Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 151118
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0418 MST Monday, December 15, 2014

This forecast is for Monday, December 15, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 35.4 F/1.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 151 ft/min (0.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8842 ft MSL (2084 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 32.0 F/0.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. -32805 ft MSL (-39563 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 12/16...... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:10:31 / 16:38:01 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 27 min 30 sec (567 min 30 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:54:19 MST... 27.83 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 12/15/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 13517 ft MSL (6759 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11157 ft MSL (4399 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +12.5
K index......................... +3.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000      M     M   280   42   22   0.0   0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -51.2 -60.2   280   53   27 86297.0 47346.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -47.4 -53.3   290   56   29   2.5   1.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.6 -51.9   290   56   29  -0.8  -0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -47.1 -52.8   290   55   28  -0.8  -0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -47.7 -53.9   285   53   27  -0.8  -0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -46.3 -51.3   290   51   26   2.2   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -44.9 -48.8   290   50   26   5.5   3.0   26.0  78.7    19.8      M    M
 29000  -42.7 -44.9   290   53   27   7.4   4.1   24.9  76.8    19.3      M    M
 28000  -40.5 -40.9   295   56   29   7.4   4.1   24.0  75.2    18.8      M    M
 27000  -38.2 -36.8   295   59   31   7.4   4.1   23.2  73.8    18.4      M    M
 26000  -36.1 -33.0   300   59   30   6.8   3.7   22.2  71.9    17.8      M    M
 25000  -34.1 -29.4   300   56   29   6.8   3.7   21.0  69.9    17.1      M    M
 24000  -32.0 -25.6   300   53   27   6.8   3.7   20.0  68.0    16.5      M    M
 23000  -30.1 -22.2   300   48   25   5.8   3.2   18.8  65.8    15.7      M    M
 22000  -28.4 -19.1   300   40   21   5.8   3.2   17.3  63.2    14.6      M    M
 21000  -26.7 -16.1   295   33   17   5.8   3.2   16.0  60.7    13.6      M    M
 20000  -25.0 -13.0   295   29   15   5.4   3.0   14.5  58.0    12.5      M    M
 19500  -24.2 -11.6   290   28   14   5.4   3.0   13.7  56.6    11.9      M    M
 19000  -23.4 -10.1   290   27   14   5.4   3.0   12.9  55.3    11.3      M    M
 18500  -22.6  -8.7   290   27   14   5.4   3.0   12.2  54.0    10.7      M    M
 18000  -21.8  -7.2   290   26   13   5.4   3.0   11.5  52.8    10.2      M    M
 17500  -21.0  -5.8   285   24   12   5.5   3.0   10.8  51.4     9.5      M    M
 17000  -20.2  -4.4   285   22   11   5.8   3.2   10.1  50.2     8.9      M    M
 16500  -19.3  -2.7   285   20   10   6.6   3.6    9.5  49.1     8.4      M    M
 16000  -18.3  -0.9   290   19   10   6.7   3.7    9.0  48.2     7.9      M    M
 15500  -17.0   1.4   310   18    9   5.6   3.1    8.0  46.4     7.1      M    M
 15000  -16.2   2.8   320   19   10   5.5   3.0    7.3  45.2     6.5      M    M
 14500  -15.4   4.3   330   21   11   5.4   3.0    6.6  43.9     5.9      M    M
 14000  -14.6   5.7   335   24   12   5.4   3.0    5.9  42.7     5.2      M    M
 13500  -13.9   7.0   335   26   13   5.0   2.7    5.2  41.4     4.6      M    M
 13000  -13.1   8.4   335   28   14   5.0   2.7    4.4  40.0     3.9      M    M
 12500  -12.3   9.9   335   29   15   5.6   3.1    3.7  38.7     3.2      M    M
 12000  -11.5  11.3   335   31   16   5.8   3.2    3.1  37.6     2.6      M    M
 11750  -11.0  12.2   335   33   17   7.1   3.9    2.8  37.1     2.3      M    M
 11500  -10.4  13.3   335   33   17   8.1   4.4    2.7  36.8     2.2      M    M
 11250   -9.8  14.4   335   34   17   7.9   4.3    2.5  36.5     2.1      M    M
 11000   -9.2  15.4   330   35   18   7.7   4.3    2.4  36.3     2.0      M    M
 10750   -8.7  16.3   330   35   18   7.9   4.4    2.2  36.0     1.8      M    M
 10500   -8.1  17.4   330   34   18   8.1   4.5    2.1  35.7     1.7      M    M
 10250   -7.5  18.5   330   33   17   8.5   4.7    2.0  35.5     1.6      M    M
 10000   -6.8  19.8   330   32   17   6.8   3.7    1.8  35.3     1.4      M    M
  9750   -6.4  20.5   330   30   16   5.3   2.9    1.5  34.7     1.1      M    M
  9500   -6.0  21.2   330   29   15   6.5   3.5    1.2  34.2     0.8      M    M
  9250   -5.6  21.9   335   27   14   4.8   2.6    0.9  33.7     0.5      M    M
  9000   -5.1  22.8   335   26   13  10.3   5.7    0.6  33.2     0.3      M    M
  8750   -4.9  23.2   335   24   12 -17.5  -9.6    0.2  32.3    -0.2    144  0.7
  8500   -4.4  24.1   340   23   12  88.2  48.4   -0.1  31.8    -0.5    123  0.6
  8250   -4.0  24.8   340   22   11 -99.0 -54.3   -0.4  31.3    -0.8    102  0.5
  8000   -3.6  25.5   340   21   11 1142.4 626.8   -0.8  30.6    -1.2     84  0.4
  7750   -3.5  25.7   340   19   10 -99.0 -54.3   -1.4  29.6    -1.8     73  0.4
  7500   -3.2  26.2   335   17    9 15874.5 8709.4   -1.8  28.8    -2.2     56  0.3
  7250   -2.8  27.0   335   14    7 -99.0 -54.3   -2.1  28.2    -2.5     37  0.2
  7000      M     M   573170  -19423  -9999 -99.0 -54.3      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           12/15/2014 at 0800 MST          |       12/15/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -6.4  LI... +4.0                | K index... -12.9  LI... +6.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.1                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.1 -72.6  275  39 20   4.2   2.3 | -58.6 -73.5  270  38 20   4.3   2.3
 45000 -51.7 -61.1  280  48 25   3.2   1.8 | -52.1 -61.8  270  50 26   2.8   1.6
 40000 -48.1 -54.6  280  58 30   2.5   1.3 | -49.5 -57.1  280  62 32   1.8   1.0
 38000 -47.0 -52.6  285  60 31   0.6   0.3 | -48.7 -55.7  285  65 34   0.6   0.3
 36000 -46.6 -51.9  290  60 31   0.6   0.3 | -48.3 -54.9  290  66 34   0.6   0.3
 34000 -46.2 -51.2  290  59 31   0.7   0.4 | -47.8 -54.0  295  67 34   2.8   1.5
 32000 -45.1 -49.2  290  59 31   1.8   1.0 | -45.9 -50.6  295  71 37   3.2   1.7
 30000 -44.0 -47.2  290  59 31   5.0   2.7 | -43.8 -46.8  300  75 39   6.1   3.4
 29000 -41.9 -43.4  290  61 31   6.7   3.7 | -41.8 -43.2  300  76 39   6.7   3.7
 28000 -39.9 -39.8  295  63 32   6.7   3.7 | -39.8 -39.6  300  77 40   6.7   3.7
 27000 -37.9 -36.2  295  64 33   6.7   3.7 | -37.8 -36.0  300  78 40   6.7   3.7
 26000 -35.9 -32.6  300  66 34   6.7   3.7 | -35.6 -32.1  300  78 40   7.4   4.1
 25000 -33.9 -29.0  300  68 35   6.7   3.7 | -33.4 -28.1  305  79 40   7.4   4.1
 24000 -31.9 -25.4  300  70 36   6.7   3.7 | -31.1 -24.0  305  79 41   7.4   4.1
 23000 -29.9 -21.8  305  67 34   6.2   3.4 | -29.0 -20.2  305  75 39   6.6   3.6
 22000 -28.1 -18.6  305  58 30   6.2   3.4 | -27.1 -16.8  305  67 35   6.5   3.6
 21000 -26.2 -15.2  305  49 25   6.3   3.5 | -25.1 -13.2  305  60 31   6.8   3.7
 20000 -24.8 -12.6  305  41 21   3.9   2.2 | -23.7 -10.7  305  50 26   4.0   2.2
 19500 -24.2 -11.6  305  38 19   3.9   2.1 | -23.1  -9.6  305  45 23   4.0   2.2
 19000 -23.6 -10.5  305  34 17   3.9   2.2 | -22.5  -8.5  305  40 20   4.1   2.2
 18500 -23.0  -9.4  305  30 15   3.9   2.1 | -21.9  -7.4  300  35 18   4.2   2.3
 18000 -22.4  -8.3  305  26 13   4.8   2.6 | -21.3  -6.3  300  30 15   2.5   1.4
 17500 -21.7  -7.1  305  23 12   5.1   2.8 | -21.0  -5.8  300  26 14   2.3   1.3
 17000 -20.9  -5.6  300  19 10   5.7   3.1 | -20.7  -5.3  295  23 12   3.0   1.6
 16500 -19.9  -3.8  300  17  9   7.4   4.1 | -19.8  -3.6  290  20 10   4.4   2.4
 16000 -18.3  -0.9  285  13  7   6.9   3.8 | -19.1  -2.4  290  19 10   5.3   2.9
 15500 -17.3   0.9  285  13  7   6.5   3.5 | -18.2  -0.8  290  19 10   5.8   3.2
 15000 -16.4   2.5  280  13  7   6.5   3.6 | -17.4   0.7  295  20 10   5.7   3.2
 14500 -15.4   4.3  285  14  7   6.7   3.7 | -16.5   2.3  310  21 11   5.5   3.0
 14000 -14.4   6.1  295  15  8   6.6   3.6 | -15.7   3.7  320  23 12   5.8   3.2
 13500 -13.6   7.5  310  18  9   4.6   2.5 | -14.7   5.5  330  26 13   7.2   4.0
 13000 -12.9   8.8  320  21 11   4.7   2.6 | -13.6   7.5  335  29 15   7.2   3.9
 12500 -12.1  10.2  325  25 13   6.0   3.3 | -12.5   9.5  335  32 16   7.4   4.0
 12000 -11.2  11.8  335  30 15   5.9   3.2 | -11.4  11.5  335  35 18   8.1   4.5
 11750 -10.8  12.6  335  32 17   6.1   3.3 | -10.8  12.6  335  36 19   7.1   3.9
 11500 -10.3  13.5  335  34 17   6.2   3.4 | -10.3  13.5  335  37 19   6.1   3.4
 11250  -9.9  14.2  335  35 18   6.3   3.4 |  -9.9  14.2  335  38 19   6.8   3.7
 11000  -9.4  15.1  335  37 19   6.0   3.3 |  -9.4  15.1  330  38 20   5.1   2.8
 10750  -9.0  15.8  335  39 20   5.7   3.1 |  -9.1  15.6  330  39 20   3.9   2.2
 10500  -8.5  16.7  330  38 20   5.9   3.2 |  -8.8  16.2  330  37 19   4.8   2.6
 10250  -8.1  17.4  330  37 19   5.8   3.2 |  -8.5  16.7  325  36 18   4.4   2.4
 10000  -7.7  18.1  330  36 18   6.1   3.4 |  -8.1  17.4  325  34 18   5.2   2.8
  9750  -7.2  19.0  330  34 18   7.2   3.9 |  -7.7  18.1  325  33 17   7.3   4.0
  9500  -6.6  20.1  330  33 17   7.6   4.1 |  -7.1  19.2  325  31 16   8.2   4.5
  9250  -6.1  21.0  330  31 16   7.6   4.2 |  -6.5  20.3  325  30 15   8.2   4.5
  9000  -5.5  22.1  330  29 15   7.0   3.8 |  -5.9  21.4  325  28 14   6.4   3.5
  8750  -5.1  22.8  330  27 14   5.9   3.2 |  -5.5  22.1  325  26 14   7.1   3.9
  8500  -4.6  23.7  330  26 13   6.0   3.3 |  -4.8  23.4  325  25 13   9.3   5.1
  8250  -4.2  24.4  330  24 12   5.5   3.0 |  -4.2  24.4  330  23 12   8.6   4.7
  8000  -3.9  25.0  325  22 11   2.3   1.3 |  -3.6  25.5  330  21 11   8.5   4.6
  7750  -3.8  25.2  325  20 10   1.5   0.8 |  -3.0  26.6  330  19 10   7.9   4.3
  7500  -3.5  25.7  325  17  9   8.3   4.5 |  -2.4  27.7  330  16  8   7.1   3.9
  7250  -3.1  26.4  325  13  7  -5.1  -2.8 |  -2.0  28.4  330  14  7   6.0   3.3
  7000  -4.8  23.4  320  11  5 -38.7 -21.2 |  -1.6  29.1  330  13  7   4.3   2.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           12/15/2014 at 1400 MST          |       12/15/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -12.6  LI... +8.6               | K index... -18.5  LI... +8.7
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.2 -72.8  270  36 19   4.3   2.3 | -59.2 -74.6  280  38 19   3.3   1.8
 45000 -51.9 -61.4  275  49 25   2.6   1.4 | -54.2 -65.6  285  55 28   2.9   1.6
 40000 -50.8 -59.4  285  64 33   0.7   0.4 | -50.3 -58.5  285  68 35   2.5   1.4
 38000 -50.3 -58.5  285  69 36   0.8   0.5 | -50.2 -58.4  285  75 38  -2.3  -1.3
 36000 -49.8 -57.6  290  74 38   0.8   0.5 | -51.6 -60.9  285  82 42  -2.3  -1.3
 34000 -49.3 -56.7  290  79 41   2.1   1.2 | -52.5 -62.5  285  88 45   6.7   3.7
 32000 -47.7 -53.9  295  83 43   2.7   1.5 | -48.5 -55.3  290  86 44   6.7   3.7
 30000 -46.0 -50.8  300  87 45   6.3   3.4 | -44.4 -47.9  295  85 44   7.4   4.1
 29000 -43.6 -46.5  300  88 45   7.7   4.2 | -42.2 -44.0  295  84 43   7.4   4.0
 28000 -41.3 -42.3  305  88 45   7.7   4.2 | -40.0 -40.0  295  83 43   7.4   4.0
 27000 -38.4 -37.1  305  89 46   7.8   4.3 | -37.3 -35.1  295  82 42   7.5   4.1
 26000 -36.0 -32.8  305  87 45   8.3   4.5 | -34.9 -30.8  300  78 40   7.8   4.3
 25000 -33.5 -28.3  305  85 44   8.3   4.5 | -32.6 -26.7  305  75 39   7.8   4.3
 24000 -31.0 -23.8  310  83 43   8.3   4.5 | -30.3 -22.5  310  72 37   7.8   4.3
 23000 -28.6 -19.5  310  81 42   8.2   4.5 | -28.0 -18.4  315  71 37   7.4   4.1
 22000 -26.1 -15.0  310  78 40   8.2   4.5 | -25.8 -14.4  315  70 36   7.4   4.1
 21000 -23.7 -10.7  310  76 39   7.7   4.2 | -23.6 -10.5  320  70 36   7.6   4.2
 20000 -21.8  -7.2  310  66 34   6.1   3.4 | -21.2  -6.2  320  64 33   7.8   4.3
 19500 -20.9  -5.6  310  60 31   6.1   3.4 | -20.1  -4.2  320  61 32   7.8   4.3
 19000 -19.9  -3.8  310  55 28   6.2   3.4 | -18.9  -2.0  320  59 30   7.8   4.3
 18500 -19.0  -2.2  310  49 25   6.2   3.4 | -17.7   0.1  315  56 29   7.4   4.1
 18000 -18.4  -1.1  310  44 23   3.1   1.7 | -16.8   1.8  315  52 27   6.0   3.3
 17500 -17.9  -0.2  310  41 21   3.3   1.8 | -15.9   3.4  310  48 25   6.2   3.4
 17000 -17.4   0.7  310  37 19   3.2   1.8 | -15.1   4.8  305  45 23   4.1   2.3
 16500 -16.9   1.6  310  34 18   3.2   1.8 | -14.5   5.9  305  42 21   3.9   2.1
 16000 -16.4   2.5  305  32 16   3.1   1.7 | -13.9   7.0  300  39 20   3.5   1.9
 15500 -16.0   3.2  305  30 15   2.8   1.5 | -13.5   7.7  300  36 19   3.0   1.6
 15000 -15.6   3.9  305  28 15   2.8   1.5 | -13.0   8.6  300  33 17   2.9   1.6
 14500 -15.1   4.8  310  28 14   3.7   2.0 | -12.7   9.1  305  31 16   2.1   1.1
 14000 -14.6   5.7  315  28 14   3.6   2.1 | -12.4   9.7  310  28 15   2.2   1.2
 13500 -13.7   7.3  325  30 15   5.0   2.7 | -12.0  10.4  315  27 14   2.2   1.2
 13000 -13.0   8.6  335  32 16   5.9   3.2 | -11.7  10.9  320  27 14   3.2   1.7
 12500 -11.8  10.8  335  33 17   8.1   4.4 | -11.1  12.0  325  27 14   4.7   2.6
 12000 -10.8  12.6  340  36 18   6.5   3.6 | -10.5  13.1  335  28 14   4.2   2.3
 11750 -10.3  13.5  340  37 19   7.0   3.8 | -10.1  13.8  335  28 14   6.8   3.7
 11500  -9.7  14.5  340  37 19   7.1   3.9 |  -9.6  14.7  335  28 14   6.5   3.6
 11250  -9.2  15.4  335  37 19   7.3   4.0 |  -9.1  15.6  335  28 14   6.6   3.6
 11000  -8.7  16.3  335  37 19   6.3   3.4 |  -8.6  16.5  335  28 14   6.5   3.6
 10750  -8.3  17.1  335  37 19   5.6   3.1 |  -8.2  17.2  330  27 14   6.7   3.7
 10500  -7.8  18.0  330  34 18   6.2   3.4 |  -7.7  18.1  330  27 14   6.9   3.8
 10250  -7.4  18.7  325  32 17   6.0   3.3 |  -7.2  19.0  330  26 14   6.8   3.7
 10000  -7.0  19.4  325  30 15   6.3   3.4 |  -6.7  19.9  330  26 13   5.1   2.8
  9750  -6.5  20.3  325  29 15   7.2   4.0 |  -6.4  20.5  330  25 13   4.5   2.5
  9500  -5.9  21.4  325  27 14   7.9   4.3 |  -6.0  21.2  330  25 13   5.3   2.9
  9250  -5.3  22.5  325  26 13   7.5   4.1 |  -5.6  21.9  335  24 12   5.0   2.7
  9000  -4.8  23.4  325  25 13   5.7   3.1 |  -5.3  22.5  335  23 12   4.5   2.5
  8750  -4.4  24.1  330  24 12   6.5   3.6 |  -5.0  23.0  340  23 12   4.8   2.6
  8500  -3.9  25.0  330  23 12   8.4   4.6 |  -4.6  23.7  340  22 11   5.5   3.0
  8250  -3.3  26.1  335  22 11   7.5   4.1 |  -4.2  24.4  345  21 11   5.0   2.8
  8000  -2.8  27.0  335  20 10   6.7   3.7 |  -3.9  25.0  345  20 10   3.2   1.7
  7750  -2.3  27.9  335  17  9   7.1   3.9 |  -3.6  25.5  345  18  9   7.8   4.3
  7500  -1.8  28.8  340  15  8   7.2   4.0 |  -2.9  26.8  345  16  8   4.7   2.6
  7250  -1.3  29.7  340  13  7   5.4   3.0 |  -3.2  26.2  340  14  7 -11.7  -6.4
  7000  -1.0  30.2  340  12  6   3.6   2.0 |  -4.5  23.9  335  10  5 -18.1  -9.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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