Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 251157
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0457 MST Tuesday, November 25, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, November 25, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 36.3 F/2.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 656 ft/min (3.3 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 16237 ft MSL (9479 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 44.0 F/7.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1030 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast opaque high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 13420 ft MSL (6662 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 11/26.... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... Fair
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 29897 ft MSL (23139 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 11/26....... Fair

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:52:44 / 16:39:19 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 46 min 35 sec (586 min 35 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:46:10 MST... 30.27 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/25/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 15959 ft MSL (9201 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15842 ft MSL (9084 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +5.0
K index......................... +1.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -57.1 -70.8   330   38   19  -0.0  -0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -57.2 -71.0   335   57   30  -0.1  -0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -58.2 -72.8   345   77   40  -0.8  -0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -58.4 -73.1   350   87   45   2.1   1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -57.2 -71.0   355  101   52   2.0   1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -56.0 -68.8   360  115   59   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -53.2 -63.8   360  115   59   5.1   2.8      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -49.7 -57.5   355  111   57   6.9   3.8   20.5  68.9    10.5      M    M
 29000  -47.4 -53.3   355  105   54   7.9   4.3   19.6  67.3    10.0      M    M
 28000  -45.0 -49.0   355   99   51   7.9   4.3   18.9  66.0     9.5      M    M
 27000  -42.6 -44.7   350   94   48   7.9   4.4   18.3  64.9     9.2      M    M
 26000  -40.4 -40.7   350   86   44   7.1   3.9   17.4  63.3     8.5      M    M
 25000  -38.3 -36.9   345   77   39   7.1   3.9   16.3  61.4     7.8      M    M
 24000  -36.2 -33.2   345   67   35   7.1   3.9   15.5  59.8     7.2      M    M
 23000  -34.0 -29.2   345   61   31   7.1   3.9   14.5  58.1     6.5      M    M
 22000  -31.9 -25.4   340   56   29   7.1   3.9   13.5  56.4     5.7      M    M
 21000  -29.7 -21.5   340   51   26   7.1   3.9   12.7  54.8     5.1      M    M
 20000  -27.7 -17.9   335   46   23   6.7   3.7   11.6  52.9     4.2      M    M
 19500  -26.7 -16.1   335   43   22   6.7   3.7   11.0  51.9     3.7      M    M
 19000  -25.7 -14.3   330   41   21   6.7   3.7   10.5  51.0     3.3      M    M
 18500  -24.7 -12.5   325   38   20   6.8   3.7   10.1  50.1     2.9      M    M
 18000  -23.8 -10.8   325   37   19   5.3   2.9    9.4  49.0     2.4      M    M
 17500  -23.0  -9.4   325   37   19   5.5   3.0    8.7  47.7     1.7      M    M
 17000  -22.2  -8.0   325   37   19   5.6   3.1    8.0  46.4     1.1      M    M
 16500  -21.4  -6.5   325   36   19   5.6   3.1    7.3  45.1     0.5      M    M
 16000  -20.5  -4.9   325   35   18   5.7   3.1    6.6  43.9    -0.2    846  4.3
 15500  -19.7  -3.5   325   34   18   5.8   3.2    5.9  42.7    -0.8    806  4.1
 15000  -18.3  -0.9   325   33   17   6.4   3.5    5.0  41.0    -1.6    744  3.8
 14500  -17.4   0.7   325   31   16   6.6   3.6    4.5  40.0    -2.1    700  3.6
 14000  -16.4   2.5   325   30   15   7.1   3.9    4.0  39.2    -2.6    655  3.3
 13500  -15.3   4.5   330   29   15   7.4   4.1    3.6  38.5    -3.0    608  3.1
 13000  -14.2   6.4   330   29   15   8.5   4.6    3.2  37.8    -3.4    560  2.8
 12500  -12.8   9.0   335   29   15   9.5   5.2    3.2  37.7    -3.5    503  2.6
 12000  -11.4  11.5   335   29   15   8.4   4.6    3.0  37.5    -3.6    448  2.3
 11750  -10.8  12.6   340   30   15   9.0   4.9    3.0  37.3    -3.7    421  2.1
 11500  -10.1  13.8   340   30   16   8.8   4.8    2.9  37.2    -3.8    394  2.0
 11250   -9.5  14.9   340   31   16   9.1   5.0    2.8  37.1    -3.9    367  1.9
 11000   -8.8  16.2   340   31   16   8.0   4.4    2.8  37.0    -3.9    340  1.7
 10750   -8.3  17.1   340   32   16   6.0   3.3    2.5  36.5    -4.2    317  1.6
 10500   -7.9  17.8   335   33   17   5.8   3.2    2.2  36.0    -4.5    297  1.5
 10250   -7.4  18.7   335   34   18   5.5   3.0    1.9  35.4    -4.8    277  1.4
 10000   -7.1  19.2   335   35   18   4.5   2.5    1.5  34.8    -5.2    258  1.3
  9750   -6.8  19.8   330   34   18   2.1   1.2    1.1  33.9    -5.7    243  1.2
  9500   -6.7  19.9   325   33   17   0.6   0.3    0.4  32.7    -6.4    234  1.2
  9250   -6.7  19.9   320   31   16   1.4   0.8   -0.3  31.5    -7.0    224  1.1
  9000   -6.5  20.3   320   30   15   2.2   1.2   -0.9  30.4    -7.6    212  1.1
  8750   -6.4  20.5   315   29   15   1.6   0.9   -1.5  29.4    -8.2    200  1.0
  8500   -6.3  20.7   310   26   14   0.5   0.3   -2.1  28.1    -8.9    191  1.0
  8250   -6.2  20.8   305   25   13   1.3   0.7   -2.8  26.9    -9.6    182  0.9
  8000   -6.2  20.8   305   23   12  -0.3  -0.1   -3.5  25.7   -10.3    172  0.9
  7750   -6.1  21.0   300   21   11   5.8   3.2   -4.2  24.5   -11.0    163  0.8
  7500   -5.6  21.9   295   18    9   0.3   0.1   -4.4  24.1   -11.3    140  0.7
  7250   -6.3  20.7   295   15    8 -15.4  -8.4   -5.5  22.1   -12.4    155  0.8
  7000   -7.4  18.7   295   11    6 -10.0  -5.5   -6.8  19.7   -13.8    180  0.9
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/25/2014 at 0800 MST          |       11/25/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +10.0  LI... +2.4               | K index... +10.2  LI... +1.8
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.5                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.4 -69.5  330  34 17  -0.7  -0.4 | -57.3 -71.1  335  28 14  -0.8  -0.5
 45000 -57.5 -71.5  335  48 25  -0.7  -0.4 | -58.6 -73.5  335  46 24  -0.8  -0.4
 40000 -57.9 -72.2  350  72 37  -0.2  -0.1 | -58.6 -73.5  350  87 45   0.1   0.1
 38000 -57.9 -72.2  350  84 43   0.7   0.4 | -58.5 -73.3  350 100 51   0.4   0.2
 36000 -57.5 -71.5  350 101 52   0.7   0.4 | -58.2 -72.8  350 104 54   0.4   0.2
 34000 -57.1 -70.8  350 118 61   0.2   0.1 | -58.0 -72.4  350 108 56   5.0   2.7
 32000 -52.5 -62.5  355 117 60   7.4   4.0 | -52.7 -62.9  350 103 53   8.7   4.8
 30000 -48.1 -54.6  355 114 59   7.8   4.3 | -47.5 -53.5  350  98 51   8.8   4.8
 29000 -45.8 -50.4  355 108 56   7.8   4.3 | -44.9 -48.8  350 101 52   8.6   4.7
 28000 -43.4 -46.1  355 102 53   7.8   4.3 | -41.7 -43.1  350 104 53   8.6   4.7
 27000 -41.1 -42.0  355  96 50   7.8   4.3 | -39.1 -38.4  355 106 55   8.5   4.7
 26000 -38.8 -37.8  350  89 46   7.8   4.3 | -36.7 -34.1  355 102 53   8.1   4.4
 25000 -36.5 -33.7  345  81 42   7.8   4.3 | -34.3 -29.7  355  97 50   8.1   4.4
 24000 -34.1 -29.4  345  74 38   7.8   4.3 | -31.9 -25.4  350  93 48   8.2   4.5
 23000 -32.0 -25.6  335  64 33   6.6   3.6 | -29.7 -21.5  350  82 42   7.2   3.9
 22000 -30.1 -22.2  330  54 28   6.6   3.6 | -27.5 -17.5  345  69 36   7.2   3.9
 21000 -28.1 -18.6  315  45 23   6.6   3.6 | -25.4 -13.7  335  58 30   6.9   3.8
 20000 -26.3 -15.3  315  40 21   6.1   3.3 | -23.4 -10.1  335  54 28   6.5   3.6
 19500 -25.4 -13.7  320  38 20   6.1   3.3 | -22.5  -8.5  335  52 27   6.5   3.6
 19000 -24.4 -11.9  320  36 19   6.1   3.3 | -21.5  -6.7  335  50 26   6.5   3.6
 18500 -23.5 -10.3  320  35 18   6.1   3.3 | -20.6  -5.1  335  49 25   6.6   3.6
 18000 -22.6  -8.7  325  33 17   6.1   3.4 | -19.5  -3.1  335  49 25   7.1   3.9
 17500 -21.7  -7.1  325  32 16   6.1   3.4 | -18.5  -1.3  335  51 26   7.1   3.9
 17000 -20.8  -5.4  330  30 16   6.4   3.5 | -17.4   0.7  340  53 27   7.3   4.0
 16500 -19.8  -3.6  335  30 15   6.5   3.6 | -16.3   2.7  340  53 27   7.4   4.0
 16000 -18.4  -1.1  335  29 15   7.0   3.9 | -15.2   4.6  340  53 27   7.9   4.3
 15500 -17.3   0.9  335  29 15   7.0   3.9 | -14.0   6.8  340  53 27   8.3   4.6
 15000 -16.2   2.8  340  29 15   7.7   4.2 | -12.7   9.1  345  54 28   8.5   4.7
 14500 -15.1   4.8  340  29 15   7.9   4.3 | -11.4  11.5  345  54 28   8.9   4.9
 14000 -13.9   7.0  340  30 15   8.3   4.6 |  -9.5  14.9  345  55 28   7.8   4.3
 13500 -12.6   9.3  340  31 16   8.7   4.8 |  -8.4  16.9  340  55 28   7.2   3.9
 13000 -11.3  11.7  340  33 17   9.4   5.1 |  -7.4  18.7  340  55 28   6.9   3.8
 12500  -9.7  14.5  340  34 18  10.4   5.7 |  -6.4  20.5  340  55 28   7.0   3.9
 12000  -8.4  16.9  335  36 18   6.5   3.6 |  -5.6  21.9  335  56 29   2.7   1.5
 11750  -7.9  17.8  335  37 19   6.3   3.4 |  -5.4  22.3  335  55 28   2.4   1.3
 11500  -7.5  18.5  330  38 19   6.3   3.5 |  -5.2  22.6  330  53 27   2.3   1.3
 11250  -7.0  19.4  330  39 20   6.7   3.7 |  -5.1  22.8  330  52 27   2.8   1.5
 11000  -6.5  20.3  330  40 21   4.8   2.7 |  -4.9  23.2  325  50 26   1.2   0.7
 10750  -6.3  20.7  325  38 20   2.9   1.6 |  -4.9  23.2  325  48 25   0.3   0.2
 10500  -6.0  21.2  325  37 19   3.4   1.8 |  -4.8  23.4  320  45 23   1.3   0.7
 10250  -5.8  21.6  325  37 19   3.3   1.8 |  -4.7  23.5  320  42 21   0.9   0.5
 10000  -5.5  22.1  320  36 19   4.0   2.2 |  -4.6  23.7  315  39 20   1.6   0.9
  9750  -5.2  22.6  320  34 18   3.6   2.0 |  -4.5  23.9  310  36 18   2.8   1.5
  9500  -5.0  23.0  315  33 17   2.8   1.5 |  -4.3  24.3  305  33 17   2.8   1.6
  9250  -4.8  23.4  315  31 16   3.0   1.6 |  -4.0  24.8  300  30 16   3.2   1.7
  9000  -4.6  23.7  310  30 15   3.4   1.9 |  -3.8  25.2  295  28 14   3.7   2.0
  8750  -4.3  24.3  305  28 15   2.5   1.4 |  -3.4  25.9  295  25 13   6.6   3.6
  8500  -4.2  24.4  300  27 14   1.9   1.1 |  -2.8  27.0  290  23 12   9.2   5.0
  8250  -4.0  24.8  295  25 13   0.4   0.2 |  -2.2  28.0  285  21 11   7.5   4.1
  8000  -4.2  24.4  295  22 12  -3.2  -1.8 |  -1.7  28.9  285  18  9   5.6   3.1
  7750  -4.3  24.3  290  20 10   3.2   1.8 |  -1.3  29.7  280  16  8   6.6   3.6
  7500  -3.9  25.0  285  17  9   3.5   1.9 |  -0.8  30.6  275  13  7   7.4   4.1
  7250  -4.1  24.6  280  13  7  -9.5  -5.2 |  -0.3  31.5  270  11  5   3.8   2.1
  7000  -5.1  22.8  280  10  5 -13.5  -7.4 |  -0.3  31.5  270   9  5  -0.3  -0.2
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/25/2014 at 1400 MST          |       11/25/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +12.0  LI... +2.8               | K index... +12.2  LI... +1.7
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.4 -74.9  330  27 14   0.5   0.3 | -59.2 -74.6  320  33 17   0.7   0.4
 45000 -58.7 -73.7  325  53 27   0.6   0.3 | -58.1 -72.6  315  48 25   0.7   0.4
 40000 -60.4 -76.7  335  96 50  -1.2  -0.7 | -59.8 -75.6  335  98 50  -1.2  -0.7
 38000 -59.8 -75.6  340 105 54   4.2   2.3 | -59.3 -74.7  340 110 56   4.0   2.2
 36000 -57.4 -71.3  340  99 51   4.1   2.3 | -56.9 -70.4  340 107 55   3.9   2.2
 34000 -54.8 -66.6  340  94 48   6.5   3.5 | -54.4 -65.9  340 105 54   7.2   3.9
 32000 -50.5 -58.9  340  92 47   7.1   3.9 | -49.1 -56.4  340  99 51   7.9   4.3
 30000 -45.6 -50.1  340  89 46   8.5   4.7 | -44.4 -47.9  335  93 48   7.5   4.1
 29000 -43.0 -45.4  340  85 44   8.5   4.7 | -42.1 -43.8  335  87 45   7.6   4.2
 28000 -40.5 -40.9  340  82 42   8.5   4.7 | -39.9 -39.8  335  81 42   7.6   4.2
 27000 -37.9 -36.2  335  78 40   8.4   4.6 | -37.6 -35.7  335  75 39   7.4   4.0
 26000 -35.5 -31.9  340  81 42   8.1   4.4 | -35.5 -31.9  335  74 38   7.0   3.8
 25000 -33.1 -27.6  340  83 43   8.1   4.4 | -33.4 -28.1  335  73 38   7.0   3.9
 24000 -30.6 -23.1  340  86 44   8.1   4.4 | -31.3 -24.3  335  72 37   7.1   3.9
 23000 -28.4 -19.1  345  84 43   7.4   4.0 | -29.0 -20.2  335  69 36   7.8   4.3
 22000 -26.2 -15.2  345  82 42   7.4   4.0 | -26.7 -16.1  335  66 34   7.8   4.3
 21000 -24.0 -11.2  345  80 41   7.3   4.0 | -24.4 -11.9  335  63 33   7.7   4.2
 20000 -21.9  -7.4  340  69 36   7.3   4.0 | -22.1  -7.8  330  57 29   7.7   4.2
 19500 -20.8  -5.4  340  64 33   7.3   4.0 | -21.0  -5.8  330  54 28   7.7   4.2
 19000 -19.7  -3.5  335  59 30   7.3   4.0 | -19.9  -3.8  325  51 26   7.7   4.2
 18500 -18.6  -1.5  335  54 28   6.9   3.8 | -18.7  -1.7  325  48 25   7.9   4.3
 18000 -17.7   0.1  335  53 27   5.7   3.2 | -17.5   0.5  325  47 24   8.3   4.5
 17500 -16.9   1.6  335  52 27   5.8   3.2 | -16.3   2.7  320  45 23   8.2   4.5
 17000 -16.0   3.2  335  53 27   6.1   3.3 | -15.0   5.0  320  45 23   8.7   4.8
 16500 -15.1   4.8  335  55 28   6.1   3.3 | -13.7   7.3  320  48 24   8.7   4.8
 16000 -14.2   6.4  340  57 29   6.5   3.6 | -12.4   9.7  320  50 26   8.1   4.4
 15500 -13.2   8.2  340  57 29   6.8   3.7 | -10.7  12.7  320  53 27   7.7   4.2
 15000 -12.2  10.0  340  56 29   7.2   3.9 |  -9.6  14.7  320  55 28   7.7   4.2
 14500 -10.4  13.3  340  56 29   8.4   4.6 |  -8.4  16.9  320  57 29   7.7   4.3
 14000  -9.1  15.6  340  56 29   8.2   4.5 |  -7.3  18.9  320  59 31   7.0   3.9
 13500  -7.9  17.8  340  57 29   8.1   4.5 |  -6.3  20.7  320  60 31   6.6   3.6
 13000  -6.7  19.9  340  58 30   7.6   4.2 |  -5.3  22.5  320  60 31   6.1   3.3
 12500  -5.7  21.7  340  57 29   7.3   4.0 |  -4.5  23.9  320  58 30   5.5   3.0
 12000  -4.8  23.4  335  57 29   3.6   2.0 |  -3.7  25.3  320  58 30   4.5   2.5
 11750  -4.6  23.7  335  55 28   3.2   1.8 |  -3.4  25.9  320  56 29   3.7   2.0
 11500  -4.3  24.3  330  53 27   3.3   1.8 |  -3.2  26.2  320  54 28   3.7   2.0
 11250  -4.1  24.6  330  50 26   3.1   1.7 |  -2.9  26.8  320  52 27   3.8   2.1
 11000  -3.9  25.0  325  48 25   3.8   2.1 |  -2.6  27.3  320  50 26   4.3   2.3
 10750  -3.6  25.5  325  45 23   4.4   2.4 |  -2.3  27.9  320  47 24   4.4   2.4
 10500  -3.2  26.2  320  42 21   4.4   2.4 |  -2.0  28.4  315  44 23   4.2   2.3
 10250  -2.9  26.8  320  38 20   4.1   2.2 |  -1.7  28.9  315  41 21   4.3   2.3
 10000  -2.6  27.3  315  35 18   6.0   3.3 |  -1.3  29.7  315  38 20   4.4   2.4
  9750  -2.0  28.4  315  32 16   8.2   4.5 |  -1.0  30.2  315  35 18   3.8   2.1
  9500  -1.4  29.5  315  29 15   7.9   4.3 |  -0.8  30.6  310  32 17   3.3   1.8
  9250  -0.8  30.6  315  27 14   8.0   4.4 |  -0.5  31.1  310  30 15   3.7   2.0
  9000  -0.2  31.6  315  24 12   7.9   4.3 |  -0.2  31.6  310  27 14   6.4   3.5
  8750   0.4  32.7  315  22 11   8.7   4.8 |   0.4  32.7  310  25 13   7.5   4.1
  8500   1.1  34.0  315  21 11  10.1   5.5 |   0.9  33.6  310  23 12   6.8   3.7
  8250   1.8  35.2  315  20 10   8.1   4.5 |   1.4  34.5  310  21 11   6.5   3.6
  8000   2.3  36.1  315  18  9   4.9   2.7 |   1.8  35.2  305  19 10   5.0   2.7
  7750   2.6  36.7  315  15  8   5.9   3.3 |   2.2  36.0  305  17  9   6.2   3.4
  7500   3.1  37.6  320  13  7   8.1   4.4 |   2.8  37.0  305  14  7   9.5   5.2
  7250   3.5  38.3  320  11  5  -0.2  -0.1 |   3.1  37.6  305  12  6  -8.8  -4.8
  7000   2.8  37.0  320   8  4 -13.8  -7.6 |   1.1  34.0  305   9  5 -40.9 -22.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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