Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 281132
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0432 MST Monday, November 28, 2016

This forecast is for Monday, November 28, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 34.9 F/1.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 152 ft/min (0.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 13409 ft MSL (6238 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 38.0 F/3.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1045 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9851 ft MSL (2680 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 11/29...... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks... Quite a bit of middle to high cloudiness expected today and tomorrow.

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:56:20 / 16:38:02 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 41 min 43 sec (581 min 43 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:47:19 MST... 29.63 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/28/2016 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 14463 ft MSL (7292 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14363 ft MSL (7192 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -0.2
K index......................... +7.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -52.9 -63.2   270   30   16   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -50.3 -58.5   270   39   20   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -47.5 -53.5   275   35   18   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.5 -51.7   280   32   17   1.0   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -46.7 -52.1   285   31   16  -0.4  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -46.9 -52.4   295   31   16  -0.4  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -48.1 -54.6   300   30   15  -3.7  -2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -50.3 -58.5   305   27   14  -3.7  -2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -51.4 -60.5   305   26   13  -0.0  -0.0   16.3  61.4    10.0      M    M
 28000  -50.6 -59.1   300   22   11   2.8   1.5   13.4  56.1     7.8      M    M
 27000  -49.7 -57.5   290   18    9   2.8   1.5   10.7  51.3     5.8      M    M
 26000  -48.7 -55.7   280   14    7   5.1   2.8    7.6  45.6     3.4      M    M
 25000  -45.9 -50.6   270   14    7   9.6   5.3    7.3  45.1     3.2      M    M
 24000  -43.0 -45.4   265   14    7   9.6   5.3    7.2  45.0     3.2      M    M
 23000  -40.2 -40.4   265   14    7   9.4   5.2    7.3  45.1     3.2      M    M
 22000  -37.4 -35.3   265   14    7   9.1   5.0    6.9  44.5     3.0      M    M
 21000  -34.7 -30.5   270   15    8   9.1   5.0    6.7  44.1     2.8      M    M
 20000  -32.1 -25.8   270   15    8   8.3   4.5    6.5  43.6     2.6      M    M
 19500  -30.8 -23.4   275   14    7   8.4   4.6    6.2  43.1     2.4      M    M
 19000  -29.6 -21.3   280   13    7   8.4   4.6    5.9  42.7     2.2      M    M
 18500  -28.3 -18.9   285   12    6   8.4   4.6    5.7  42.3     2.0      M    M
 18000  -27.1 -16.8   290   11    6   8.3   4.6    5.5  41.9     1.8      M    M
 17500  -25.8 -14.4   300   11    6   8.9   4.9    5.3  41.6     1.7      M    M
 17000  -24.5 -12.1   310   10    5   8.9   4.9    5.2  41.3     1.6      M    M
 16500  -23.2  -9.8   325   11    6   8.3   4.6    5.0  41.0     1.4      M    M
 16000  -22.0  -7.6   335   12    6   8.0   4.4    4.7  40.5     1.1      M    M
 15500  -20.8  -5.4   340   14    7   8.0   4.4    4.4  40.0     0.9      M    M
 15000  -19.6  -3.3   345   16    8   8.2   4.5    4.2  39.5     0.6      M    M
 14500  -18.3  -0.9   345   18    9   8.2   4.5    3.9  39.0     0.4      M    M
 14000  -17.1   1.2   345   20   10   8.7   4.8    3.7  38.7     0.2      M    M
 13500  -15.8   3.6   345   22   11   8.7   4.8    3.5  38.4     0.0      M    M
 13000  -14.5   5.9   345   24   12   8.5   4.7    3.3  38.0    -0.1    517  2.6
 12500  -13.2   8.2   345   26   13   9.2   5.0    3.1  37.7    -0.3    464  2.4
 12000  -12.2  10.0   340   28   14   5.4   3.0    2.6  36.7    -0.8    420  2.1
 11750  -11.7  10.9   335   29   15   7.9   4.4    2.4  36.4    -1.0    396  2.0
 11500  -11.2  11.8   335   30   16   7.7   4.2    2.3  36.1    -1.2    373  1.9
 11250  -10.6  12.9   330   32   17   6.2   3.4    2.1  35.8    -1.4    349  1.8
 11000  -10.2  13.6   330   32   17   4.5   2.5    1.7  35.1    -1.8    331  1.7
 10750   -9.9  14.2   325   32   16   5.7   3.1    1.3  34.4    -2.1    312  1.6
 10500   -9.5  14.9   325   31   16   5.7   3.1    1.0  33.9    -2.4    292  1.5
 10250   -9.0  15.8   320   30   16   7.2   3.9    0.7  33.3    -2.8    272  1.4
 10000   -7.8  18.0   320   28   14   8.6   4.7    0.5  33.0    -3.0    220  1.1
  9750   -7.1  19.2   320   27   14   9.1   5.0    0.5  32.9    -3.1    193  1.0
  9500   -6.4  20.5   320   26   13   9.4   5.2    0.4  32.8    -3.1    165  0.8
  9250   -5.7  21.7   320   25   13   9.8   5.4    0.4  32.8    -3.1    136  0.7
  9000   -5.0  23.0   320   24   12   9.5   5.2    0.4  32.8    -3.2    107  0.5
  8750   -4.3  24.3   320   23   12   8.6   4.7    0.4  32.7    -3.2     79  0.4
  8500   -3.7  25.3   320   22   11   8.1   4.5    0.3  32.5    -3.3     53  0.3
  8250   -3.1  26.4   320   21   11   7.8   4.3    0.1  32.2    -3.5     28  0.1
  8000   -2.5  27.5   325   19   10   9.2   5.1    0.0  32.0    -3.6      2  0.0
  7750   -1.9  28.6   325   18    9   5.7   3.1   -0.1  31.9    -3.7      M    M
  7500   -1.8  28.8   325   13    7  -4.8  -2.6   -0.8  30.6    -4.4      M    M
  7250   -1.9  28.6   325    8    4  13.5   7.4   -1.5  29.2    -5.2      M    M
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/28/2016 at 0800 MST          |       11/28/2016 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +6.5  LI... +1.6                | K index... +5.5  LI... +1.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.4                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -52.3 -62.1  275  31 16   1.2   0.6 | -53.0 -63.4  285  30 15   1.1   0.6
 45000 -50.6 -59.1  280  39 20   1.2   0.6 | -51.4 -60.5  290  43 22   1.1   0.6
 40000 -47.6 -53.7  285  40 21   2.1   1.1 | -47.7 -53.9  295  41 21   2.6   1.5
 38000 -46.4 -51.5  290  40 20   1.2   0.6 | -46.1 -51.0  295  39 20   1.6   0.9
 36000 -46.6 -51.9  295  36 19  -0.5  -0.2 | -46.4 -51.5  295  41 21  -0.6  -0.3
 34000 -46.9 -52.4  300  33 17  -0.5  -0.3 | -46.7 -52.1  295  43 22  -0.6  -0.3
 32000 -48.0 -54.4  305  32 17  -3.1  -1.7 | -47.9 -54.2  290  45 23  -3.5  -1.9
 30000 -49.8 -57.6  310  34 17  -3.1  -1.7 | -50.0 -58.0  290  47 24  -3.4  -1.9
 29000 -50.8 -59.4  310  35 18   0.4   0.2 | -51.0 -59.8  295  48 25   0.3   0.2
 28000 -49.8 -57.6  305  33 17   3.3   1.8 | -49.4 -56.9  295  44 23   4.4   2.4
 27000 -48.8 -55.8  300  32 17   3.3   1.8 | -48.1 -54.6  300  41 21   4.4   2.4
 26000 -47.8 -54.0  290  32 16   3.0   1.6 | -46.8 -52.2  300  38 20   5.1   2.8
 25000 -45.1 -49.2  290  29 15   8.4   4.6 | -44.5 -48.1  300  36 18   8.2   4.5
 24000 -42.6 -44.7  285  26 14   8.4   4.6 | -42.0 -43.6  295  33 17   8.2   4.5
 23000 -40.1 -40.2  285  24 12   8.5   4.7 | -39.5 -39.1  295  31 16   8.2   4.5
 22000 -37.5 -35.5  280  22 11   8.7   4.8 | -37.1 -34.8  285  31 16   8.1   4.4
 21000 -34.9 -30.8  270  20 10   8.7   4.8 | -34.7 -30.5  280  32 16   8.1   4.4
 20000 -32.3 -26.1  260  19 10   8.4   4.6 | -32.3 -26.1  270  33 17   8.3   4.5
 19500 -31.0 -23.8  255  18  9   8.5   4.6 | -31.1 -24.0  270  31 16   8.3   4.6
 19000 -29.8 -21.6  255  17  9   8.5   4.6 | -29.8 -21.6  265  29 15   8.3   4.6
 18500 -28.5 -19.3  250  16  8   8.5   4.7 | -28.6 -19.5  265  27 14   8.3   4.6
 18000 -27.2 -17.0  245  15  8   8.6   4.7 | -27.3 -17.1  260  25 13   8.3   4.6
 17500 -26.0 -14.8  240  14  7   7.6   4.2 | -26.1 -15.0  255  23 12   8.3   4.6
 17000 -24.9 -12.8  235  12  6   7.6   4.2 | -24.8 -12.6  260  19 10   8.3   4.6
 16500 -23.8 -10.8  230  11  6   7.9   4.3 | -23.6 -10.5  265  16  8   8.3   4.6
 16000 -22.6  -8.7  230   9  5   8.1   4.4 | -22.4  -8.3  265  14  7   8.3   4.5
 15500 -21.4  -6.5  230   8  4   8.2   4.5 | -21.1  -6.0  270  12  6   8.3   4.5
 15000 -20.1  -4.2  240   6  3   8.7   4.8 | -19.8  -3.6  275  11  6   8.9   4.9
 14500 -18.8  -1.8  250   5  2   8.7   4.8 | -18.5  -1.3  285  10  5   8.9   4.9
 14000 -17.4   0.7  280   4  2   9.5   5.2 | -16.6   2.1  300  12  6   8.6   4.7
 13500 -16.0   3.2  300   6  3   9.6   5.3 | -15.3   4.5  310  15  8   8.3   4.5
 13000 -14.7   5.5  310   9  4   8.1   4.4 | -14.2   6.4  310  19 10   6.8   3.7
 12500 -13.5   7.7  315  13  7   8.8   4.8 | -13.2   8.2  310  23 12   5.9   3.2
 12000 -12.6   9.3  315  18  9   4.7   2.6 | -12.4   9.7  305  24 12   5.3   2.9
 11750 -12.1  10.2  315  21 11   7.0   3.9 | -12.1  10.2  305  23 12   5.3   2.9
 11500 -11.6  11.1  310  24 12   6.8   3.7 | -11.7  10.9  305  23 12   5.3   2.9
 11250 -11.1  12.0  310  27 14   5.7   3.1 | -11.3  11.7  300  22 11   5.0   2.8
 11000 -10.8  12.6  310  28 14   4.6   2.5 | -10.9  12.4  300  20 10   7.6   4.1
 10750 -10.4  13.3  310  27 14   6.5   3.6 | -10.2  13.6  295  18  9   9.6   5.2
 10500  -9.9  14.2  305  26 14   7.4   4.1 |  -9.6  14.7  295  15  8   9.2   5.0
 10250  -9.3  15.3  305  25 13   7.5   4.1 |  -8.9  16.0  295  14  7   9.6   5.3
 10000  -8.1  17.4  305  23 12   8.2   4.5 |  -8.1  17.4  295  14  7   9.7   5.3
  9750  -7.5  18.5  300  22 11   8.4   4.6 |  -7.4  18.7  295  13  7   9.8   5.4
  9500  -6.9  19.6  300  20 10   8.3   4.6 |  -6.7  19.9  295  13  7   9.9   5.4
  9250  -6.3  20.7  300  19 10   8.3   4.5 |  -5.9  21.4  295  13  6  10.0   5.5
  9000  -5.7  21.7  300  17  9   8.3   4.5 |  -5.2  22.6  295  12  6  10.0   5.5
  8750  -5.1  22.8  295  16  8   8.0   4.4 |  -4.4  24.1  295  12  6  10.0   5.5
  8500  -4.5  23.9  295  14  7   7.5   4.1 |  -3.7  25.3  295  12  6  10.2   5.6
  8250  -3.9  25.0  295  13  7   7.1   3.9 |  -2.9  26.8  295  12  6  10.5   5.8
  8000  -3.4  25.9  290  12  6   8.0   4.4 |  -2.1  28.2  295  11  6   9.9   5.4
  7750  -2.8  27.0  290  10  5   5.6   3.1 |  -1.4  29.5  290  11  6  12.0   6.6
  7500  -2.7  27.1  285   7  4  -1.1  -0.6 |  -0.4  31.3  290  11  5  11.7   6.4
  7250  -2.6  27.3  270   4  2   9.0   4.9 |   0.3  32.5  290  10  5   8.8   4.8
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |   1.0  33.8  290   9  5  11.1   6.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/28/2016 at 1400 MST          |       11/28/2016 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +9.7  LI... +1.2                | K index... +16.2  LI... +0.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.8                   | CAPE... +15.8  CIN... -0.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -53.5 -64.3  285  31 16   1.2   0.7 | -53.5 -64.3  295  33 17   2.0   1.1
 45000 -51.6 -60.9  290  43 22   1.2   0.7 | -50.5 -58.9  290  42 22   2.0   1.1
 40000 -46.0 -50.8  295  40 21   4.1   2.3 | -45.4 -49.7  290  39 20   3.5   1.9
 38000 -43.5 -46.3  295  37 19   1.9   1.1 | -43.3 -45.9  290  36 19   1.9   1.0
 36000 -44.7 -48.5  290  44 23  -2.2  -1.2 | -44.2 -47.6  285  40 21  -1.8  -1.0
 34000 -46.0 -50.8  285  52 27  -2.2  -1.2 | -45.3 -49.5  280  45 23  -1.8  -1.0
 32000 -47.7 -53.9  285  54 28  -3.4  -1.8 | -46.9 -52.4  275  47 24  -3.9  -2.1
 30000 -49.7 -57.5  280  51 26  -3.4  -1.8 | -49.3 -56.7  275  44 23  -3.9  -2.1
 29000 -50.7 -59.3  280  50 26  -0.5  -0.3 | -50.3 -58.5  270  42 22   3.1   1.7
 28000 -49.4 -56.9  280  44 23   3.7   2.0 | -49.3 -56.7  275  39 20   3.4   1.9
 27000 -48.3 -54.9  280  40 20   3.7   2.0 | -48.3 -54.9  275  36 18   3.4   1.9
 26000 -47.2 -53.0  275  35 18   4.4   2.4 | -47.3 -53.1  280  33 17   3.7   2.0
 25000 -44.6 -48.3  275  35 18   9.5   5.2 | -45.0 -49.0  280  33 17   8.7   4.8
 24000 -41.8 -43.2  275  36 19   9.4   5.2 | -42.4 -44.3  280  33 17   8.6   4.7
 23000 -39.0 -38.2  280  37 19   9.3   5.1 | -39.8 -39.6  280  34 17   8.7   4.8
 22000 -36.4 -33.5  275  34 18   8.4   4.6 | -37.0 -34.6  285  31 16   9.5   5.2
 21000 -33.9 -29.0  275  31 16   8.5   4.6 | -34.2 -29.6  285  28 14   9.5   5.2
 20000 -31.4 -24.5  275  28 14   7.4   4.0 | -31.4 -24.5  290  25 13   7.3   4.0
 19500 -30.4 -22.7  275  26 13   7.1   3.9 | -30.5 -22.9  295  24 13   6.6   3.6
 19000 -29.3 -20.7  275  24 13   7.0   3.9 | -29.5 -21.1  300  24 12   6.5   3.6
 18500 -28.3 -18.9  275  23 12   7.0   3.9 | -28.5 -19.3  300  24 12   6.5   3.6
 18000 -27.2 -17.0  275  21 11   7.0   3.9 | -27.6 -17.7  305  24 12   6.6   3.6
 17500 -26.2 -15.2  280  19 10   7.4   4.1 | -26.6 -15.9  310  24 12   6.2   3.4
 17000 -25.0 -13.0  285  20 10   7.5   4.1 | -25.7 -14.3  310  24 12   6.1   3.4
 16500 -23.9 -11.0  290  20 10   7.3   4.0 | -24.8 -12.6  310  24 12   6.5   3.6
 16000 -22.9  -9.2  295  20 11   6.5   3.6 | -23.7 -10.7  310  24 12   7.8   4.3
 15500 -21.9  -7.4  295  21 11   6.4   3.5 | -22.6  -8.7  305  23 12   7.7   4.2
 15000 -20.9  -5.6  295  22 12   8.0   4.4 | -21.4  -6.5  305  22 12   8.5   4.7
 14500 -19.7  -3.5  295  24 12   7.9   4.3 | -19.5  -3.1  300  21 11   8.6   4.7
 14000 -18.0  -0.4  295  23 12   7.7   4.2 | -18.2  -0.8  300  18  9   9.0   5.0
 13500 -16.9   1.6  295  20 10   7.8   4.3 | -16.9   1.6  295  15  8   9.1   5.0
 13000 -15.6   3.9  290  17  8   9.0   5.0 | -15.5   4.1  295  13  7   9.2   5.0
 12500 -14.2   6.4  290  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -14.1   6.6  300  12  6   7.1   3.9
 12000 -13.0   8.6  290  12  6  11.5   6.3 | -12.9   8.8  300  11  6  11.3   6.2
 11750 -12.2  10.0  290  12  6  10.6   5.8 | -12.1  10.2  300  11  6  10.4   5.7
 11500 -11.4  11.5  290  12  6  10.7   5.9 | -11.3  11.7  300  11  6  10.5   5.7
 11250 -10.6  12.9  290  12  6   9.2   5.1 | -10.5  13.1  300  11  5   9.2   5.1
 11000 -10.0  14.0  290  12  6   9.3   5.1 |  -9.9  14.2  300  10  5   9.7   5.3
 10750  -9.2  15.4  290  12  6  10.3   5.6 |  -9.1  15.6  300  10  5  10.7   5.9
 10500  -8.5  16.7  290  12  6  10.0   5.5 |  -8.3  17.1  300  10  5  10.3   5.6
 10250  -7.7  18.1  290  11  6  10.3   5.7 |  -7.5  18.5  300  10  5   9.9   5.4
 10000  -6.9  19.6  290  11  6  10.1   5.5 |  -6.8  19.8  300   9  5   9.5   5.2
  9750  -6.2  20.8  290  11  6   9.4   5.2 |  -6.1  21.0  300   9  5   9.3   5.1
  9500  -5.5  22.1  290  11  6   9.6   5.3 |  -5.4  22.3  300   9  4   9.4   5.1
  9250  -4.7  23.5  290  11  6  10.3   5.6 |  -4.7  23.5  300   8  4   9.7   5.3
  9000  -4.0  24.8  290  11  6  10.5   5.7 |  -4.0  24.8  305   8  4   9.7   5.3
  8750  -3.2  26.2  290  11  6   9.9   5.4 |  -3.3  26.1  305   7  4   9.7   5.3
  8500  -2.5  27.5  290  11  5   9.7   5.3 |  -2.5  27.5  310   7  3   9.3   5.1
  8250  -1.7  28.9  290  10  5  10.2   5.6 |  -1.9  28.6  310   6  3   8.6   4.7
  8000  -1.0  30.2  290  10  5   9.8   5.4 |  -1.2  29.8  315   6  3   9.9   5.5
  7750  -0.2  31.6  290  10  5  11.0   6.1 |  -0.5  31.1  320   5  3   5.2   2.9
  7500   0.6  33.1  290  10  5   9.9   5.5 |  -0.4  31.3  330   5  3   0.0   0.0
  7250   1.2  34.2  290   9  5   7.5   4.1 |  -0.4  31.3  330   4  2   1.3   0.7
  7000   1.8  35.2  290   8  4   9.4   5.2 |  -0.3  31.5  335   3  2  -0.0  -0.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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