   6.2   3.4 | -37.1 -34.8  240 108 55   5.7   3.2
 26000 -34.7 -30.5  235 103 53   5.1   2.8 | -35.6 -32.1  240 105 54   3.4   1.8
 25000 -33.2 -27.8  235  98 51   5.1   2.8 | -34.6 -30.3  240  99 51   3.5   1.9
 24000 -31.6 -24.9  235  93 48   5.1   2.8 | -33.5 -28.3  240  93 48   3.5   1.9
 23000 -30.2 -22.4  235  88 45   3.5   1.9 | -32.4 -26.3  245  86 44   3.9   2.1
 22000 -29.1 -20.4  235  83 43   3.6   2.0 | -31.3 -24.3  245  78 40   3.8   2.1
 21000 -28.1 -18.6  240  79 41   3.7   2.0 | -30.2 -22.4  250  71 36   3.9   2.2
 20000 -26.5 -15.7  240  75 38   6.7   3.7 | -28.6 -19.5  255  64 33   6.4   3.5
 19500 -25.5 -13.9  245  73 37   6.8   3.8 | -27.7 -17.9  255  62 32   6.5   3.5
 19000 -24.4 -11.9  245  71 37   6.9   3.8 | -26.7 -16.1  255  59 30   6.5   3.6
 18500 -23.4 -10.1  245  69 36   6.9   3.8 | -25.8 -14.4  255  56 29   6.5   3.6
 18000 -22.4  -8.3  245  67 35   6.6   3.6 | -24.8 -12.6  260  54 28   6.8   3.7
 17500 -21.5  -6.7  250  65 33   6.2   3.4 | -23.7 -10.7  260  51 26   7.3   4.0
 17000 -20.6  -5.1  250  62 32   6.2   3.4 | -22.7  -8.9  260  48 25   7.3   4.0
 16500 -19.7  -3.5  255  59 30   5.1   2.8 | -21.5  -6.7  260  44 23   7.9   4.4
 16000 -18.9  -2.0  255  56 29   5.2   2.9 | -20.4  -4.7  260  40 21   7.9   4.3
 15500 -18.2  -0.8  260  53 27   5.4   3.0 | -19.2  -2.6  260  38 19   7.9   4.3
 15000 -17.3   0.9  260  49 25   5.5   3.0 | -18.0  -0.4  260  39 20   7.9   4.3
 14500 -16.5   2.3  265  45 23   6.4   3.5 | -16.9   1.6  260  41 21   8.0   4.4
 14000 -15.5   4.1  265  42 22   7.2   3.9 | -15.7   3.7  260  38 20   8.1   4.4
 13500 -14.4   6.1  265  39 20   7.3   4.0 | -14.5   5.9  260  35 18   8.1   4.4
 13000 -13.3   8.1  260  36 19   7.5   4.1 | -13.3   8.1  255  34 17   8.0   4.4
 12500 -12.2  10.0  260  34 17   7.8   4.3 | -12.1  10.2  255  33 17   8.6   4.7
 12000 -11.0  12.2  255  32 16   7.5   4.1 | -10.6  12.9  250  31 16   8.9   4.9
 11750 -10.5  13.1  250  30 16   5.7   3.1 | -10.1  13.8  250  30 16   6.9   3.8
 11500 -10.1  13.8  245  29 15   5.3   2.9 |  -9.6  14.7  245  29 15   7.0   3.8
 11250  -9.8  14.4  245  28 14   4.4   2.4 |  -9.1  15.6  245  28 15   6.5   3.6
 11000  -9.5  14.9  240  27 14   4.3   2.4 |  -8.6  16.5  240  28 14   6.3   3.4
 10750  -9.2  15.4  240  26 14   3.4   1.9 |  -8.2  17.2  240  27 14   6.4   3.5
 10500  -9.0  15.8  235  26 13   0.9   0.5 |  -7.8  18.0  240  27 14   2.9   1.6
 10250  -9.1  15.6  235  20 11  -1.1  -0.6 |  -7.8  18.0  240  26 13  -1.0  -0.5
 10000  -9.1  15.6  230  18  9   1.6   0.9 |  -8.0  17.6  235  24 12   0.6   0.3
  9750  -8.9  16.0  230  16  8   2.2   1.2 |  -7.9  17.8  235  23 12   0.1   0.1
  9500  -8.9  16.0  225  12  6   0.1   0.1 |  -8.0  17.6  225  21 11  -2.4  -1.3
  9250  -8.8  16.2  215   9  4   0.3   0.2 |  -8.2  17.2  220  19 10  -2.3  -1.3
  9000  -8.8  16.2  200   5  3   1.6   0.9 |  -8.3  17.1  210  18  9  -0.3  -0.2
  8750  -8.5  16.7  170   4  2   6.9   3.8 |  -8.2  17.2  205  17  9   3.4   1.8
  8500  -7.9  17.8  145   4  2   9.2   5.0 |  -7.9  17.8  195  16  8   4.0   2.2
  8250  -7.2  19.0  125   5  3   8.6   4.7 |  -7.6  18.3  185  16  8   3.1   1.7
  8000  -6.6  20.1  115   7  4   8.8   4.8 |  -7.4  18.7  175  16  8   6.0   3.3
  7750  -5.9  21.4  115   7  4  12.6   6.9 |  -6.7  19.9  175  15  8  10.8   5.9
  7500  -4.7  23.5  110   7  4  19.0  10.4 |  -5.9  21.4  170  13  7  10.5   5.8
  7250  -3.5  25.7  110   7  4   7.6   4.2 |  -5.1  22.8  165  11  6  13.6   7.5
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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