Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 281124
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0424 MST Friday, November 28, 2014

This forecast is for Friday, November 28, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 62.4 F/16.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 430 ft/min (2.2 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 12846 ft MSL (6088 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 65.0 F/18.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1245 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast thin high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9144 ft MSL (2386 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 11/29..... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 39770 ft MSL (33012 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 11/29........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:55:49 / 16:38:13 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 42 min 23 sec (582 min 23 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:47:09 MST... 29.72 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/28/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 13366 ft MSL (6608 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 21647 ft MSL (14889 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 19036 ft MSL (12278 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +4.1
K index......................... -1.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -68.8 -91.8   295   39   20   2.8   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -64.5 -84.1   300   65   33   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -61.9 -79.4   315   90   46   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -58.4 -73.1   310   86   44   7.2   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -54.1 -65.4   310   78   40   7.2   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -49.6 -57.3   305   71   37   7.7   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -44.4 -47.9   305   63   33   7.7   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -39.6 -39.3   300   56   29   8.3   4.6   29.7  85.4     8.7      M    M
 29000  -37.1 -34.8   300   52   27   8.3   4.6   29.1  84.3     8.3      M    M
 28000  -34.6 -30.3   300   48   25   8.3   4.6   28.6  83.5     8.1      M    M
 27000  -32.1 -25.8   300   46   24   8.2   4.5   28.1  82.5     7.7      M    M
 26000  -29.7 -21.5   300   44   23   8.2   4.5   27.4  81.4     7.3      M    M
 25000  -27.2 -17.0   300   43   22   8.2   4.5   26.9  80.5     7.0      M    M
 24000  -24.8 -12.6   305   42   22   7.8   4.3   26.4  79.5     6.6      M    M
 23000  -22.4  -8.3   305   42   22   7.8   4.3   25.6  78.1     6.0      M    M
 22000  -20.1  -4.2   305   42   21   7.8   4.3   25.0  76.9     5.5      M    M
 21000  -17.8  -0.0   305   42   21   7.7   4.2   24.3  75.7     5.0      M    M
 20000  -15.5   4.1   305   42   22   7.7   4.2   23.5  74.4     4.4      M    M
 19500  -14.3   6.3   305   42   22   7.7   4.2   23.2  73.7     4.1      M    M
 19000  -13.2   8.2   305   42   22   7.7   4.2   22.9  73.2     3.9      M    M
 18500  -12.0  10.4   300   42   22   7.9   4.3   22.6  72.6     3.6      M    M
 18000  -10.8  12.6   300   42   22   7.9   4.3   22.2  72.0     3.3      M    M
 17500   -9.7  14.5   300   42   22   7.7   4.2   21.9  71.5     3.1      M    M
 17000   -8.5  16.7   300   42   22   7.6   4.2   21.6  70.8     2.7      M    M
 16500   -7.4  18.7   300   42   22   7.5   4.1   21.2  70.2     2.4      M    M
 16000   -6.3  20.7   300   42   22   7.4   4.1   20.8  69.5     2.1      M    M
 15500   -4.6  23.7   300   41   21   7.5   4.1   20.3  68.5     1.5      M    M
 15000   -3.5  25.7   300   40   21   7.5   4.1   19.9  67.8     1.2      M    M
 14500   -2.4  27.7   300   39   20   7.5   4.1   19.5  67.1     0.9      M    M
 14000   -1.3  29.7   300   37   19   7.6   4.2   19.2  66.5     0.5      M    M
 13500   -0.1  31.8   300   35   18   7.5   4.1   18.8  65.9     0.2      M    M
 13000    1.1  34.0   300   34   18   8.8   4.8   18.6  65.5     0.0      M    M
 12500    2.4  36.3   300   35   18   7.7   4.2   18.4  65.2    -0.1    483  2.5
 12000    3.5  38.3   305   32   16   7.6   4.2   18.0  64.4    -0.6    437  2.2
 11750    4.1  39.4   305   33   17   7.8   4.3   17.8  64.1    -0.7    413  2.1
 11500    4.6  40.3   300   34   17   7.9   4.3   17.7  63.8    -0.9    388  2.0
 11250    5.2  41.4   300   35   18   7.3   4.0   17.5  63.5    -1.0    363  1.8
 11000    5.7  42.3   300   34   18   6.7   3.7   17.3  63.1    -1.2    340  1.7
 10750    6.3  43.3   300   34   18   7.0   3.8   17.1  62.7    -1.5    317  1.6
 10500    6.8  44.2   300   35   18   7.0   3.8   16.8  62.3    -1.7    294  1.5
 10250    7.3  45.1   300   35   18   6.7   3.7   16.6  61.9    -1.9    272  1.4
 10000    7.8  46.0   300   34   18   6.5   3.6   16.4  61.5    -2.2    250  1.3
  9750    8.2  46.8   295   33   17   6.7   3.7   16.1  61.0    -2.4    228  1.2
  9500    8.7  47.7   295   31   16   6.9   3.8   15.9  60.6    -2.7    206  1.0
  9250    9.2  48.6   295   30   15   6.3   3.5   15.7  60.2    -2.9    184  0.9
  9000    9.7  49.5   295   28   14   5.6   3.1   15.4  59.7    -3.2    164  0.8
  8750   10.1  50.2   295   26   13   5.1   2.8   15.0  59.1    -3.6    144  0.7
  8500   10.4  50.7   290   24   12   4.8   2.6   14.7  58.4    -4.0    127  0.6
  8250   10.6  51.1   290   21   11  -1.8  -1.0   14.1  57.4    -4.5    114  0.6
  8000   10.0  50.0   285   19   10  -9.6  -5.3   12.9  55.2    -5.8    123  0.6
  7750    9.5  49.1   280   17    9   0.1   0.1   11.6  53.0    -7.1    131  0.7
  7500    9.6  49.3   275   14    7  -6.7  -3.7   11.0  51.8    -7.7    121  0.6
  7250    7.9  46.2   275   12    6 -35.7 -19.6    8.9  48.0    -9.9    164  0.8
  7000    4.7  40.5   275   10    5 -44.5 -24.4    5.4  41.8   -13.4    254  1.3
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/28/2014 at 0800 MST          |       11/28/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -20.2  LI... +3.3               | K index... -17.3  LI... +3.7
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -68.4 -91.1  300  35 18   1.5   0.8 | -67.8 -90.0  290  38 20  -0.4  -0.2
 45000 -66.0 -86.8  300  62 32   2.9   1.6 | -67.8 -90.0  295  75 38   4.6   2.5
 40000 -61.6 -78.9  310  87 45   2.8   1.6 | -61.3 -78.3  300  86 44   4.3   2.4
 38000 -57.9 -72.2  310  85 44   7.2   4.0 | -57.3 -71.1  300  83 43   7.2   3.9
 36000 -53.5 -64.3  305  79 41   7.2   4.0 | -53.0 -63.4  300  78 40   7.2   3.9
 34000 -49.1 -56.4  305  73 38   7.4   4.1 | -48.0 -54.4  300  71 36   7.5   4.1
 32000 -44.1 -47.4  305  67 34   7.4   4.1 | -43.5 -46.3  300  63 32   7.5   4.1
 30000 -39.3 -38.7  300  57 29   8.4   4.6 | -38.7 -37.7  295  53 27   8.5   4.6
 29000 -36.8 -34.2  300  51 26   8.4   4.6 | -36.1 -33.0  290  48 25   8.5   4.7
 28000 -34.3 -29.7  295  45 23   8.4   4.6 | -33.6 -28.5  290  42 22   8.5   4.7
 27000 -31.8 -25.2  295  40 21   8.6   4.7 | -31.0 -23.8  290  40 21   8.7   4.8
 26000 -29.2 -20.6  295  38 20   8.6   4.7 | -28.4 -19.1  290  41 21   8.7   4.8
 25000 -26.6 -15.9  295  36 19   8.6   4.7 | -25.8 -14.4  290  42 22   8.7   4.8
 24000 -24.1 -11.4  300  36 18   8.3   4.6 | -23.2  -9.8  290  42 22   8.0   4.4
 23000 -21.5  -6.7  300  38 20   8.4   4.6 | -20.8  -5.4  290  43 22   8.0   4.4
 22000 -19.0  -2.2  300  41 21   8.3   4.6 | -18.4  -1.1  290  43 22   8.0   4.4
 21000 -16.6   2.1  300  42 22   7.8   4.3 | -16.0   3.2  290  44 23   7.6   4.2
 20000 -14.3   6.3  300  42 22   7.8   4.3 | -13.7   7.3  290  45 23   7.6   4.2
 19500 -13.1   8.4  300  43 22   7.8   4.3 | -12.6   9.3  290  45 23   7.6   4.2
 19000 -11.9  10.6  295  43 22   7.8   4.3 | -11.4  11.5  290  45 23   7.6   4.2
 18500 -10.8  12.6  295  42 22   7.7   4.2 | -10.3  13.5  290  45 23   7.7   4.2
 18000  -9.6  14.7  295  42 21   7.7   4.2 |  -9.1  15.6  290  45 23   7.7   4.2
 17500  -8.4  16.9  295  41 21   7.9   4.3 |  -8.0  17.6  290  45 23   7.5   4.1
 17000  -7.2  19.0  300  42 21   8.0   4.4 |  -6.9  19.6  290  44 23   7.4   4.1
 16500  -6.0  21.2  300  42 22   7.9   4.3 |  -5.8  21.6  290  44 22   7.4   4.1
 16000  -4.9  23.2  300  42 22   7.2   4.0 |  -4.2  24.4  290  42 21   7.0   3.8
 15500  -3.3  26.1  300  43 22   7.2   3.9 |  -3.1  26.4  290  40 21   6.9   3.8
 15000  -2.2  28.0  300  42 22   7.0   3.8 |  -2.2  28.0  290  38 19   6.4   3.5
 14500  -1.2  29.8  300  42 22   7.0   3.8 |  -1.2  29.8  290  35 18   6.5   3.5
 14000  -0.2  31.6  300  42 22   7.1   3.9 |  -0.2  31.6  295  34 17   7.1   3.9
 13500   0.9  33.6  300  42 22   7.1   3.9 |   0.8  33.4  295  33 17   7.0   3.8
 13000   2.0  35.6  300  41 21   7.5   4.1 |   1.9  35.4  300  33 17   7.4   4.1
 12500   3.1  37.6  300  40 21   6.5   3.5 |   3.0  37.4  300  34 17   6.7   3.7
 12000   3.9  39.0  300  40 21   6.3   3.4 |   3.8  38.8  300  39 20   5.0   2.7
 11750   4.4  39.9  300  40 21   6.8   3.7 |   4.2  39.6  300  38 19   5.7   3.1
 11500   4.9  40.8  300  40 20   6.8   3.7 |   4.6  40.3  300  36 19   5.4   3.0
 11250   5.4  41.7  300  39 20   6.3   3.5 |   5.0  41.0  300  35 18   5.8   3.2
 11000   5.8  42.4  300  38 20   6.2   3.4 |   5.4  41.7  300  34 18   5.9   3.2
 10750   6.3  43.3  300  37 19   6.6   3.6 |   5.9  42.6  300  32 17   5.6   3.1
 10500   6.8  44.2  300  36 18   6.7   3.6 |   6.3  43.3  300  30 16   5.8   3.2
 10250   7.3  45.1  300  35 18   6.2   3.4 |   6.7  44.1  305  28 15   5.4   2.9
 10000   7.7  45.9  300  33 17   5.9   3.2 |   7.1  44.8  305  26 14   5.4   2.9
  9750   8.2  46.8  300  31 16   6.3   3.5 |   7.5  45.5  305  24 12   6.0   3.3
  9500   8.6  47.5  300  29 15   6.5   3.6 |   7.9  46.2  305  21 11   6.1   3.3
  9250   9.1  48.4  300  27 14   6.1   3.3 |   8.4  47.1  305  19 10   5.9   3.2
  9000   9.5  49.1  300  25 13   5.6   3.1 |   8.8  47.8  305  17  9   5.6   3.1
  8750   9.9  49.8  300  23 12   4.2   2.3 |   9.2  48.6  300  15  8   3.8   2.1
  8500  10.2  50.4  295  21 11   4.3   2.3 |   9.4  48.9  300  13  7   2.9   1.6
  8250  10.3  50.5  295  19 10  -1.8  -1.0 |   9.6  49.3  300  10  5   2.3   1.3
  8000   9.8  49.6  290  17  9  -9.9  -5.4 |   9.6  49.3  295   9  5   0.8   0.4
  7750   9.2  48.6  285  15  8  -1.4  -0.8 |   9.7  49.5  290   9  4   3.1   1.7
  7500   9.2  48.6  280  13  7  -4.9  -2.7 |  10.0  50.0  280   7  4   4.4   2.4
  7250   7.9  46.2  280  11  6 -31.2 -17.1 |  10.1  50.2  270   6  3   1.2   0.7
  7000   4.7  40.5  280   9  5 -46.8 -25.7 |  10.0  50.0  270   5  3  -0.8  -0.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/28/2014 at 1400 MST          |       11/28/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -14.9  LI... +5.0               | K index... -24.0  LI... +5.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.8 -90.0  295  50 26  -1.0  -0.6 | -69.1 -92.4  290  55 28   0.2   0.1
 45000 -68.7 -91.7  290  80 41   4.8   2.6 | -68.5 -91.3  290  86 44   5.0   2.7
 40000 -61.7 -79.1  295  86 44   4.6   2.5 | -61.5 -78.7  290  81 42   4.2   2.3
 38000 -57.5 -71.5  295  81 42   7.5   4.1 | -57.0 -70.6  285  76 39   8.1   4.4
 36000 -53.0 -63.4  295  74 38   7.5   4.1 | -52.1 -61.8  285  69 36   8.1   4.4
 34000 -48.4 -55.1  290  67 34   8.1   4.4 | -47.3 -53.1  280  64 33   7.9   4.3
 32000 -43.5 -46.3  290  59 30   8.1   4.4 | -42.6 -44.7  280  61 31   7.9   4.3
 30000 -37.9 -36.2  285  52 27   8.5   4.7 | -37.7 -35.9  275  57 29   8.6   4.7
 29000 -35.3 -31.5  280  50 26   8.5   4.7 | -34.5 -30.1  275  55 28   8.6   4.7
 28000 -32.8 -27.0  275  49 25   8.6   4.7 | -31.9 -25.4  275  54 28   8.6   4.7
 27000 -30.1 -22.2  270  48 25   9.1   5.0 | -29.4 -20.9  275  53 27   8.5   4.6
 26000 -27.4 -17.3  270  47 24   9.1   5.0 | -26.8 -16.2  275  53 27   8.5   4.6
 25000 -24.7 -12.5  270  47 24   9.1   5.0 | -24.3 -11.7  275  53 27   8.5   4.6
 24000 -22.2  -8.0  270  47 24   7.0   3.8 | -21.9  -7.4  275  53 27   7.3   4.0
 23000 -20.0  -4.0  275  48 25   7.1   3.9 | -19.7  -3.5  275  53 27   7.4   4.1
 22000 -17.9  -0.2  275  49 25   7.1   3.9 | -17.4   0.7  280  53 27   7.4   4.1
 21000 -15.7   3.7  280  50 26   7.4   4.1 | -15.2   4.6  280  53 27   7.5   4.1
 20000 -13.5   7.7  280  50 26   7.4   4.1 | -13.0   8.6  280  51 26   7.5   4.1
 19500 -12.4   9.7  280  50 26   7.4   4.0 | -11.9  10.6  280  50 26   7.5   4.1
 19000 -11.3  11.7  280  50 26   7.3   4.0 | -10.7  12.7  280  49 25   7.4   4.1
 18500 -10.1  13.8  280  50 26   8.4   4.6 |  -9.6  14.7  280  48 24   8.0   4.4
 18000  -8.9  16.0  280  49 25   8.3   4.6 |  -8.4  16.9  275  45 23   7.9   4.4
 17500  -7.6  18.3  280  48 25   8.0   4.4 |  -7.2  19.0  275  42 22   7.7   4.3
 17000  -6.5  20.3  285  48 25   7.8   4.3 |  -6.1  21.0  280  43 22   7.5   4.1
 16500  -5.3  22.5  285  48 25   7.8   4.3 |  -4.9  23.2  285  43 22   7.6   4.2
 16000  -4.3  24.3  285  47 24   5.2   2.9 |  -4.0  24.8  285  45 23   5.7   3.1
 15500  -3.5  25.7  290  46 24   5.5   3.0 |  -3.1  26.4  285  49 25   6.0   3.3
 15000  -2.4  27.7  290  43 22   4.4   2.4 |  -2.3  27.9  290  51 26   4.4   2.4
 14500  -1.8  28.8  290  40 20   4.4   2.4 |  -1.4  29.5  290  50 26   3.9   2.1
 14000  -1.1  30.0  290  38 20   5.1   2.8 |  -0.8  30.6  290  49 25   4.0   2.2
 13500  -0.3  31.5  295  37 19   5.0   2.8 |  -0.3  31.5  290  47 24   3.9   2.2
 13000   0.4  32.7  295  37 19   5.7   3.1 |   0.4  32.7  290  46 24   5.0   2.8
 12500   1.3  34.3  295  37 19   5.6   3.1 |   1.1  34.0  290  45 23   5.3   2.9
 12000   2.1  35.8  295  38 19   5.7   3.2 |   2.0  35.6  295  42 22   6.0   3.3
 11750   2.5  36.5  295  35 18   6.1   3.4 |   2.4  36.3  295  40 21   6.2   3.4
 11500   2.9  37.2  295  33 17   5.8   3.2 |   2.9  37.2  290  37 19   6.1   3.3
 11250   3.4  38.1  295  30 15   6.9   3.8 |   3.3  37.9  290  35 18   6.4   3.5
 11000   3.9  39.0  290  27 14   8.1   4.4 |   3.8  38.8  290  32 17   6.9   3.8
 10750   4.5  40.1  290  25 13   7.8   4.3 |   4.3  39.7  290  30 15   7.0   3.8
 10500   5.1  41.2  290  23 12   8.1   4.5 |   4.8  40.6  290  27 14   7.0   3.8
 10250   5.7  42.3  285  21 11   7.2   3.9 |   5.3  41.5  285  25 13   7.0   3.9
 10000   6.2  43.2  285  19 10   7.4   4.0 |   5.9  42.6  285  22 11   7.4   4.0
  9750   6.8  44.2  280  17  9   8.8   4.8 |   6.4  43.5  280  20 10   7.6   4.2
  9500   7.4  45.3  280  15  8   9.0   4.9 |   6.9  44.4  280  18  9   7.6   4.2
  9250   8.0  46.4  275  14  7   8.1   4.5 |   7.5  45.5  275  16  8   7.5   4.1
  9000   8.6  47.5  270  12  6   6.7   3.7 |   8.0  46.4  270  14  7   7.2   3.9
  8750   9.1  48.4  265  11  6   8.0   4.4 |   8.5  47.3  265  13  7   7.7   4.2
  8500   9.8  49.6  255  10  5   9.8   5.4 |   9.1  48.4  260  11  6   8.8   4.8
  8250  10.4  50.7  245   8  4   7.5   4.1 |   9.7  49.5  255  10  5   6.8   3.8
  8000  10.8  51.4  240   8  4   4.6   2.5 |  10.1  50.2  245   9  5   3.7   2.1
  7750  11.2  52.2  230   8  4   6.5   3.6 |  10.3  50.5  240   9  5   4.8   2.6
  7500  11.7  53.1  220   7  3   8.3   4.6 |  10.8  51.4  230   8  4   8.9   4.9
  7250  12.2  54.0  210   6  3   3.4   1.9 |  11.1  52.0  220   7  4  -6.6  -3.6
  7000  12.1  53.8  205   5  3  -3.2  -1.7 |   9.4  48.9  220   6  3 -36.5 -20.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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