Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 301032
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0432 MDT Saturday, April 30, 2016

This forecast is for Saturday, April 30, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 39.0 F/3.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9607 ft MSL (2436 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 34.0 F/1.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7616 ft MSL (444 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 05/01....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:01:44 / 19:50:21 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 48 min 37 sec (828 min 37 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:56:13 MDT... 66.12 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 04/30/2016 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 13030 ft MSL (5859 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 10646 ft MSL (3474 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +8.0
K index......................... +15.3

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -53.8 -64.8   245   21   11   1.1   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -52.2 -62.0   245   25   13   1.1   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -50.8 -59.4   260   15    8   0.9   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -50.6 -59.1   275   12    6  -1.2  -0.7      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -51.4 -60.5   300   13    7  -1.3  -0.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -52.2 -62.0   320   16    8  -1.6  -0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -51.0 -59.8   310   20   10   2.3   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -49.7 -57.5   305   24   12   3.0   1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -47.3 -53.1   305   24   12   9.2   5.0   19.6  67.4    14.3      M    M
 28000  -44.5 -48.1   305   23   12   9.2   5.0   19.4  66.9    14.3      M    M
 27000  -41.1 -42.0   300   23   12   9.2   5.1   19.2  66.6    14.3      M    M
 26000  -38.5 -37.3   305   23   12   8.4   4.6   18.7  65.7    14.2      M    M
 25000  -36.0 -32.8   310   23   12   8.4   4.6   18.2  64.8    13.9      M    M
 24000  -33.5 -28.3   315   24   12   8.4   4.6   17.8  64.0    13.7      M    M
 23000  -31.1 -24.0   320   25   13   7.5   4.1   17.1  62.8    13.3      M    M
 22000  -28.9 -20.0   320   27   14   7.5   4.1   16.3  61.3    12.7      M    M
 21000  -26.7 -16.1   315   29   15   7.5   4.1   15.5  60.0    12.2      M    M
 20000  -24.5 -12.1   315   30   15   7.1   3.9   14.6  58.3    11.5      M    M
 19500  -23.4 -10.1   315   30   16   7.2   3.9   14.1  57.5    11.2      M    M
 19000  -22.4  -8.3   315   31   16   7.1   3.9   13.7  56.7    10.9      M    M
 18500  -21.3  -6.3   315   31   16   7.0   3.8   13.3  56.0    10.6      M    M
 18000  -20.2  -4.4   315   31   16   8.7   4.8   13.0  55.4    10.3      M    M
 17500  -18.9  -2.0   315   31   16   8.6   4.7   12.8  55.0    10.2      M    M
 17000  -17.6   0.3   315   30   15   8.3   4.5   12.6  54.7    10.1      M    M
 16500  -16.5   2.3   315   29   15   7.9   4.4   12.3  54.1     9.8      M    M
 16000  -15.3   4.5   315   28   15   7.8   4.3   12.0  53.6     9.6      M    M
 15500  -14.3   6.3   315   28   14   6.3   3.5   11.5  52.7     9.2      M    M
 15000  -13.3   8.1   315   27   14   6.6   3.6   11.0  51.8     8.7      M    M
 14500  -12.5   9.5   315   26   13   4.7   2.6   10.3  50.6     8.1      M    M
 14000  -11.8  10.8   320   25   13   4.8   2.6    9.5  49.1     7.4      M    M
 13500  -11.1  12.0   320   25   13   4.4   2.4    8.7  47.6     6.7      M    M
 13000  -10.5  13.1   325   25   13   4.3   2.4    7.8  46.0     5.9      M    M
 12500   -9.8  14.4   330   25   13   4.0   2.2    6.9  44.5     5.1      M    M
 12000   -9.3  15.3   335   25   13   3.6   2.0    6.0  42.8     4.2      M    M
 11750   -9.0  15.8   340   25   13   3.4   1.9    5.5  41.9     3.8      M    M
 11500   -8.7  16.3   340   25   13   4.2   2.3    5.0  41.0     3.3      M    M
 11250   -8.4  16.9   340   26   13   4.7   2.6    4.6  40.3     2.9      M    M
 11000   -8.1  17.4   340   26   13   4.5   2.5    4.2  39.6     2.5      M    M
 10750   -7.7  18.1   345   26   13   4.2   2.3    3.8  38.8     2.2      M    M
 10500   -7.4  18.7   345   26   14   4.3   2.3    3.4  38.0     1.7      M    M
 10250   -6.8  19.8   345   27   14   4.6   2.5    2.5  36.5     0.9      M    M
 10000   -6.5  20.3   345   27   14   3.9   2.1    2.1  35.8     0.5      M    M
  9750   -6.2  20.8   345   27   14   3.8   2.1    1.6  34.9     0.0      M    M
  9500   -5.9  21.4   340   26   14   4.4   2.4    1.2  34.2    -0.4    214  1.1
  9250   -5.6  21.9   340   26   13   4.3   2.4    0.8  33.4    -0.8    197  1.0
  9000   -5.3  22.5   340   26   13   4.0   2.2    0.4  32.7    -1.2    181  0.9
  8750   -5.0  23.0   340   25   13   4.5   2.5   -0.1  31.9    -1.7    165  0.8
  8500   -4.6  23.7   340   24   12   5.2   2.8   -0.4  31.2    -2.0    146  0.7
  8250   -4.3  24.3   340   23   12   5.3   2.9   -0.8  30.6    -2.4    128  0.7
  8000   -3.8  25.2   340   21   11   6.4   3.5   -1.1  30.1    -2.7    108  0.5
  7750   -3.3  26.1   340   19   10   7.3   4.0   -1.3  29.7    -3.0     86  0.4
  7500   -2.8  27.0   335   15    8   7.6   4.1   -1.5  29.4    -3.2     62  0.3
  7250   -2.2  28.0   335   10    5   7.4   4.1   -1.6  29.1    -3.4     38  0.2
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           04/30/2016 at 0900 MDT          |       04/30/2016 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +12.8  LI... +274.9             | K index... +13.4  LI... +275.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -53.3 -63.9  240  17  9   1.0   0.5 | -53.7 -64.7  230  17  9   1.3   0.7
 45000 -51.8 -61.2  255  21 11   1.0   0.5 | -51.6 -60.9  250  19 10   1.3   0.7
 40000 -50.9 -59.6  255  12  6   0.6   0.3 | -51.5 -60.7  250  13  6   0.0   0.0
 38000 -50.8 -59.4  265   8  4  -0.9  -0.5 | -51.6 -60.9  250   7  4  -0.8  -0.5
 36000 -51.4 -60.5  320   6  3  -0.9  -0.5 | -52.1 -61.8  045   5  3  -0.8  -0.5
 34000 -51.9 -61.4  360  11  6  -1.4  -0.8 | -52.6 -62.7  055  16  8  -0.9  -0.5
 32000 -50.5 -58.9  005  12  6   3.0   1.6 | -50.6 -59.1  050  19 10   3.9   2.1
 30000 -48.4 -55.1  005  13  7   6.1   3.3 | -47.9 -54.2  045  21 11   6.6   3.6
 29000 -46.0 -50.8  345  12  6   7.9   4.3 | -45.7 -50.3  035  17  8   7.3   4.0
 28000 -43.6 -46.5  325  12  6   7.9   4.4 | -43.5 -46.3  010  14  7   7.3   4.0
 27000 -41.3 -42.3  310  14  7   7.9   4.3 | -41.3 -42.3  345  14  7   7.2   3.9
 26000 -38.8 -37.8  305  15  8   8.4   4.6 | -38.8 -37.8  335  15  8   8.7   4.8
 25000 -36.3 -33.3  310  15  8   8.4   4.6 | -36.2 -33.2  335  15  8   8.8   4.8
 24000 -33.7 -28.7  310  16  8   8.4   4.6 | -33.6 -28.5  335  15  8   8.8   4.8
 23000 -31.3 -24.3  310  16  8   7.9   4.3 | -31.0 -23.8  335  15  8   8.5   4.7
 22000 -29.0 -20.2  310  17  9   7.9   4.3 | -28.5 -19.3  340  15  7   8.5   4.7
 21000 -26.6 -15.9  315  18  9   8.0   4.4 | -25.9 -14.6  350  14  7   8.6   4.7
 20000 -24.5 -12.1  315  21 11   7.0   3.8 | -23.6 -10.5  340  14  7   7.5   4.1
 19500 -23.4 -10.1  315  22 11   7.0   3.8 | -22.5  -8.5  335  14  7   7.5   4.1
 19000 -22.4  -8.3  310  24 12   7.0   3.8 | -21.4  -6.5  330  14  7   7.5   4.1
 18500 -21.4  -6.5  310  25 13   7.0   3.8 | -20.3  -4.5  325  15  7   7.6   4.2
 18000 -20.3  -4.5  310  27 14   7.1   3.9 | -19.3  -2.7  320  15  8   6.5   3.6
 17500 -19.3  -2.7  310  28 14   7.2   3.9 | -18.3  -0.9  320  17  9   6.5   3.6
 17000 -18.2  -0.8  310  29 15   7.4   4.1 | -17.3   0.9  315  19 10   6.4   3.5
 16500 -17.1   1.2  310  30 15   7.8   4.3 | -16.4   2.5  315  20 10   6.3   3.5
 16000 -15.9   3.4  310  30 16   7.8   4.3 | -15.5   4.1  315  22 11   6.3   3.5
 15500 -14.8   5.4  315  30 16   7.6   4.2 | -14.5   5.9  315  23 12   6.1   3.3
 15000 -13.1   8.4  315  29 15   7.2   3.9 | -13.2   8.2  315  24 12   6.2   3.4
 14500 -12.2  10.0  315  28 14   5.9   3.2 | -12.3   9.9  320  24 12   6.4   3.5
 14000 -11.3  11.7  320  27 14   5.8   3.2 | -11.3  11.7  320  24 12   6.4   3.5
 13500 -10.7  12.7  325  27 14   3.2   1.8 | -10.4  13.3  320  24 12   6.3   3.5
 13000 -10.2  13.6  330  26 14   3.5   1.9 |  -9.4  15.1  320  24 12   6.3   3.4
 12500  -9.7  14.5  335  26 14   2.7   1.5 |  -8.7  16.3  325  25 13   4.7   2.6
 12000  -9.4  15.1  340  27 14   0.9   0.5 |  -8.2  17.2  325  25 13   1.5   0.8
 11750  -9.3  15.3  340  27 14   1.8   1.0 |  -8.1  17.4  330  26 13   1.2   0.7
 11500  -9.1  15.6  345  28 14   3.0   1.7 |  -8.0  17.6  330  26 14   1.5   0.8
 11250  -8.9  16.0  345  28 15   2.9   1.6 |  -7.9  17.8  330  27 14   1.3   0.7
 11000  -8.7  16.3  350  29 15   2.3   1.3 |  -7.8  18.0  335  28 14   2.0   1.1
 10750  -8.5  16.7  350  29 15   3.6   2.0 |  -7.6  18.3  335  28 15   3.4   1.9
 10500  -8.2  17.2  350  30 15   5.3   2.9 |  -7.3  18.9  340  29 15   3.8   2.1
 10250  -7.8  18.0  350  30 16   4.7   2.6 |  -7.0  19.4  340  29 15   3.5   1.9
 10000  -7.5  18.5  350  31 16   5.4   3.0 |  -6.8  19.8  345  30 15   4.2   2.3
  9750  -7.1  19.2  350  31 16   5.7   3.1 |  -6.4  20.5  345  30 15   5.3   2.9
  9500  -6.7  19.9  350  31 16   5.2   2.9 |  -6.0  21.2  345  30 15   5.6   3.1
  9250  -6.3  20.7  350  31 16   5.6   3.1 |  -5.6  21.9  345  30 15   5.5   3.0
  9000  -5.9  21.4  350  31 16   4.6   2.5 |  -5.2  22.6  350  30 15   5.5   3.0
  8750  -5.5  22.1  345  29 15   6.2   3.4 |  -4.8  23.4  345  27 14   7.3   4.0
  8500  -5.0  23.0  345  27 14   8.4   4.6 |  -4.2  24.4  345  25 13   8.7   4.8
  8250  -4.4  24.1  345  25 13   7.9   4.3 |  -3.5  25.7  345  23 12   8.5   4.7
  8000  -3.8  25.2  345  24 12   8.8   4.8 |  -2.9  26.8  340  22 11  10.0   5.5
  7750  -3.1  26.4  340  22 11   9.0   4.9 |  -2.1  28.2  340  21 11   9.8   5.4
  7500  -2.5  27.5  340  20 10   8.8   4.8 |  -1.5  29.3  340  19 10   8.6   4.7
  7250  -1.9  28.6  340  18  9   7.8   4.3 |  -0.8  30.6  340  17  9   8.2   4.5
  7000  -1.4  29.5  340  16  8   5.2   2.8 |  -0.3  31.5  340  16  8   7.0   3.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           04/30/2016 at 1500 MDT          |       04/30/2016 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +15.0  LI... +276.4             | K index... +12.2  LI... +276.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -54.1 -65.4  245  14  7   1.4   0.8 | -54.5 -66.1  245  15  8   0.8   0.5
 45000 -51.8 -61.2  255  16  8   1.3   0.7 | -53.2 -63.8  255  17  9   0.6   0.3
 40000 -52.3 -62.1  265  17  9  -0.4  -0.2 | -53.8 -64.8  275  17  9  -0.5  -0.2
 38000 -52.7 -62.9  270  13  7  -1.3  -0.7 | -54.2 -65.6  285  16  8  -0.7  -0.4
 36000 -53.5 -64.3  010   3  2  -1.3  -0.7 | -54.6 -66.3  310  10  5  -0.7  -0.4
 34000 -54.2 -65.6  065  16  8  -0.1  -0.1 | -55.0 -67.0  005   9  5   2.4   1.3
 32000 -50.4 -58.7  050  21 11   6.1   3.4 | -50.3 -58.5  360  15  8   7.1   3.9
 30000 -46.6 -51.9  040  25 13   8.0   4.4 | -46.0 -50.8  360  19 10   8.7   4.8
 29000 -44.2 -47.6  030  22 11   8.0   4.4 | -43.4 -46.1  350  20 10   8.6   4.7
 28000 -41.8 -43.2  015  21 11   8.0   4.4 | -40.8 -41.4  340  21 11   8.6   4.7
 27000 -39.5 -39.1  360  20 11   8.0   4.4 | -38.3 -36.9  330  22 11   8.6   4.7
 26000 -37.1 -34.8  345  19 10   7.6   4.2 | -35.9 -32.6  320  23 12   7.7   4.2
 25000 -34.9 -30.8  330  18  9   7.6   4.2 | -33.6 -28.5  315  24 12   7.7   4.2
 24000 -32.6 -26.7  315  18  9   7.6   4.2 | -31.3 -24.3  305  26 13   7.7   4.2
 23000 -30.2 -22.4  305  18  9   8.2   4.5 | -29.1 -20.4  300  27 14   7.2   4.0
 22000 -27.7 -17.9  300  18 10   8.2   4.5 | -27.0 -16.6  300  28 15   7.2   4.0
 21000 -25.3 -13.5  295  19 10   8.2   4.5 | -24.8 -12.6  300  30 15   7.2   3.9
 20000 -23.1  -9.6  295  21 11   7.0   3.9 | -22.8  -9.0  305  29 15   6.8   3.7
 19500 -22.1  -7.8  295  22 11   7.1   3.9 | -21.8  -7.2  305  29 15   6.8   3.7
 19000 -21.0  -5.8  295  23 12   7.1   3.9 | -20.8  -5.4  310  29 15   6.8   3.7
 18500 -20.0  -4.0  295  24 12   7.2   4.0 | -19.8  -3.6  310  29 15   6.8   3.7
 18000 -19.0  -2.2  295  25 13   5.8   3.2 | -18.7  -1.7  310  29 15   7.2   3.9
 17500 -18.2  -0.8  300  26 13   5.9   3.3 | -17.7   0.1  310  28 14   7.2   3.9
 17000 -17.3   0.9  300  27 14   6.0   3.3 | -16.6   2.1  305  27 14   7.3   4.0
 16500 -16.4   2.5  305  27 14   6.0   3.3 | -15.5   4.1  305  26 14   7.4   4.1
 16000 -15.5   4.1  305  27 14   5.9   3.2 | -14.4   6.1  300  26 13   7.0   3.9
 15500 -14.4   6.1  310  27 14   4.9   2.7 | -13.1   8.4  300  25 13   5.9   3.3
 15000 -13.7   7.3  310  26 13   4.9   2.7 | -12.2  10.0  300  24 13   5.3   2.9
 14500 -12.9   8.8  315  26 13   5.0   2.8 | -11.5  11.3  305  24 13   4.7   2.6
 14000 -12.2  10.0  320  25 13   5.0   2.8 | -10.8  12.6  310  25 13   3.6   2.0
 13500 -11.5  11.3  325  26 13   5.1   2.8 | -10.5  13.1  320  26 13   1.5   0.8
 13000 -10.7  12.7  325  26 13   5.2   2.8 | -10.3  13.5  330  27 14   1.7   0.9
 12500  -9.9  14.2  330  26 13   5.8   3.2 | -10.0  14.0  335  28 14   2.0   1.1
 12000  -9.1  15.6  340  27 14   4.9   2.7 |  -9.6  14.7  345  30 15   3.8   2.1
 11750  -8.7  16.3  340  28 14   4.9   2.7 |  -9.3  15.3  345  31 16   4.8   2.6
 11500  -8.4  16.9  345  28 14   5.0   2.8 |  -9.0  15.8  350  31 16   4.8   2.7
 11250  -8.0  17.6  350  28 15   4.9   2.7 |  -8.6  16.5  355  31 16   4.8   2.7
 11000  -7.6  18.3  355  29 15   5.3   2.9 |  -8.3  17.1  355  32 16   4.8   2.6
 10750  -7.2  19.0  355  30 15   5.3   2.9 |  -7.9  17.8  360  33 17   4.9   2.7
 10500  -6.9  19.6  360  30 15   5.0   2.7 |  -7.5  18.5  360  33 17   5.0   2.7
 10250  -6.5  20.3  360  30 16   5.1   2.8 |  -7.2  19.0  360  34 17   5.0   2.7
 10000  -6.1  21.0  360  31 16   5.1   2.8 |  -6.8  19.8  005  34 18   4.8   2.6
  9750  -5.7  21.7  360  29 15   5.9   3.2 |  -6.5  20.3  005  34 17   5.3   2.9
  9500  -5.3  22.5  360  28 15   6.5   3.5 |  -6.0  21.2  005  33 17   5.9   3.2
  9250  -4.8  23.4  360  27 14   6.2   3.4 |  -5.6  21.9  005  33 17   5.9   3.2
  9000  -4.4  24.1  360  26 13   7.0   3.8 |  -5.2  22.6  360  33 17   6.5   3.6
  8750  -3.8  25.2  360  24 12   8.9   4.9 |  -4.7  23.5  360  31 16   8.4   4.6
  8500  -3.1  26.4  355  23 12   9.6   5.3 |  -4.0  24.8  360  30 15   9.4   5.2
  8250  -2.4  27.7  355  21 11   9.7   5.3 |  -3.3  26.1  355  28 15   9.6   5.3
  8000  -1.6  29.1  355  20 10  11.2   6.1 |  -2.6  27.3  355  27 14  10.8   5.9
  7750  -0.8  30.6  355  19 10  10.2   5.6 |  -1.8  28.8  355  25 13   9.7   5.3
  7500  -0.2  31.6  355  18  9   7.7   4.2 |  -1.2  29.8  355  23 12   7.9   4.3
  7250   0.4  32.7  355  17  9   8.8   4.8 |  -0.6  30.9  355  21 11   7.9   4.3
  7000   1.1  34.0  355  16  8  11.2   6.2 |  -0.0  32.0  355  19 10   7.8   4.3
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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