Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary Off
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

000
UXUS97 KPUB 191139
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0538 MDT Saturday, April 19, 2014

This forecast is for Saturday, April 19, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 61.1 F/16.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 695 ft/min (3.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 15693 ft MSL (8935 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 62.0 F/17.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1000 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1600 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast opaque high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7599 ft MSL (841 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 04/20....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Neutral
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 16344 ft MSL (9586 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Sunday 04/20.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:16:47 / 19:39:10 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 22 min 23 sec (802 min 23 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:58:07 MDT... 62.39 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 04/19/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 12716 ft MSL (5958 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16638 ft MSL (9880 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15923 ft MSL (9165 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +1.9
K index......................... +22.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.0 -77.8   255   30   15   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.4 -73.1   250   43   22  -1.4  -0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -61.9 -79.4   220   43   22  -2.0  -1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -59.4 -74.9   215   42   21   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -55.5 -67.9   210   39   20   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -51.0 -59.8   210   38   19   9.2   5.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -45.5 -49.9   210   39   20   9.2   5.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -40.3 -40.5   215   38   19   8.1   4.4   29.9  85.8    10.1      M    M
 29000  -37.2 -35.0   220   35   18   8.1   4.4   29.0  84.3     9.6      M    M
 28000  -34.8 -30.6   220   34   17   8.1   4.4   28.5  83.3     9.3      M    M
 27000  -32.5 -26.5   220   31   16   7.2   3.9   27.8  82.0     8.8      M    M
 26000  -30.4 -22.7   220   28   14   7.2   4.0   26.7  80.1     8.1      M    M
 25000  -28.2 -18.8   220   24   13   7.2   4.0   25.8  78.5     7.4      M    M
 24000  -26.1 -15.0   220   22   11   7.2   4.0   25.0  77.0     6.8      M    M
 23000  -24.0 -11.2   215   22   11   7.2   4.0   24.0  75.2     6.0      M    M
 22000  -21.8  -7.2   210   21   11   7.2   4.0   23.1  73.6     5.3      M    M
 21000  -19.7  -3.5   210   21   11   7.0   3.8   22.2  72.0     4.6      M    M
 20000  -17.7   0.1   210   22   11   7.0   3.8   21.2  70.2     3.7      M    M
 19500  -16.6   2.1   210   22   11   7.0   3.9   20.8  69.4     3.3      M    M
 19000  -15.6   3.9   205   22   11   7.1   3.9   20.4  68.7     2.9      M    M
 18500  -14.6   5.7   205   21   11   6.8   3.7   19.9  67.8     2.5      M    M
 18000  -13.6   7.5   200   20   10   6.9   3.8   19.4  67.0     2.1      M    M
 17500  -12.6   9.3   200   18    9   6.8   3.7   18.9  66.1     1.6      M    M
 17000  -11.6  11.1   195   16    8   6.8   3.7   18.4  65.2     1.2      M    M
 16500  -10.6  12.9   190   14    7   6.8   3.8   18.0  64.3     0.7      M    M
 16000   -9.6  14.7   180   11    6   7.4   4.1   17.5  63.5     0.3      M    M
 15500   -8.5  16.7   175    9    4   7.2   4.0   17.1  62.9    -0.1    887  4.5
 15000   -7.3  18.9   165    7    3   9.4   5.2   16.9  62.4    -0.3    836  4.2
 14500   -5.1  22.8   160    5    2   9.5   5.2   16.8  62.3    -0.4    750  3.8
 14000   -3.6  25.5   155    4    2  10.4   5.7   16.9  62.4    -0.3    690  3.5
 13500   -2.1  28.2   145    3    1  10.4   5.7   17.0  62.5    -0.2    629  3.2
 13000   -0.6  30.9   125    2    1   9.8   5.4   17.0  62.6    -0.2    569  2.9
 12500    0.9  33.6   055    2    1  10.0   5.5   17.0  62.7    -0.2    510  2.6
 12000    2.4  36.3   025    4    2   9.3   5.1   17.0  62.7    -0.1    451  2.3
 11750    3.1  37.6   020    5    3   9.2   5.0   17.0  62.6    -0.2    422  2.1
 11500    3.8  38.8   015    6    3   9.6   5.2   17.0  62.5    -0.2    394  2.0
 11250    4.5  40.1   010    7    4   8.1   4.5   16.9  62.5    -0.2    366  1.9
 11000    5.0  41.0   010    8    4   7.8   4.3   16.7  62.1    -0.4    342  1.7
 10750    5.7  42.3   010    9    5   8.9   4.9   16.7  62.0    -0.5    315  1.6
 10500    6.3  43.3   010   10    5   8.9   4.9   16.6  61.8    -0.6    289  1.5
 10250    7.0  44.6   010   12    6   7.5   4.1   16.5  61.7    -0.7    262  1.3
 10000    7.5  45.5   010   14    7   7.1   3.9   16.3  61.3    -0.9    239  1.2
  9750    8.1  46.6   010   15    8   8.4   4.6   16.1  61.0    -1.0    214  1.1
  9500    8.7  47.7   010   16    8   8.4   4.6   16.0  60.8    -1.2    188  1.0
  9250    9.3  48.7   010   18    9   7.8   4.3   15.9  60.6    -1.3    163  0.8
  9000    9.8  49.6   010   20   10   7.1   3.9   15.7  60.3    -1.5    139  0.7
  8750   10.4  50.7   010   21   11   7.8   4.3   15.5  60.0    -1.7    115  0.6
  8500   11.0  51.8   010   22   11   8.5   4.7   15.4  59.8    -1.8     90  0.5
  8250   11.5  52.7   010   23   12   5.8   3.2   15.3  59.5    -1.9     65  0.3
  8000   11.8  53.2   005   22   11   2.1   1.2   14.8  58.6    -2.4     50  0.3
  7750   12.1  53.8   005   21   11   7.2   3.9   14.3  57.8    -2.9     35  0.2
  7500   12.6  54.7   355   19   10   2.8   1.5   14.2  57.5    -3.1     11  0.1
  7250   12.0  53.6   350   16    8 -20.1 -11.0   13.1  55.5    -4.2     23  0.1
  7000    9.7  49.5   345   12    6 -35.1 -19.3   10.6  51.1    -6.8     84  0.4
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           04/19/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       04/19/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +22.1  LI... +0.6               | K index... +20.9  LI... +1.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -2.0                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -2.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -61.3 -78.3  250  30 15   1.9   1.1 | -60.7 -77.3  245  28 14   0.6   0.3
 45000 -58.6 -73.5  250  33 17  -2.2  -1.2 | -60.1 -76.2  235  34 18  -2.6  -1.4
 40000 -61.6 -78.9  240  42 21  -1.8  -1.0 | -63.8 -82.8  255  50 26  -2.2  -1.2
 38000 -59.2 -74.6  235  42 22   6.5   3.6 | -60.7 -77.3  250  53 27   8.2   4.5
 36000 -55.3 -67.5  230  42 22   6.5   3.6 | -55.8 -68.4  245  56 29   8.2   4.5
 34000 -51.1 -60.0  230  41 21   8.1   4.4 | -50.7 -59.3  240  56 29   9.1   5.0
 32000 -46.2 -51.2  225  37 19   8.1   4.4 | -45.2 -49.4  245  51 26   9.1   5.0
 30000 -40.4 -40.7  225  34 18   9.3   5.1 | -39.3 -38.7  245  44 22   8.4   4.6
 29000 -37.7 -35.9  225  33 17   9.3   5.1 | -36.7 -34.1  245  40 20   8.4   4.6
 28000 -34.9 -30.8  225  33 17   9.3   5.1 | -34.2 -29.6  240  36 18   8.4   4.6
 27000 -32.4 -26.3  225  30 16   7.4   4.1 | -31.8 -25.2  240  32 17   7.6   4.2
 26000 -30.1 -22.2  220  26 14   7.4   4.1 | -29.5 -21.1  235  30 15   7.6   4.2
 25000 -27.9 -18.2  215  23 12   7.4   4.1 | -27.2 -17.0  230  28 14   7.7   4.2
 24000 -25.8 -14.4  210  20 10   6.8   3.7 | -25.0 -13.0  225  26 13   6.0   3.3
 23000 -23.7 -10.7  210  18  9   6.9   3.8 | -23.2  -9.8  225  23 12   6.3   3.4
 22000 -21.7  -7.1  210  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -21.4  -6.5  225  19 10   6.4   3.5
 21000 -19.6  -3.3  210  16  8   6.9   3.8 | -19.4  -2.9  220  18  9   7.2   3.9
 20000 -17.6   0.3  200  16  8   6.9   3.8 | -17.3   0.9  215  18  9   7.2   3.9
 19500 -16.6   2.1  200  16  8   6.9   3.8 | -16.3   2.7  210  18  9   7.2   3.9
 19000 -15.6   3.9  195  16  8   7.1   3.9 | -15.2   4.6  210  18  9   7.3   4.0
 18500 -14.6   5.7  190  16  8   5.7   3.1 | -14.3   6.3  205  18  9   5.8   3.2
 18000 -13.8   7.2  185  16  8   5.9   3.2 | -13.4   7.9  200  18  9   5.9   3.3
 17500 -12.9   8.8  180  17  9   6.2   3.4 | -12.6   9.3  195  17  9   5.4   2.9
 17000 -12.0  10.4  170  17  9   6.5   3.5 | -11.8  10.8  185  15  8   5.0   2.7
 16500 -11.1  12.0  165  17  9   6.7   3.7 | -11.1  12.0  175  14  7   5.1   2.8
 16000  -9.9  14.2  160  17  9   8.5   4.6 | -10.2  13.6  165  13  7   6.7   3.7
 15500  -8.7  16.3  155  16  8   8.2   4.5 |  -9.3  15.3  155  12  6   6.4   3.5
 15000  -7.4  18.7  150  15  8   9.4   5.2 |  -7.5  18.5  145  13  6   9.2   5.0
 14500  -5.3  22.5  150  13  7   9.4   5.2 |  -6.1  21.0  140  13  7   9.2   5.1
 14000  -3.9  25.0  140  11  6   9.1   5.0 |  -4.7  23.5  135  13  7   9.4   5.1
 13500  -2.5  27.5  130  10  5   9.1   5.0 |  -3.3  26.1  130  13  7   9.5   5.2
 13000  -1.1  30.0  115   8  4   9.6   5.3 |  -2.1  28.2  115  12  6   7.2   3.9
 12500   0.3  32.5  100   7  4   9.0   4.9 |  -1.0  30.2  090  11  6   7.1   3.9
 12000   1.4  34.5  075   7  4   7.2   4.0 |  -0.1  31.8  075  11  6   5.2   2.9
 11750   2.0  35.6  060   8  4   7.6   4.2 |   0.3  32.5  065  12  6   5.4   3.0
 11500   2.5  36.5  045   9  4   7.7   4.2 |   0.7  33.3  055  12  6   5.6   3.1
 11250   3.1  37.6  035  10  5   7.0   3.8 |   1.1  34.0  050  13  7   4.7   2.6
 11000   3.6  38.5  030  11  6   5.6   3.1 |   1.4  34.5  050  14  7   4.8   2.7
 10750   4.0  39.2  025  13  7   5.1   2.8 |   1.9  35.4  050  14  7   6.0   3.3
 10500   4.3  39.7  020  15  8   6.0   3.3 |   2.3  36.1  045  15  8   5.6   3.1
 10250   4.7  40.5  015  17  9   3.0   1.7 |   2.7  36.9  045  15  8   6.0   3.3
 10000   4.8  40.6  015  19 10  -0.6  -0.3 |   3.1  37.6  040  14  7   7.1   3.9
  9750   4.7  40.5  020  22 11   0.0   0.0 |   3.7  38.7  035  14  7   7.9   4.3
  9500   4.7  40.5  020  24 12  -0.5  -0.3 |   4.2  39.6  025  13  7   8.0   4.4
  9250   4.7  40.5  020  26 13   1.7   0.9 |   4.8  40.6  020  13  7   8.8   4.8
  9000   4.9  40.8  015  25 13   3.7   2.1 |   5.5  41.9  020  13  7   9.4   5.1
  8750   5.2  41.4  015  24 13   5.4   3.0 |   6.2  43.2  020  13  7  10.4   5.7
  8500   5.7  42.3  010  23 12   7.7   4.2 |   7.0  44.6  020  13  7  11.4   6.2
  8250   6.3  43.3  010  22 11   9.2   5.0 |   7.8  46.0  020  13  7  10.9   6.0
  8000   7.0  44.6  005  21 11  10.6   5.8 |   8.6  47.5  020  13  7  11.5   6.3
  7750   7.8  46.0  005  20 10   9.9   5.4 |   9.5  49.1  020  13  7   9.6   5.2
  7500   8.5  47.3  005  19 10  10.0   5.5 |  10.1  50.2  020  13  7  11.3   6.2
  7250   9.2  48.6  005  18  9  10.4   5.7 |  11.2  52.2  020  12  6  15.8   8.7
  7000  10.0  50.0  005  16  8  10.4   5.7 |  12.3  54.1  020  12  6  13.5   7.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           04/19/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       04/19/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +21.4  LI... +0.5               | K index... +24.3  LI... -0.5
CAPE... +8.6  CIN... -2.5                  | CAPE... +31.4  CIN... -0.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.8 -77.4  245  26 13   0.9   0.5 | -60.5 -76.9  250  27 14   0.9   0.5
 45000 -59.7 -75.5  235  34 18  -2.3  -1.3 | -59.5 -75.1  250  28 15  -2.4  -1.3
 40000 -62.8 -81.0  245  35 18  -1.9  -1.0 | -62.8 -81.0  240  16  8  -1.9  -1.1
 38000 -60.0 -76.0  235  39 20   7.4   4.0 | -59.8 -75.6  230  20 10   7.6   4.2
 36000 -55.6 -68.1  230  45 23   7.4   4.0 | -55.3 -67.5  220  29 15   7.6   4.2
 34000 -50.8 -59.4  225  46 24   9.1   5.0 | -50.5 -58.9  220  34 17   8.7   4.7
 32000 -44.6 -48.3  225  39 20   9.1   5.0 | -45.3 -49.5  225  31 16   8.6   4.7
 30000 -39.4 -38.9  230  33 17   8.4   4.6 | -39.4 -38.9  225  26 13   8.7   4.8
 29000 -36.9 -34.4  235  30 15   8.4   4.6 | -36.8 -34.2  225  22 11   8.7   4.8
 28000 -34.4 -29.9  240  27 14   8.4   4.6 | -34.2 -29.6  225  19 10   8.7   4.8
 27000 -31.8 -25.2  240  26 13   8.3   4.6 | -31.6 -24.9  225  17  9   8.4   4.6
 26000 -29.3 -20.7  240  26 13   8.3   4.6 | -29.1 -20.4  225  17  9   8.4   4.6
 25000 -26.8 -16.2  235  26 14   8.4   4.6 | -26.6 -15.9  225  17  9   8.5   4.6
 24000 -24.5 -12.1  230  26 13   5.7   3.1 | -24.3 -11.7  225  17  9   5.7   3.1
 23000 -22.7  -8.9  230  24 12   6.1   3.3 | -22.5  -8.5  225  17  9   6.0   3.3
 22000 -20.9  -5.6  230  21 11   6.2   3.4 | -20.7  -5.3  230  16  8   6.1   3.3
 21000 -19.0  -2.2  230  19 10   7.3   4.0 | -18.9  -2.0  230  15  8   6.9   3.8
 20000 -16.9   1.6  230  18  9   7.3   4.0 | -16.8   1.8  230  13  7   6.9   3.8
 19500 -15.8   3.6  225  18  9   7.3   4.0 | -15.8   3.6  230  13  7   6.9   3.8
 19000 -14.7   5.5  225  17  9   7.3   4.0 | -14.8   5.4  230  12  6   6.9   3.8
 18500 -13.7   7.3  225  18  9   6.6   3.6 | -13.8   7.2  230  11  6   6.8   3.7
 18000 -12.7   9.1  220  18  9   6.7   3.7 | -12.8   9.0  230  11  6   6.8   3.7
 17500 -11.8  10.8  220  19 10   6.4   3.5 | -11.8  10.8  230  11  6   6.8   3.7
 17000 -10.9  12.4  220  19 10   6.1   3.4 | -10.8  12.6  225  11  6   6.8   3.7
 16500 -10.0  14.0  215  19 10   6.1   3.3 |  -9.9  14.2  225  11  6   6.8   3.7
 16000  -9.2  15.4  210  17  9   5.2   2.9 |  -8.9  16.0  220  11  6   6.3   3.4
 15500  -8.0  17.6  205  14  7   5.6   3.1 |  -8.0  17.6  210  12  6   6.3   3.5
 15000  -7.1  19.2  195  13  7   6.3   3.4 |  -6.6  20.1  200  12  6   6.2   3.4
 14500  -6.2  20.8  185  12  6   6.3   3.5 |  -5.7  21.7  185  11  6   6.2   3.4
 14000  -5.2  22.6  170  11  6   7.1   3.9 |  -4.8  23.4  170  10  5   6.1   3.3
 13500  -4.2  24.4  155  10  5   6.9   3.8 |  -4.0  24.8  145   9  5   5.9   3.2
 13000  -3.1  26.4  135  10  5   7.7   4.2 |  -3.0  26.6  125  10  5   7.9   4.3
 12500  -2.0  28.4  115  11  6   6.6   3.6 |  -1.8  28.8  105  11  6   6.6   3.6
 12000  -1.0  30.2  100  11  6   8.5   4.6 |  -0.9  30.4  095  12  6   8.7   4.8
 11750  -0.4  31.3  090  11  6   8.6   4.7 |  -0.2  31.6  090  12  6   9.1   5.0
 11500   0.2  32.4  085  11  6   8.3   4.5 |   0.5  32.9  090  13  7   9.2   5.0
 11250   0.8  33.4  080  11  6   9.5   5.2 |   1.1  34.0  085  13  7   8.6   4.7
 11000   1.6  34.9  080  12  6  10.0   5.5 |   1.8  35.2  085  13  7   9.2   5.0
 10750   2.3  36.1  080  11  6   9.2   5.1 |   2.5  36.5  085  13  7  10.0   5.5
 10500   3.0  37.4  075  11  6   9.6   5.2 |   3.2  37.8  085  13  7  10.2   5.6
 10250   3.7  38.7  075  11  6   9.1   5.0 |   4.0  39.2  085  13  7   8.6   4.7
 10000   4.4  39.9  075  11  6   9.5   5.2 |   4.6  40.3  085  13  7   8.6   4.7
  9750   5.1  41.2  075  11  6  10.5   5.8 |   5.3  41.5  085  13  7  10.8   6.0
  9500   5.9  42.6  075  11  6  10.6   5.8 |   6.1  43.0  080  13  7  10.9   6.0
  9250   6.7  44.1  075  11  6   9.8   5.4 |   7.0  44.6  080  13  7  10.1   5.5
  9000   7.4  45.3  075  11  6   9.2   5.0 |   7.7  45.9  080  13  7   9.3   5.1
  8750   8.1  46.6  075  11  6  10.2   5.6 |   8.4  47.1  080  13  7  10.3   5.6
  8500   8.9  48.0  070  11  6  10.9   6.0 |   9.2  48.6  080  13  7  10.6   5.8
  8250   9.7  49.5  070  11  6  10.7   5.9 |   9.9  49.8  080  13  7   9.9   5.5
  8000  10.5  50.9  070  11  6  11.4   6.3 |  10.7  51.3  080  13  6   9.8   5.4
  7750  11.3  52.3  070  11  5   9.1   5.0 |  11.4  52.5  080  12  6   9.3   5.1
  7500  11.9  53.4  070  10  5   9.6   5.3 |  12.0  53.6  080  12  6   8.0   4.4
  7250  12.8  55.0  070  10  5  13.7   7.5 |  12.6  54.7  075  12  6   7.1   3.9
  7000  13.8  56.8  070  10  5  12.3   6.8 |  13.1  55.6  075  11  6   7.0   3.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.