Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 231017
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0417 MDT Saturday, August 23, 2014

This forecast is for Saturday, August 23, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 68.5 F/20.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 704 ft/min (3.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 14695 ft MSL (7937 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 74.0 F/23.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1045 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10695 ft MSL (3937 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 08/24....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 31854 ft MSL (25096 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Sunday 08/24.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:19:46 / 19:43:58 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 24 min 12 sec (804 min 12 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:01:29 MDT... 62.31 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/23/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15077 ft MSL (8319 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 15017 ft MSL (8259 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14550 ft MSL (7792 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -0.7
K index......................... +21.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -63.6 -82.5   210   26   14   0.8   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -59.9 -75.8   205   41   21   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -50.5 -58.9   205   47   24   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.3 -51.3   205   47   24   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -42.0 -43.6   200   46   24   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -38.5 -37.3   210   39   20   5.6   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -35.1 -31.2   230   31   16   5.6   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -30.5 -22.9   240   28   14   7.4   4.0   39.3 102.8    12.4      M    M
 29000  -28.3 -18.9   240   27   14   7.4   4.0   38.5 101.2    11.9      M    M
 28000  -26.1 -15.0   245   25   13   7.4   4.1   37.7  99.9    11.4      M    M
 27000  -23.9 -11.0   245   25   13   7.5   4.1   36.7  98.1    10.8      M    M
 26000  -21.6  -6.9   245   24   12   7.5   4.1   35.9  96.6    10.2      M    M
 25000  -19.4  -2.9   245   24   12   7.6   4.2   35.2  95.3     9.7      M    M
 24000  -17.2   1.0   250   23   12   7.1   3.9   34.3  93.7     9.0      M    M
 23000  -15.1   4.8   250   22   11   7.1   3.9   33.3  91.9     8.2      M    M
 22000  -13.0   8.6   250   21   11   7.3   4.0   32.4  90.4     7.6      M    M
 21000  -11.2  11.8   250   20   10   6.1   3.3   31.2  88.2     6.6      M    M
 20000   -9.4  15.1   245   19   10   6.1   3.4   29.9  85.9     5.4      M    M
 19500   -8.6  16.5   245   19   10   6.2   3.4   29.3  84.8     4.9      M    M
 19000   -7.7  18.1   245   19   10   6.5   3.6   28.8  83.8     4.4      M    M
 18500   -6.7  19.9   245   18    9   6.8   3.7   28.3  82.9     3.9      M    M
 18000   -5.7  21.7   245   18    9   6.9   3.8   27.8  82.0     3.4      M    M
 17500   -4.8  23.4   245   17    9   5.9   3.3   27.2  81.0     2.9      M    M
 17000   -3.9  25.0   245   16    8   6.0   3.3   26.6  79.9     2.3      M    M
 16500   -3.1  26.4   245   16    8   6.4   3.5   26.0  78.8     1.8      M    M
 16000   -2.1  28.2   245   15    8   6.6   3.6   25.5  77.8     1.3      M    M
 15500   -1.1  30.0   250   15    8   6.7   3.7   25.0  76.9     0.8      M    M
 15000    0.4  32.7   255   14    7   7.1   3.9   24.3  75.7     0.1      M    M
 14500    1.5  34.7   260   14    7   7.2   3.9   23.9  74.9    -0.3    675  3.4
 14000    2.6  36.7   265   15    7   7.3   4.0   23.5  74.2    -0.6    628  3.2
 13500    3.7  38.7   270   16    8   7.4   4.1   23.1  73.5    -1.0    580  2.9
 13000    4.8  40.6   275   17    9   8.3   4.6   22.8  73.1    -1.3    529  2.7
 12500    6.1  43.0   275   18    9   6.1   3.4   22.6  72.7    -1.5    477  2.4
 12000    7.0  44.6   280   19   10   8.3   4.5   22.0  71.7    -2.0    435  2.2
 11750    7.6  45.7   280   19   10   7.5   4.1   21.9  71.4    -2.2    411  2.1
 11500    8.1  46.6   280   20   10   7.9   4.3   21.7  71.1    -2.4    387  2.0
 11250    8.7  47.7   280   20   10   7.2   4.0   21.6  70.8    -2.6    362  1.8
 11000    9.2  48.6   280   20   10   7.2   4.0   21.3  70.4    -2.8    340  1.7
 10750    9.7  49.5   280   19   10   7.7   4.2   21.2  70.1    -3.0    317  1.6
 10500   10.3  50.5   280   19   10   8.2   4.5   21.0  69.8    -3.2    293  1.5
 10250   10.8  51.4   280   19   10   5.7   3.1   20.9  69.6    -3.4    269  1.4
 10000   11.1  52.0   275   18    9   6.0   3.3   20.5  68.9    -3.8    252  1.3
  9750   11.7  53.1   275   17    9   8.6   4.7   20.3  68.6    -4.0    228  1.2
  9500   12.3  54.1   275   16    8   8.3   4.6   20.2  68.4    -4.2    204  1.0
  9250   12.8  55.0   275   16    8   7.1   3.9   20.1  68.2    -4.3    179  0.9
  9000   13.2  55.8   275   15    8   5.5   3.0   19.8  67.7    -4.6    159  0.8
  8750   13.6  56.5   275   16    8   5.5   3.0   19.5  67.1    -5.0    140  0.7
  8500   14.0  57.2   275   16    8   5.2   2.9   19.2  66.5    -5.4    123  0.6
  8250   14.2  57.6   275   16    8   1.0   0.5   18.7  65.7    -5.9    108  0.6
  8000   14.0  57.2   270   15    8  -3.9  -2.2   17.8  64.1    -6.8    107  0.5
  7750   13.8  56.8   265   14    7   1.9   1.1   16.9  62.4    -7.8    105  0.5
  7500   14.0  57.2   260   12    6   0.3   0.2   16.4  61.6    -8.3     91  0.5
  7250   13.5  56.3   260    9    5 -14.7  -8.1   15.4  59.7    -9.4    101  0.5
  7000   12.0  53.6   260    7    4 -21.4 -11.8   13.7  56.7   -11.1    138  0.7
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/23/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/23/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +20.9  LI... +0.8               | K index... +25.5  LI... -1.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... +140.0  CIN... -12.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.7 -80.9  200  25 13   1.0   0.6 | -62.2 -80.0  210  28 15   1.0   0.6
 45000 -59.3 -74.7  200  40 21   5.0   2.7 | -59.1 -74.4  220  35 18   4.3   2.4
 40000 -51.7 -61.1  205  46 24   6.2   3.4 | -52.4 -62.3  235  29 15   6.1   3.3
 38000 -48.1 -54.6  215  42 22   6.1   3.4 | -48.8 -55.8  240  35 18   6.0   3.3
 36000 -44.4 -47.9  225  40 21   6.1   3.4 | -45.2 -49.4  245  42 21   6.0   3.3
 34000 -40.3 -40.5  235  38 19   7.0   3.9 | -40.6 -41.1  250  42 22   8.3   4.5
 32000 -36.1 -33.0  245  35 18   7.0   3.9 | -35.6 -32.1  255  41 21   8.3   4.5
 30000 -31.0 -23.8  245  34 17   7.8   4.3 | -30.1 -22.2  265  41 21   8.0   4.4
 29000 -28.6 -19.5  245  33 17   7.8   4.3 | -27.7 -17.9  265  42 22   8.0   4.4
 28000 -26.3 -15.3  240  33 17   7.8   4.3 | -25.3 -13.5  270  43 22   7.7   4.2
 27000 -24.0 -11.2  240  32 16   7.7   4.2 | -23.2  -9.8  265  41 21   7.1   3.9
 26000 -21.7  -7.1  240  31 16   7.7   4.2 | -21.0  -5.8  260  40 20   7.1   3.9
 25000 -19.4  -2.9  240  30 16   7.8   4.3 | -18.9  -2.0  255  39 20   7.2   3.9
 24000 -17.3   0.9  240  29 15   6.9   3.8 | -16.9   1.6  250  37 19   6.6   3.6
 23000 -15.2   4.6  240  28 14   6.9   3.8 | -14.9   5.2  250  36 18   6.6   3.6
 22000 -13.2   8.2  240  26 14   7.0   3.8 | -13.0   8.6  245  34 18   6.8   3.7
 21000 -11.3  11.7  240  25 13   6.4   3.5 | -11.2  11.8  245  32 16   6.1   3.3
 20000  -9.4  15.1  235  24 13   6.4   3.5 |  -9.4  15.1  245  29 15   6.1   3.4
 19500  -8.5  16.7  235  24 12   6.4   3.5 |  -8.5  16.7  240  28 14   6.1   3.4
 19000  -7.5  18.5  230  23 12   6.2   3.4 |  -7.7  18.1  240  27 14   5.0   2.8
 18500  -6.7  19.9  235  23 12   5.9   3.2 |  -7.1  19.2  235  26 13   4.1   2.2
 18000  -5.9  21.4  235  23 12   5.9   3.2 |  -6.6  20.1  230  26 13   3.7   2.0
 17500  -5.0  23.0  240  22 11   6.3   3.5 |  -5.8  21.6  225  25 13   7.4   4.1
 17000  -4.1  24.6  240  22 11   6.3   3.5 |  -4.8  23.4  220  24 12   7.1   3.9
 16500  -3.2  26.2  240  21 11   6.7   3.7 |  -3.8  25.2  215  23 12   8.2   4.5
 16000  -2.2  28.0  245  20 10   7.0   3.8 |  -2.5  27.5  220  22 11   8.9   4.9
 15500  -1.2  29.8  245  18  9   7.1   3.9 |  -1.1  30.0  220  22 11   8.9   4.9
 15000   0.4  32.7  255  17  9   7.6   4.2 |   0.7  33.3  230  21 11   8.1   4.5
 14500   1.5  34.7  260  16  8   7.7   4.2 |   1.9  35.4  235  22 11   7.3   4.0
 14000   2.7  36.9  265  16  8   7.8   4.3 |   2.7  36.9  245  22 11   6.1   3.4
 13500   3.8  38.8  270  17  9   7.9   4.3 |   3.5  38.3  255  22 11   6.1   3.4
 13000   5.0  41.0  275  18  9   8.2   4.5 |   4.3  39.7  255  20 10   5.8   3.2
 12500   6.2  43.2  280  20 10   6.0   3.3 |   5.0  41.0  260  17  9   9.1   5.0
 12000   7.0  44.6  280  21 11   7.2   3.9 |   6.5  43.7  260  14  7   8.3   4.6
 11750   7.4  45.3  285  21 11   6.6   3.6 |   7.2  45.0  255  14  7   9.3   5.1
 11500   7.9  46.2  285  21 11   6.6   3.6 |   7.8  46.0  255  13  7   8.4   4.6
 11250   8.4  47.1  285  21 11   7.1   3.9 |   8.4  47.1  255  12  6   8.5   4.7
 11000   8.9  48.0  285  22 11   6.8   3.7 |   9.1  48.4  250  12  6  10.2   5.6
 10750   9.4  48.9  285  23 12   6.0   3.3 |   9.9  49.8  250  12  6  10.6   5.8
 10500   9.8  49.6  285  23 12   6.2   3.4 |  10.7  51.3  250  11  6  11.1   6.1
 10250  10.2  50.4  285  24 12   6.2   3.4 |  11.5  52.7  250  11  6   8.6   4.7
 10000  10.7  51.3  285  24 12   7.0   3.8 |  12.1  53.8  250  11  6   8.6   4.7
  9750  11.2  52.2  285  24 12   7.4   4.1 |  12.8  55.0  250  11  5  11.2   6.1
  9500  11.8  53.2  285  24 12   7.6   4.1 |  13.6  56.5  250  10  5  10.7   5.9
  9250  12.3  54.1  285  24 12   6.3   3.5 |  14.4  57.9  250  10  5   9.9   5.4
  9000  12.7  54.9  285  23 12   5.4   2.9 |  15.1  59.2  245  10  5   9.2   5.0
  8750  13.1  55.6  285  22 11   6.5   3.5 |  15.8  60.4  245  10  5  10.3   5.7
  8500  13.6  56.5  285  21 11   6.8   3.7 |  16.6  61.9  245  10  5  10.7   5.9
  8250  14.1  57.4  285  20 10   6.9   3.8 |  17.4  63.3  245   9  5  10.6   5.8
  8000  14.6  58.3  285  17  9   6.9   3.8 |  18.2  64.8  245   9  5  10.9   6.0
  7750  15.1  59.2  280  15  8   7.3   4.0 |  19.0  66.2  240   9  4   9.8   5.4
  7500  15.7  60.3  280  13  6   8.3   4.5 |  19.7  67.5  240   8  4  10.2   5.6
  7250  16.3  61.3  275  11  6   9.1   5.0 |  20.5  68.9  240   8  4  13.8   7.5
  7000  17.0  62.6  275  10  5   9.6   5.3 |  21.6  70.9  240   8  4  15.7   8.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/23/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/23/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +30.0  LI... -2.5               | K index... +30.0  LI... -2.0
CAPE... +257.7  CIN... -1.4                | CAPE... +305.7  CIN... -8.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -61.8 -79.2  215  30 16   1.6   0.9 | -62.2 -80.0  220  30 16   0.7   0.4
 45000 -59.0 -74.2  220  39 20   2.2   1.2 | -59.8 -75.6  220  41 21   4.4   2.4
 40000 -55.0 -67.0  240  36 18   8.4   4.6 | -52.7 -62.9  230  41 21   5.9   3.3
 38000 -50.0 -58.0  240  42 22   8.3   4.6 | -49.2 -56.6  235  50 26   5.9   3.2
 36000 -45.1 -49.2  245  48 25   8.3   4.6 | -45.7 -50.3  240  60 31   5.9   3.2
 34000 -40.3 -40.5  245  49 25   7.8   4.3 | -41.4 -42.5  245  58 30   7.6   4.2
 32000 -35.7 -32.3  245  49 25   7.8   4.3 | -36.8 -34.2  250  53 27   7.6   4.2
 30000 -30.3 -22.5  245  49 25   8.0   4.4 | -32.1 -25.8  250  50 26   8.0   4.4
 29000 -27.9 -18.2  250  49 25   8.0   4.4 | -29.1 -20.4  250  48 25   8.0   4.4
 28000 -25.5 -13.9  250  49 25   8.1   4.4 | -26.7 -16.1  255  47 24   8.4   4.6
 27000 -23.1  -9.6  255  47 24   8.1   4.5 | -24.1 -11.4  255  45 23   8.7   4.8
 26000 -20.7  -5.3  255  46 24   8.2   4.5 | -21.5  -6.7  250  44 22   8.7   4.8
 25000 -18.2  -0.8  260  45 23   8.4   4.6 | -18.9  -2.0  250  42 22   9.0   4.9
 24000 -16.2   2.8  255  44 23   6.1   3.3 | -16.7   1.9  250  40 21   6.5   3.6
 23000 -14.4   6.1  255  43 22   6.1   3.3 | -14.8   5.4  250  39 20   6.5   3.6
 22000 -12.6   9.3  250  42 22   6.2   3.4 | -12.9   8.8  250  37 19   6.6   3.6
 21000 -11.0  12.2  250  39 20   5.0   2.7 | -11.1  12.0  250  35 18   5.9   3.2
 20000  -9.6  14.7  250  35 18   5.2   2.9 |  -9.5  14.9  255  32 17   6.1   3.3
 19500  -8.9  16.0  250  33 17   5.4   2.9 |  -8.6  16.5  255  31 16   6.2   3.4
 19000  -8.2  17.2  250  31 16   5.1   2.8 |  -7.8  18.0  260  29 15   6.1   3.3
 18500  -7.6  18.3  250  29 15   4.9   2.7 |  -6.9  19.6  260  28 14   5.9   3.2
 18000  -6.9  19.6  250  28 14   4.9   2.7 |  -6.1  21.0  260  27 14   6.0   3.3
 17500  -6.0  21.2  250  26 14   8.6   4.7 |  -5.3  22.5  260  26 13   5.7   3.1
 17000  -4.9  23.2  255  25 13   8.3   4.5 |  -4.5  23.9  265  25 13   5.7   3.2
 16500  -3.7  25.3  260  23 12   8.4   4.6 |  -3.7  25.3  270  24 13   8.2   4.5
 16000  -2.5  27.5  260  22 12   8.5   4.7 |  -2.3  27.9  265  23 12   9.5   5.2
 15500  -1.3  29.7  260  21 11   8.5   4.7 |  -0.9  30.4  265  21 11   9.4   5.2
 15000  -0.1  31.8  260  20 10   8.4   4.6 |   0.3  32.5  265  20 10   8.3   4.6
 14500   1.7  35.1  255  16  8   8.8   4.9 |   2.1  35.8  265  18  9   8.9   4.9
 14000   3.1  37.6  255  16  8   9.3   5.1 |   3.5  38.3  260  17  9   9.4   5.2
 13500   4.5  40.1  255  15  8   9.4   5.1 |   4.9  40.8  260  16  8   9.5   5.2
 13000   5.9  42.6  250  15  8   9.6   5.2 |   6.4  43.5  260  16  8   9.7   5.3
 12500   7.4  45.3  245  14  7  10.3   5.6 |   7.8  46.0  255  16  8  10.1   5.6
 12000   8.8  47.8  240  14  7   9.0   4.9 |   9.3  48.7  255  16  8   9.3   5.1
 11750   9.5  49.1  240  14  7   8.8   4.8 |  10.0  50.0  255  15  8   9.1   5.0
 11500  10.2  50.4  240  14  7  10.5   5.8 |  10.7  51.3  255  15  8  10.3   5.7
 11250  11.0  51.8  235  14  7  11.1   6.1 |  11.5  52.7  255  15  8  10.4   5.7
 11000  11.8  53.2  235  13  7   9.6   5.3 |  12.2  54.0  255  15  8   9.3   5.1
 10750  12.5  54.5  235  13  7   9.9   5.4 |  12.9  55.2  250  15  8   9.5   5.2
 10500  13.2  55.8  235  13  7  10.2   5.6 |  13.6  56.5  250  15  8   9.9   5.4
 10250  14.0  57.2  235  13  7   8.7   4.8 |  14.3  57.7  250  14  7   8.3   4.6
 10000  14.6  58.3  230  13  7   9.1   5.0 |  14.9  58.8  245  14  7   8.7   4.8
  9750  15.4  59.7  230  13  7  10.9   6.0 |  15.6  60.1  245  14  7  10.6   5.8
  9500  16.2  61.2  230  13  7  10.6   5.8 |  16.4  61.5  240  14  7  10.2   5.6
  9250  16.9  62.4  230  13  7   9.8   5.4 |  17.1  62.8  240  13  7  10.0   5.5
  9000  17.6  63.7  225  13  7   9.1   5.0 |  17.9  64.2  240  13  7   9.8   5.4
  8750  18.4  65.1  225  13  6  10.3   5.7 |  18.6  65.5  235  13  7  10.2   5.6
  8500  19.1  66.4  225  12  6  10.5   5.8 |  19.4  66.9  235  13  7  10.4   5.7
  8250  19.9  67.8  225  12  6  10.5   5.8 |  20.1  68.2  235  13  6   9.7   5.3
  8000  20.7  69.3  225  12  6  11.0   6.1 |  20.8  69.4  235  12  6   9.2   5.0
  7750  21.5  70.7  225  12  6   9.6   5.3 |  21.5  70.7  230  12  6   9.3   5.1
  7500  22.1  71.8  220  11  6   8.8   4.8 |  22.2  72.0  230  11  6   9.1   5.0
  7250  22.9  73.2  220  11  6  12.1   6.6 |  22.8  73.0  230  11  5   7.9   4.4
  7000  23.9  75.0  220  11  6  14.7   8.1 |  23.3  73.9  230  10  5   6.5   3.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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