Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 251329
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0629 MST Sunday, January 25, 2015

This forecast is for Sunday, January 25, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 47.3 F/8.5 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 638 ft/min (3.2 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 14027 ft MSL (7269 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 52.0 F/11.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10462 ft MSL (3704 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 01/26....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:10:49 / 17:10:53 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 0 min 4 sec (600 min 4 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:11:13 MST... 32.21 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 01/25/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 7278 ft MSL (520 ft AGL)
Additional freezing level....... 8659 ft MSL (1901 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16189 ft MSL (9431 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14927 ft MSL (8169 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +5.0
K index......................... -1.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -58.4 -73.1   330   31   16   3.9   2.2      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -52.6 -62.7   325   47   24   0.8   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -58.5 -73.3   340   77   40  -3.8  -2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -58.5 -73.3   350   85   44   3.3   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -56.5 -69.7   360   92   47   3.3   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -53.9 -65.0   005   99   51   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -48.8 -55.8   005   99   51   8.5   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -43.8 -46.8   005   98   50   7.9   4.4   26.9  80.5    12.1      M    M
 29000  -40.8 -41.4   005   94   48   8.0   4.4   26.0  78.7    11.5      M    M
 28000  -38.4 -37.1   005   90   47   8.0   4.4   25.3  77.6    11.2      M    M
 27000  -36.0 -32.8   005   87   45   7.6   4.2   24.8  76.6    10.9      M    M
 26000  -33.7 -28.7   360   84   43   7.6   4.1   23.8  74.9    10.2      M    M
 25000  -31.5 -24.7   360   81   42   7.6   4.1   23.0  73.5     9.7      M    M
 24000  -29.2 -20.6   355   79   41   7.3   4.0   22.3  72.2     9.2      M    M
 23000  -27.1 -16.8   355   76   39   7.1   3.9   21.3  70.3     8.5      M    M
 22000  -25.0 -13.0   350   73   38   7.1   3.9   20.4  68.7     7.8      M    M
 21000  -22.8  -9.0   345   70   36   7.2   3.9   19.5  67.1     7.1      M    M
 20000  -20.7  -5.3   345   68   35   7.2   3.9   18.6  65.4     6.4      M    M
 19500  -19.7  -3.5   340   67   34   7.2   3.9   18.1  64.6     6.0      M    M
 19000  -18.6  -1.5   340   66   34   7.2   4.0   17.7  63.9     5.7      M    M
 18500  -17.6   0.3   340   65   33   6.2   3.4   17.3  63.1     5.3      M    M
 18000  -16.7   1.9   340   64   33   5.8   3.2   16.6  61.8     4.7      M    M
 17500  -15.8   3.6   340   63   32   5.6   3.1   15.9  60.7     4.1      M    M
 17000  -15.1   4.8   340   61   32   5.1   2.8   15.2  59.3     3.5      M    M
 16500  -14.3   6.3   340   60   31   5.0   2.7   14.4  57.9     2.8      M    M
 16000  -13.5   7.7   340   58   30   6.0   3.3   13.7  56.6     2.2      M    M
 15500  -12.5   9.5   335   54   28   6.1   3.3   13.1  55.5     1.7      M    M
 15000  -11.6  11.1   335   51   26   6.3   3.4   12.5  54.5     1.1      M    M
 14500  -10.2  13.6   335   48   24   6.3   3.5   11.6  53.0     0.4      M    M
 14000   -9.2  15.4   335   46   24   6.8   3.7   11.1  52.0    -0.1    626  3.2
 13500   -8.2  17.2   335   47   24   6.7   3.7   10.6  51.2    -0.6    581  3.0
 13000   -7.2  19.0   340   48   25   7.7   4.2   10.2  50.4    -1.0    534  2.7
 12500   -6.0  21.2   340   49   25   7.8   4.3    9.9  49.8    -1.3    485  2.5
 12000   -4.9  23.2   340   49   25   7.8   4.3    9.6  49.3    -1.7    437  2.2
 11750   -4.3  24.3   335   49   25   8.2   4.5    9.5  49.0    -1.8    411  2.1
 11500   -3.7  25.3   335   49   25   8.0   4.4    9.3  48.8    -1.9    386  2.0
 11250   -3.1  26.4   335   50   26   8.6   4.7    9.2  48.6    -2.1    361  1.8
 11000   -2.5  27.5   335   50   26   6.4   3.5    9.1  48.3    -2.2    335  1.7
 10750   -2.2  28.0   335   50   26   4.2   2.3    8.7  47.6    -2.6    318  1.6
 10500   -1.9  28.6   335   50   26   4.8   2.6    8.3  46.9    -3.0    301  1.5
 10250   -1.5  29.3   330   50   26   4.8   2.6    7.9  46.2    -3.4    283  1.4
 10000   -1.2  29.8   330   48   25   4.3   2.4    7.5  45.5    -3.8    266  1.4
  9750   -0.9  30.4   330   47   24   2.8   1.5    7.0  44.7    -4.3    251  1.3
  9500   -0.8  30.6   330   44   23   1.8   1.0    6.4  43.6    -4.9    240  1.2
  9250   -0.7  30.7   330   42   21   3.2   1.8    5.9  42.6    -5.6    229  1.2
  9000   -0.4  31.3   330   39   20   3.8   2.1    5.4  41.8    -6.0    213  1.1
  8750   -0.1  31.8   330   37   19   5.1   2.8    5.0  41.0    -6.5    197  1.0
  8500    0.3  32.5   330   35   18   5.6   3.1    4.7  40.5    -6.8    177  0.9
  8250    0.6  33.1   335   33   17   2.1   1.1    4.3  39.7    -7.3    161  0.8
  8000    0.6  33.1   335   31   16  -0.6  -0.3    3.6  38.4    -8.0    152  0.8
  7750    0.7  33.3   335   28   15   3.5   1.9    2.9  37.2    -8.7    144  0.7
  7500    0.9  33.6   330   26   13  -4.3  -2.4    2.3  36.2    -9.3    131  0.7
  7250   -0.1  31.8   330   21   11 -17.3  -9.5    1.0  33.8   -10.6    153  0.8
  7000   -1.3  29.7   330   17    9 -10.9  -6.0   -0.4  31.2   -12.1    180  0.9
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           01/25/2015 at 0800 MST          |       01/25/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +3.2  LI... +5.6                | K index... +3.0  LI... +5.3
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.6 -73.5  320  24 12   3.7   2.1 | -59.2 -74.6  315  25 13   3.8   2.1
 45000 -53.0 -63.4  330  42 22  -0.4  -0.2 | -54.0 -65.2  340  43 22  -6.8  -3.7
 40000 -59.6 -75.3  345  67 35  -4.2  -2.3 | -62.6 -80.7  010  74 38  -5.8  -3.2
 38000 -59.1 -74.4  355  74 38   4.3   2.3 | -61.4 -78.5  015  84 43   6.4   3.5
 36000 -56.6 -69.9  010  82 42   4.3   2.3 | -57.5 -71.5  020  91 47   6.4   3.5
 34000 -53.4 -64.1  015  90 46   8.1   4.5 | -53.3 -63.9  020  96 49   8.4   4.6
 32000 -48.4 -55.1  015  86 44   8.3   4.5 | -48.2 -54.8  020  93 48   8.5   4.6
 30000 -43.5 -46.3  010  82 42   8.1   4.4 | -42.3 -44.1  020  87 45   9.1   5.0
 29000 -40.5 -40.9  010  80 41   8.1   4.4 | -39.6 -39.3  015  83 43   9.1   5.0
 28000 -38.1 -36.6  010  78 40   8.1   4.4 | -36.9 -34.4  015  78 40   9.1   5.0
 27000 -35.6 -32.1  005  76 39   8.6   4.7 | -34.3 -29.7  015  74 38   7.9   4.3
 26000 -33.1 -27.6  005  74 38   8.6   4.7 | -31.9 -25.4  010  70 36   8.0   4.4
 25000 -30.5 -22.9  360  73 37   8.6   4.7 | -29.5 -21.1  010  65 34   8.0   4.4
 24000 -27.9 -18.2  360  71 36   8.0   4.4 | -27.1 -16.8  005  61 32   8.3   4.5
 23000 -25.6 -14.1  355  69 36   7.9   4.3 | -24.6 -12.3  360  58 30   8.3   4.5
 22000 -23.3  -9.9  355  68 35   7.9   4.3 | -22.2  -8.0  355  54 28   8.3   4.5
 21000 -21.0  -5.8  350  66 34   7.3   4.0 | -19.7  -3.5  350  52 27   7.9   4.3
 20000 -18.8  -1.8  345  63 32   7.4   4.0 | -17.4   0.7  350  51 26   7.9   4.4
 19500 -17.7   0.1  345  61 32   7.4   4.1 | -16.2   2.8  345  51 26   8.0   4.4
 19000 -16.6   2.1  340  60 31   7.4   4.1 | -15.0   5.0  345  50 26   8.0   4.4
 18500 -15.5   4.1  340  59 30   7.0   3.8 | -13.9   7.0  340  50 26   7.5   4.1
 18000 -14.5   5.9  340  58 30   6.9   3.8 | -12.7   9.1  340  49 25   7.6   4.1
 17500 -13.4   7.9  340  57 30   6.4   3.5 | -11.6  11.1  335  48 25   7.1   3.9
 17000 -12.6   9.3  340  57 30   5.3   2.9 | -10.6  12.9  335  47 24   6.6   3.6
 16500 -11.8  10.8  340  57 30   5.3   2.9 |  -9.7  14.5  335  46 24   6.6   3.6
 16000 -11.0  12.2  340  57 29   5.8   3.2 |  -8.8  16.2  330  45 23   5.8   3.2
 15500 -10.2  13.6  340  55 28   5.8   3.2 |  -7.9  17.8  330  44 23   5.9   3.2
 15000  -9.4  15.1  335  53 27   5.2   2.9 |  -6.6  20.1  330  42 22   5.8   3.2
 14500  -8.2  17.2  340  51 26   5.2   2.9 |  -5.7  21.7  330  42 21   5.8   3.2
 14000  -7.6  18.3  340  50 26   3.5   1.9 |  -5.2  22.6  330  41 21   2.6   1.4
 13500  -7.1  19.2  340  49 25   3.5   1.9 |  -4.7  23.5  330  41 21   3.1   1.7
 13000  -6.5  20.3  340  48 25   5.0   2.7 |  -4.4  24.1  335  41 21   1.3   0.7
 12500  -5.7  21.7  340  47 24   5.1   2.8 |  -4.2  24.4  340  42 22   1.2   0.7
 12000  -5.0  23.0  345  47 24   5.6   3.1 |  -3.9  25.0  345  43 22   3.3   1.8
 11750  -4.5  23.9  345  46 24   6.7   3.7 |  -3.7  25.3  345  44 23   2.5   1.4
 11500  -4.0  24.8  345  46 24   6.3   3.5 |  -3.5  25.7  345  44 23   2.5   1.4
 11250  -3.6  25.5  345  46 24   6.9   3.8 |  -3.3  26.1  350  45 23   3.3   1.8
 11000  -3.0  26.6  345  45 23   8.3   4.6 |  -3.0  26.6  350  45 23   5.5   3.0
 10750  -2.3  27.9  345  46 24   8.9   4.9 |  -2.6  27.3  350  44 23   6.1   3.4
 10500  -1.7  28.9  345  46 24   9.0   4.9 |  -2.1  28.2  350  44 23   5.9   3.2
 10250  -1.0  30.2  345  46 24   8.0   4.4 |  -1.7  28.9  355  44 23   6.2   3.4
 10000  -0.5  31.1  345  47 24   6.9   3.8 |  -1.2  29.8  355  43 22   6.9   3.8
  9750   0.0  32.0  345  46 24   7.1   3.9 |  -0.7  30.7  355  41 21   7.7   4.2
  9500   0.6  33.1  345  44 23   7.6   4.1 |  -0.1  31.8  350  40 21   8.0   4.4
  9250   1.1  34.0  340  43 22   4.9   2.7 |   0.5  32.9  350  39 20   7.8   4.3
  9000   1.3  34.3  340  42 21   2.8   1.5 |   1.1  34.0  350  37 19   7.4   4.1
  8750   1.5  34.7  335  40 21   3.0   1.6 |   1.7  35.1  350  36 18   8.7   4.8
  8500   1.6  34.9  335  37 19   1.6   0.9 |   2.3  36.1  345  34 18   7.1   3.9
  8250   1.7  35.1  330  34 18   0.5   0.3 |   2.7  36.9  345  31 16   3.5   1.9
  8000   1.7  35.1  330  31 16  -1.9  -1.1 |   2.8  37.0  340  28 15   2.0   1.1
  7750   1.6  34.9  330  28 15   4.7   2.6 |   3.0  37.4  335  25 13   5.9   3.2
  7500   2.0  35.6  325  25 13  -4.5  -2.5 |   3.4  38.1  330  22 12   1.3   0.7
  7250   0.7  33.3  325  21 11 -21.7 -11.9 |   3.0  37.4  325  18 10  -7.3  -4.0
  7000  -0.6  30.9  325  16  8 -10.4  -5.7 |   2.6  36.7  325  15  8  -0.3  -0.2
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           01/25/2015 at 1400 MST          |       01/25/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +4.9  LI... +6.6                | K index... +3.0  LI... +7.3
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.1 -76.2  325  35 18   3.5   1.9 | -61.7 -79.1  340  34 18   3.2   1.8
 45000 -55.4 -67.7  340  53 28  -5.7  -3.1 | -57.4 -71.3  345  50 26  -4.7  -2.6
 40000 -62.7 -80.9  005  75 39  -4.9  -2.7 | -63.6 -82.5  360  62 32  -3.9  -2.2
 38000 -61.1 -78.0  010  77 40   6.4   3.5 | -61.3 -78.3  005  63 32   7.1   3.9
 36000 -57.3 -71.1  005  75 39   6.4   3.5 | -57.1 -70.8  010  62 32   7.1   3.9
 34000 -52.9 -63.2  005  74 38   9.1   5.0 | -52.4 -62.3  010  58 30   8.9   4.9
 32000 -47.4 -53.3  360  73 38   9.1   5.0 | -47.1 -52.8  005  51 26   8.8   4.8
 30000 -41.2 -42.2  005  72 37   9.3   5.1 | -41.0 -41.8  360  46 24   9.3   5.1
 29000 -38.4 -37.1  010  70 36   9.3   5.1 | -38.2 -36.8  360  44 23   9.3   5.1
 28000 -35.7 -32.3  010  70 36   9.2   5.1 | -35.4 -31.7  360  43 22   9.3   5.1
 27000 -33.1 -27.6  015  67 34   7.6   4.2 | -32.7 -26.9  360  43 22   8.4   4.6
 26000 -30.8 -23.4  010  61 31   7.6   4.2 | -30.2 -22.4  360  43 22   8.4   4.6
 25000 -28.6 -19.5  005  55 28   7.6   4.2 | -27.7 -17.9  360  43 22   8.4   4.6
 24000 -26.3 -15.3  360  51 26   7.9   4.3 | -25.2 -13.4  355  43 22   9.0   5.0
 23000 -23.9 -11.0  360  48 25   7.9   4.3 | -22.5  -8.5  350  42 22   9.0   4.9
 22000 -21.6  -6.9  355  46 24   7.9   4.3 | -19.8  -3.6  350  42 22   9.0   4.9
 21000 -19.1  -2.4  345  43 22   9.3   5.1 | -17.1   1.2  345  40 21   9.0   4.9
 20000 -16.3   2.7  340  39 20   9.3   5.1 | -14.4   6.1  335  36 19   9.0   4.9
 19500 -15.0   5.0  335  37 19   9.3   5.1 | -13.0   8.6  330  34 18   9.0   4.9
 19000 -13.6   7.5  330  35 18   9.3   5.1 | -11.7  10.9  320  33 17   8.8   4.8
 18500 -12.4   9.7  325  36 18   7.1   3.9 | -10.7  12.7  320  32 17   5.3   2.9
 18000 -11.3  11.7  325  37 19   7.3   4.0 |  -9.9  14.2  325  32 16   5.6   3.1
 17500 -10.3  13.5  325  39 20   5.3   2.9 |  -9.1  15.6  330  32 16   4.1   2.2
 17000  -9.7  14.5  325  36 19   4.2   2.3 |  -8.7  16.3  335  31 16   3.5   1.9
 16500  -9.1  15.6  330  34 18   4.2   2.3 |  -8.2  17.2  345  31 16   3.8   2.1
 16000  -8.4  16.9  330  33 17   4.3   2.4 |  -7.5  18.5  345  31 16   5.4   3.0
 15500  -7.8  18.0  330  32 17   4.2   2.3 |  -6.7  19.9  350  31 16   5.3   2.9
 15000  -6.7  19.9  330  31 16   5.4   2.9 |  -5.4  22.3  350  31 16   5.7   3.1
 14500  -5.9  21.4  330  30 15   5.0   2.7 |  -4.6  23.7  350  31 16   5.4   3.0
 14000  -5.5  22.1  330  30 16   1.4   0.7 |  -4.0  24.8  345  31 16   3.8   2.1
 13500  -5.3  22.5  330  31 16   1.6   0.9 |  -3.4  25.9  345  30 16   4.0   2.2
 13000  -5.0  23.0  335  32 17   2.3   1.3 |  -2.9  26.8  340  30 15   3.0   1.6
 12500  -4.7  23.5  340  33 17   2.0   1.1 |  -2.5  27.5  340  29 15   3.1   1.7
 12000  -4.2  24.4  340  34 18   4.6   2.5 |  -2.1  28.2  340  28 15   2.5   1.4
 11750  -3.9  25.0  345  34 18   4.1   2.2 |  -1.9  28.6  340  28 14   2.7   1.5
 11500  -3.6  25.5  345  35 18   3.7   2.0 |  -1.7  28.9  340  28 14   2.2   1.2
 11250  -3.3  26.1  345  35 18   6.1   3.4 |  -1.5  29.3  340  28 14   4.2   2.3
 11000  -2.7  27.1  350  35 18   7.7   4.2 |  -1.1  30.0  340  27 14   5.5   3.0
 10750  -2.2  28.0  350  34 18   6.5   3.6 |  -0.8  30.6  340  25 13   4.6   2.5
 10500  -1.7  28.9  350  34 17   6.8   3.7 |  -0.4  31.3  345  24 13   4.8   2.6
 10250  -1.2  29.8  350  33 17   8.2   4.5 |  -0.0  32.0  345  23 12   5.9   3.2
 10000  -0.5  31.1  350  32 16   9.1   5.0 |   0.5  32.9  340  21 11   7.4   4.0
  9750   0.1  32.2  350  31 16   8.2   4.5 |   1.0  33.8  340  20 10   8.0   4.4
  9500   0.7  33.3  350  29 15   8.2   4.5 |   1.6  34.9  335  18  9   8.4   4.6
  9250   1.3  34.3  350  28 14   8.7   4.8 |   2.3  36.1  335  16  8   8.7   4.8
  9000   2.0  35.6  345  26 14   8.7   4.8 |   2.9  37.2  330  15  8   8.6   4.7
  8750   2.6  36.7  345  25 13   9.8   5.4 |   3.6  38.5  325  14  7  10.1   5.5
  8500   3.4  38.1  340  23 12   8.8   4.8 |   4.4  39.9  320  13  7   9.8   5.4
  8250   3.9  39.0  335  20 11   6.7   3.7 |   5.0  41.0  315  12  6   7.5   4.1
  8000   4.3  39.7  330  18  9   6.2   3.4 |   5.5  41.9  310  11  6   7.3   4.0
  7750   4.8  40.6  325  16  8   8.5   4.7 |   6.0  42.8  305  10  5   7.8   4.3
  7500   5.3  41.5  325  14  7   1.4   0.8 |   6.2  43.2  305  10  5  -5.1  -2.8
  7250   4.8  40.6  320  11  6  -7.7  -4.2 |   5.2  41.4  295   8  4 -17.0  -9.3
  7000   4.4  39.9  315   8  4  -0.3  -0.2 |   4.1  39.4  290   7  4  -7.8  -4.3
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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