Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 011138
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0438 MST Sunday, March 1, 2015

This forecast is for Sunday, March 1, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 42.3 F/5.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 227 ft/min (1.2 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 7565 ft MSL (807 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 25.0 F/-4.3 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7127 ft MSL (369 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 03/02....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:31:35 / 17:50:23 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 18 min 48 sec (678 min 48 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:11:14 MST... 43.59 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 03/01/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 13865 ft MSL (7107 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 9224 ft MSL (2466 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +16.3
K index......................... -3.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -57.6 -71.7   260   69   35   1.0   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -56.1 -69.0   260   85   44   1.2   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -56.9 -70.4   260   98   51  -0.6  -0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -56.6 -69.9   260  103   53   2.9   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -54.9 -66.8   255  107   55   2.9   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -53.1 -63.6   255  111   57   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -47.6 -53.7   255  110   57   8.3   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -42.7 -44.9   260  109   56   7.0   3.8   28.5  83.3    24.7      M    M
 29000  -40.7 -41.3   260  107   55   6.8   3.7   27.2  80.9    24.0      M    M
 28000  -38.6 -37.5   260  105   54   6.8   3.7   26.1  78.9    23.5      M    M
 27000  -36.6 -33.9   260  103   53   6.9   3.8   25.1  77.1    23.0      M    M
 26000  -34.7 -30.5   260  100   51   5.9   3.2   23.7  74.6    22.1      M    M
 25000  -33.0 -27.4   260   96   50   5.9   3.2   22.2  71.9    21.2      M    M
 24000  -31.2 -24.2   260   93   48   5.9   3.2   20.9  69.5    20.3      M    M
 23000  -29.6 -21.3   260   89   46   5.1   2.8   19.3  66.7    19.3      M    M
 22000  -28.0 -18.4   260   84   43   5.1   2.8   17.6  63.6    18.1      M    M
 21000  -26.5 -15.7   260   78   40   5.0   2.8   16.0  60.8    16.9      M    M
 20000  -24.9 -12.8   260   74   38   5.3   2.9   14.3  57.8    15.7      M    M
 19500  -24.1 -11.4   260   72   37   5.3   2.9   13.6  56.4    15.1      M    M
 19000  -23.3  -9.9   260   70   36   5.3   2.9   12.8  55.0    14.6      M    M
 18500  -22.6  -8.7   255   68   35   5.2   2.8   12.1  53.7    14.0      M    M
 18000  -21.7  -7.1   260   65   34   6.4   3.5   11.4  52.5    13.5      M    M
 17500  -20.7  -5.3   260   63   32   6.4   3.5   10.8  51.5    13.1      M    M
 17000  -19.8  -3.6   260   61   31   6.0   3.3   10.3  50.5    12.6      M    M
 16500  -19.0  -2.2   265   56   29   5.8   3.2    9.6  49.2    12.1      M    M
 16000  -17.7   0.1   265   49   25   6.7   3.7    8.6  47.6    11.3      M    M
 15500  -16.6   2.1   270   45   23   7.0   3.8    8.2  46.7    10.9      M    M
 15000  -15.6   3.9   270   41   21   7.4   4.0    7.7  45.9    10.5      M    M
 14500  -14.5   5.9   275   38   19   7.7   4.2    7.4  45.3    10.2      M    M
 14000  -13.3   8.1   275   35   18   7.8   4.3    7.1  44.7    10.0      M    M
 13500  -12.2  10.0   275   32   16   8.1   4.4    6.8  44.2     9.7      M    M
 13000  -11.0  12.2   275   29   15   8.3   4.6    6.5  43.7     9.5      M    M
 12500   -9.7  14.5   280   27   14   9.3   5.1    6.4  43.5     9.4      M    M
 12000   -8.3  17.1   280   26   13   8.8   4.8    6.3  43.3     9.4      M    M
 11750   -7.7  18.1   280   25   13   8.9   4.9    6.2  43.2     9.3      M    M
 11500   -7.0  19.4   280   25   13   9.1   5.0    6.2  43.1     9.3      M    M
 11250   -6.3  20.7   280   24   12   8.8   4.8    6.1  43.0     9.2      M    M
 11000   -5.7  21.7   280   23   12  10.0   5.5    6.1  42.9     9.2      M    M
 10750   -4.9  23.2   280   23   12   9.8   5.4    6.1  43.0     9.2      M    M
 10500   -4.3  24.3   280   23   12   7.9   4.3    6.0  42.8     9.2      M    M
 10250   -3.6  25.5   280   23   12   9.9   5.4    5.9  42.7     9.1      M    M
 10000   -3.0  26.6   280   22   11   4.1   2.2    5.8  42.5     9.0      M    M
  9750   -2.9  26.8   275   21   11   3.0   1.7    5.2  41.3     8.4      M    M
  9500   -2.4  27.7   275   20   10   7.2   4.0    4.9  40.9     8.2      M    M
  9250   -1.9  28.6   275   20   10   7.8   4.3    4.7  40.5     8.0      M    M
  9000   -1.5  29.3   275   19   10  -1.0  -0.5    4.4  39.9     7.7      M    M
  8750   -2.0  28.4   275   17    9  -6.4  -3.5    3.1  37.7     6.5      M    M
  8500   -2.2  28.0   275   16    8  -0.3  -0.1    2.2  36.0     5.6      M    M
  8250   -2.3  27.9   280   14    7  -4.7  -2.6    1.4  34.4     4.7      M    M
  8000   -3.1  26.4   280   13    7 -16.9  -9.3   -0.2  31.7     3.3      M    M
  7750   -4.5  23.9   290   11    5 -17.4  -9.5   -2.4  27.7     1.1      M    M
  7500   -5.3  22.5   300    9    4  -4.4  -2.4   -3.9  24.9    -0.4    232  1.2
  7250   -5.8  21.6   320    7    4 -17.7  -9.7   -5.2  22.7    -1.7    240  1.2
  7000   -8.4  16.9   325    6    3 -49.6 -27.2   -7.9  17.8    -4.3    309  1.6
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           03/01/2015 at 0800 MST          |       03/01/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -4.6  LI... +3.8                | K index... +1.1  LI... +5.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.6                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -57.9 -72.2  260  57 29   0.8   0.4 | -58.4 -73.1  260  63 32   0.6   0.3
 45000 -56.7 -70.1  260  84 43   0.9   0.5 | -57.5 -71.5  255  88 45   0.7   0.4
 40000 -56.9 -70.4  260  99 51  -0.2  -0.1 | -58.6 -73.5  255 108 56  -0.8  -0.4
 38000 -56.3 -69.3  260 103 53   3.0   1.7 | -57.5 -71.5  255 112 58   4.7   2.6
 36000 -54.5 -66.1  255 104 53   3.0   1.6 | -54.7 -66.5  255 113 58   4.7   2.6
 34000 -52.1 -61.8  255 104 54   8.1   4.4 | -51.7 -61.1  250 113 58   7.7   4.2
 32000 -47.6 -53.7  255 103 53   7.5   4.1 | -47.2 -53.0  255 108 56   7.5   4.1
 30000 -43.2 -45.8  260 101 52   6.7   3.7 | -42.8 -45.0  255 104 54   6.7   3.7
 29000 -41.1 -42.0  260 100 52   6.9   3.8 | -40.8 -41.4  255 102 52   6.5   3.6
 28000 -39.1 -38.4  260  99 51   6.9   3.8 | -38.4 -37.1  255  99 51   6.5   3.6
 27000 -37.0 -34.6  260  98 51   6.8   3.8 | -36.4 -33.5  255  97 50   6.5   3.6
 26000 -34.9 -30.8  260  96 49   7.2   3.9 | -34.5 -30.1  255  93 48   6.5   3.6
 25000 -32.7 -26.9  260  93 48   7.2   3.9 | -32.6 -26.7  255  88 45   6.5   3.6
 24000 -30.6 -23.1  260  91 47   7.4   4.0 | -30.6 -23.1  260  84 43   6.5   3.6
 23000 -28.9 -20.0  260  86 44   4.6   2.5 | -28.7 -19.7  260  81 42   6.4   3.5
 22000 -27.5 -17.5  260  79 41   4.6   2.5 | -26.8 -16.2  260  78 40   6.4   3.5
 21000 -26.1 -15.0  260  73 38   4.7   2.6 | -24.9 -12.8  260  74 38   6.6   3.6
 20000 -24.3 -11.7  260  69 35   6.1   3.3 | -22.9  -9.2  260  70 36   6.8   3.7
 19500 -23.4 -10.1  260  67 34   6.1   3.3 | -21.9  -7.4  260  67 35   6.8   3.7
 19000 -22.5  -8.5  260  65 33   6.1   3.3 | -20.8  -5.4  260  65 33   6.8   3.7
 18500 -21.6  -6.9  260  63 32   6.0   3.3 | -19.8  -3.6  255  62 32   6.6   3.6
 18000 -20.6  -5.1  255  62 32   6.5   3.6 | -19.0  -2.2  260  60 31   5.6   3.1
 17500 -19.7  -3.5  255  61 31   6.5   3.6 | -18.1  -0.6  260  59 30   5.7   3.1
 17000 -18.7  -1.7  255  60 31   6.6   3.6 | -17.3   0.9  260  57 29   4.7   2.6
 16500 -17.2   1.0  255  58 30   6.7   3.7 | -16.6   2.1  260  54 28   4.7   2.6
 16000 -16.2   2.8  260  57 29   7.4   4.1 | -16.0   3.2  260  52 27   5.3   2.9
 15500 -15.0   5.0  260  56 29   7.5   4.1 | -15.1   4.8  260  46 24   5.8   3.2
 15000 -14.0   6.8  265  55 28   5.8   3.2 | -14.3   6.3  255  41 21   5.9   3.3
 14500 -13.2   8.2  265  52 27   4.9   2.7 | -13.4   7.9  260  39 20   6.2   3.4
 14000 -12.5   9.5  270  49 25   4.5   2.5 | -12.0  10.4  265  37 19   5.9   3.2
 13500 -11.9  10.6  275  44 23   4.2   2.3 | -11.1  12.0  270  35 18   5.7   3.1
 13000 -11.4  11.5  275  38 20   5.7   3.1 | -10.2  13.6  275  33 17   6.0   3.3
 12500 -10.2  13.6  275  33 17   9.1   5.0 |  -9.3  15.3  280  30 15   6.5   3.6
 12000  -9.1  15.6  275  26 13   6.9   3.8 |  -8.4  16.9  280  26 14   5.7   3.1
 11750  -8.5  16.7  280  23 12   8.2   4.5 |  -7.9  17.8  280  25 13   6.9   3.8
 11500  -7.9  17.8  280  22 11   8.6   4.7 |  -7.5  18.5  280  23 12   6.7   3.7
 11250  -7.3  18.9  280  21 11   8.4   4.6 |  -7.0  19.4  275  21 11   6.5   3.6
 11000  -6.7  19.9  280  19 10   9.2   5.0 |  -6.5  20.3  275  19 10   7.0   3.9
 10750  -6.0  21.2  280  17  9   9.3   5.1 |  -5.9  21.4  275  17  9   8.1   4.5
 10500  -5.3  22.5  280  16  8   8.2   4.5 |  -5.3  22.5  275  15  8   8.4   4.6
 10250  -4.7  23.5  280  15  8   9.8   5.4 |  -4.7  23.5  275  13  7   7.9   4.3
 10000  -4.1  24.6  280  14  7   3.8   2.1 |  -4.3  24.3  270  12  6   3.6   2.0
  9750  -4.0  24.8  280  13  7   2.8   1.5 |  -4.1  24.6  270  10  5   3.4   1.8
  9500  -3.5  25.7  275  12  6   8.0   4.4 |  -3.7  25.3  270   9  5   7.1   3.9
  9250  -3.0  26.6  275  11  6   5.9   3.3 |  -3.3  26.1  265   8  4   3.0   1.7
  9000  -2.7  27.1  275  10  5   0.4   0.2 |  -3.4  25.9  265   7  3  -4.4  -2.4
  8750  -2.8  27.0  275   8  4  -1.3  -0.7 |  -3.8  25.2  260   5  3  -6.1  -3.3
  8500  -2.8  27.0  280   8  4   3.1   1.7 |  -4.3  24.3  250   4  2  -5.8  -3.2
  8250  -2.6  27.3  280   7  4  -2.7  -1.5 |  -4.7  23.5  225   2  1  -3.4  -1.9
  8000  -3.2  26.2  290   7  4 -11.5  -6.3 |  -4.8  23.4  210   1  0  -1.7  -0.9
  7750  -4.0  24.8  305   7  4  -7.8  -4.3 |  -5.0  23.0  060   1  1   0.5   0.3
  7500  -4.4  24.1  320   7  4  -4.1  -2.2 |  -4.7  23.5  065   3  1   5.8   3.2
  7250  -5.0  23.0  335   7  3 -14.6  -8.0 |  -4.2  24.4  065   3  2   7.2   3.9
  7000  -6.6  20.1  340   6  3 -27.2 -14.9 |  -3.7  25.3  065   4  2   7.4   4.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           03/01/2015 at 1400 MST          |       03/01/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +13.5  LI... +2.7               | K index... +15.7  LI... +1.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.7 -73.7  260  63 32   0.8   0.4 | -59.4 -74.9  260  62 32   0.9   0.5
 45000 -57.5 -71.5  255  82 42   0.9   0.5 | -58.0 -72.4  255  80 41   0.2   0.1
 40000 -58.2 -72.8  255 113 58  -0.5  -0.3 | -58.6 -73.5  255 111 57  -0.4  -0.2
 38000 -57.1 -70.8  255 119 62   4.4   2.4 | -57.2 -71.0  255 117 60   4.9   2.7
 36000 -54.5 -66.1  255 120 62   4.4   2.4 | -54.3 -65.7  255 117 60   4.9   2.7
 34000 -51.7 -61.1  250 120 62   7.4   4.0 | -51.2 -60.2  250 117 60   7.3   4.0
 32000 -47.4 -53.3  255 115 59   7.2   4.0 | -46.9 -52.4  255 114 58   7.1   3.9
 30000 -43.1 -45.6  255 111 57   7.0   3.8 | -42.2 -44.0  255 109 56   6.9   3.8
 29000 -40.6 -41.1  255 106 54   6.8   3.7 | -40.1 -40.2  255 107 55   7.0   3.8
 28000 -38.5 -37.3  255 102 52   6.8   3.7 | -38.0 -36.4  255 104 53   7.0   3.8
 27000 -36.5 -33.7  255  98 50   6.7   3.7 | -35.9 -32.6  255 101 52   7.0   3.8
 26000 -34.5 -30.1  255  91 47   6.6   3.6 | -33.8 -28.8  255  95 49   6.9   3.8
 25000 -32.6 -26.7  255  84 43   6.6   3.6 | -31.8 -25.2  255  89 46   6.9   3.8
 24000 -30.6 -23.1  255  78 40   6.6   3.6 | -29.7 -21.5  255  83 43   6.8   3.7
 23000 -28.6 -19.5  255  73 37   6.6   3.6 | -28.0 -18.4  255  79 41   5.6   3.0
 22000 -26.7 -16.1  255  68 35   6.6   3.6 | -26.3 -15.3  255  75 39   5.6   3.1
 21000 -24.7 -12.5  250  63 33   6.5   3.5 | -24.7 -12.5  255  72 37   6.6   3.6
 20000 -22.8  -9.0  250  60 31   6.3   3.5 | -22.5  -8.5  255  68 35   7.4   4.1
 19500 -21.9  -7.4  250  58 30   6.4   3.5 | -21.4  -6.5  260  66 34   7.4   4.1
 19000 -21.0  -5.8  250  56 29   6.4   3.5 | -20.3  -4.5  260  64 33   7.4   4.1
 18500 -20.0  -4.0  245  55 28   6.5   3.6 | -19.2  -2.6  260  62 32   7.4   4.1
 18000 -19.0  -2.2  245  53 27   6.9   3.8 | -18.1  -0.6  255  59 30   7.4   4.1
 17500 -18.0  -0.4  250  52 27   7.1   3.9 | -17.0   1.4  255  56 29   7.5   4.1
 17000 -17.1   1.2  250  48 25   5.2   2.8 | -15.9   3.4  255  54 28   6.9   3.8
 16500 -16.3   2.7  245  43 22   5.2   2.9 | -14.9   5.2  255  53 27   7.0   3.8
 16000 -15.6   3.9  245  38 19   5.5   3.0 | -13.9   7.0  250  51 26   6.7   3.7
 15500 -14.7   5.5  245  34 17   5.6   3.1 | -12.9   8.8  250  49 25   6.6   3.6
 15000 -13.9   7.0  245  30 15   6.0   3.3 | -12.0  10.4  245  47 24   6.5   3.6
 14500 -12.4   9.7  245  29 15   7.1   3.9 | -10.6  12.9  240  43 22   6.3   3.5
 14000 -11.4  11.5  245  29 15   5.5   3.0 |  -9.7  14.5  240  40 21   5.3   2.9
 13500 -10.7  12.7  245  27 14   4.9   2.7 |  -9.0  15.8  235  37 19   4.8   2.6
 13000 -10.0  14.0  245  25 13   5.5   3.0 |  -8.3  17.1  230  33 17   4.3   2.3
 12500  -9.1  15.6  245  24 12   6.2   3.4 |  -7.8  18.0  230  30 15   3.7   2.0
 12000  -8.3  17.1  245  21 11   5.4   3.0 |  -7.2  19.0  225  25 13   3.7   2.0
 11750  -7.8  18.0  245  20 10   6.9   3.8 |  -7.0  19.4  220  23 12   2.4   1.3
 11500  -7.3  18.9  240  18  9   6.6   3.6 |  -6.8  19.8  220  22 11   2.7   1.5
 11250  -6.8  19.8  240  17  9   6.5   3.6 |  -6.6  20.1  215  20 10   2.9   1.6
 11000  -6.4  20.5  235  15  8   5.1   2.8 |  -6.4  20.5  215  18  9   0.7   0.4
 10750  -6.0  21.2  235  15  7   5.0   2.8 |  -6.4  20.5  215  17  9  -0.2  -0.1
 10500  -5.6  21.9  230  13  7   6.1   3.3 |  -6.4  20.5  215  16  8   1.2   0.7
 10250  -5.2  22.6  230  12  6   4.9   2.7 |  -6.3  20.7  210  14  7   0.5   0.3
 10000  -5.0  23.0  225  11  6  -0.3  -0.1 |  -6.4  20.5  210  13  6  -3.2  -1.8
  9750  -5.2  22.6  220   9  5  -3.6  -2.0 |  -6.8  19.8  205  11  6  -7.3  -4.0
  9500  -5.5  22.1  215   8  4  -2.8  -1.6 |  -7.3  18.9  200  10  5  -8.7  -4.8
  9250  -5.7  21.7  215   7  4  -4.3  -2.3 |  -7.9  17.8  190   9  4  -6.2  -3.4
  9000  -6.1  21.0  205   6  3  -7.2  -4.0 |  -8.2  17.2  180   8  4  -2.5  -1.4
  8750  -6.7  19.9  195   5  2  -5.5  -3.0 |  -8.3  17.1  170   8  4  -0.6  -0.3
  8500  -6.9  19.6  170   3  2  -3.5  -1.9 |  -8.3  17.1  160   8  4  -0.3  -0.2
  8250  -7.1  19.2  135   3  2   2.8   1.5 |  -8.2  17.2  150   9  5   5.0   2.8
  8000  -6.6  20.1  120   4  2   8.1   4.4 |  -7.6  18.3  145   9  5   9.6   5.3
  7750  -6.1  21.0  115   5  2   6.8   3.7 |  -7.0  19.4  140   9  5   8.2   4.5
  7500  -5.5  22.1  105   5  3   8.4   4.6 |  -6.4  20.5  140   9  5   7.6   4.2
  7250  -4.8  23.4  100   6  3   9.3   5.1 |  -5.9  21.4  135   8  4   6.7   3.7
  7000  -4.1  24.6  100   6  3   9.3   5.1 |  -5.4  22.3  135   8  4   6.9   3.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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