Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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UXUS97 KPUB 301648
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Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
1048 MDT Saturday, May 30, 2015

This forecast is for Saturday, May 30, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 55.8 F/13.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 824 ft/min (4.2 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 16309 ft MSL (9551 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 66.0 F/19.3 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 12728 ft MSL (5970 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 05/31....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:36:32 / 20:16:23 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 39 min 52 sec (879 min 52 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:56:38 MDT... 72.83 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 05/30/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 12319 ft MSL (5561 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 12533 ft MSL (5775 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 13494 ft MSL (6737 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -4.3
K index......................... +24.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -59.7 -75.5   300   16    8   1.7   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -57.4 -71.3   305   24   12   0.2   0.1      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -57.1 -70.8   335   33   17  -0.3  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -54.8 -66.6   340   37   19   4.3   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -52.3 -62.1   350   43   22   4.3   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -49.1 -56.4   350   43   22   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -45.1 -49.2   350   37   19   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -40.9 -41.6   345   32   16   7.8   4.3   29.0  84.2     7.8      M    M
 29000  -38.5 -37.3   345   29   15   7.8   4.3   28.2  82.8     7.3      M    M
 28000  -36.2 -33.2   345   27   14   7.8   4.3   27.6  81.6     6.8      M    M
 27000  -33.1 -27.6   345   25   13   8.6   4.7   26.9  80.3     6.4      M    M
 26000  -30.5 -22.9   345   24   12   8.6   4.7   26.4  79.5     6.1      M    M
 25000  -28.0 -18.4   340   23   12   8.6   4.7   26.0  78.9     5.9      M    M
 24000  -25.4 -13.7   340   22   11   8.6   4.7   25.6  78.1     5.6      M    M
 23000  -22.8  -9.0   335   22   11   8.6   4.7   25.2  77.3     5.3      M    M
 22000  -20.3  -4.5   335   22   11   8.6   4.7   24.8  76.7     5.0      M    M
 21000  -17.9  -0.2   335   22   11   7.7   4.2   24.2  75.5     4.5      M    M
 20000  -15.6   3.9   335   22   11   7.7   4.2   23.4  74.2     3.9      M    M
 19500  -14.5   5.9   335   22   11   7.6   4.2   23.1  73.6     3.6      M    M
 19000  -13.4   7.9   335   22   11   6.8   3.7   22.8  73.1     3.3      M    M
 18500  -12.6   9.3   335   22   11   5.5   3.0   22.1  71.8     2.7      M    M
 18000  -11.8  10.8   340   22   11   5.5   3.0   21.4  70.5     2.0      M    M
 17500  -11.0  12.2   340   21   11   6.3   3.5   20.7  69.3     1.4      M    M
 17000  -10.1  13.8   340   21   11   6.4   3.5   20.1  68.3     0.8      M    M
 16500   -9.2  15.4   340   20   10   6.9   3.8   19.6  67.3     0.2      M    M
 16000   -8.2  17.2   335   19   10   7.3   4.0   19.2  66.5    -0.2    803  4.1
 15500   -7.1  19.2   335   19   10   7.2   4.0   18.8  65.8    -0.6    757  3.8
 15000   -6.2  20.8   335   18    9   6.6   3.6   18.3  64.9    -1.1    713  3.6
 14500   -5.2  22.6   335   17    9   6.6   3.6   17.8  64.0    -1.6    670  3.4
 14000   -4.2  24.4   335   16    8   7.6   4.2   17.4  63.3    -2.1    625  3.2
 13500   -2.6  27.3   330   14    7   7.8   4.3   16.8  62.3    -2.6    553  2.8
 13000   -1.4  29.5   320   13    7   8.2   4.5   16.6  61.9    -2.9    503  2.6
 12500   -0.1  31.8   310   12    6   7.0   3.9   16.4  61.5    -3.2    452  2.3
 12000    0.7  33.3   295   12    6   6.3   3.5   15.8  60.4    -3.8    410  2.1
 11750    1.2  34.2   290   12    6   6.2   3.4   15.5  59.9    -4.0    389  2.0
 11500    1.6  34.9   285   12    6   5.9   3.3   15.2  59.4    -4.3    368  1.9
 11250    2.0  35.6   280   12    6   4.8   2.6   14.9  58.8    -4.7    349  1.8
 11000    2.3  36.1   275   12    6   3.8   2.1   14.5  58.0    -5.1    333  1.7
 10750    2.6  36.7   270   13    7   3.5   1.9   14.0  57.1    -5.6    318  1.6
 10500    2.8  37.0   260   13    7   4.0   2.2   13.5  56.3    -6.1    303  1.5
 10250    3.1  37.6   260   14    7   4.7   2.6   13.1  55.6    -6.5    287  1.5
 10000    3.5  38.3   260   13    7   5.9   3.3   12.7  54.9    -6.9    269  1.4
  9750    4.0  39.2   260   13    7   8.0   4.4   12.5  54.5    -7.1    246  1.2
  9500    4.6  40.3   260   13    7   7.2   3.9   12.4  54.3    -7.3    221  1.1
  9250    5.0  41.0   260   12    6   5.3   2.9   12.1  53.8    -7.6    201  1.0
  9000    5.4  41.7   260   12    6   4.7   2.6   11.7  53.1    -8.0    183  0.9
  8750    5.8  42.4   260   11    6   8.1   4.4   11.4  52.6    -8.4    164  0.8
  8500    6.4  43.5   260   10    5   5.3   2.9   11.3  52.4    -8.5    138  0.7
  8250    6.4  43.5   255    9    5  -0.6  -0.4   10.7  51.2    -9.2    129  0.7
  8000    6.5  43.7   250    9    4   3.4   1.9   10.0  50.0    -9.9    120  0.6
  7750    6.5  43.7   240    8    4  -6.9  -3.8    9.4  48.9   -10.6    111  0.6
  7500    5.6  42.1   230    8    4  -9.9  -5.5    7.9  46.1   -12.1    132  0.7
  7250    5.4  41.7   225    7    3  -0.3  -0.2    7.2  45.0   -12.8    132  0.7
  7000    5.1  41.2   220    5    3  -8.4  -4.6    6.6  43.9   -13.4    131  0.7
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           05/30/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       05/30/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +12.1  LI... +272.9             | K index... +1.1  LI... +269.5
CAPE... +99.5  CIN... -44.8                | CAPE... +812.9  CIN... -2.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.8 -75.6  300  15  8   1.4   0.8 | -59.9 -75.8  300  14  7   1.2   0.6
 45000 -58.2 -72.8  310  23 12  -1.2  -0.7 | -58.7 -73.7  315  22 12  -2.0  -1.1
 40000 -60.2 -76.4  340  42 21  -1.0  -0.6 | -61.9 -79.4  340  48 25   0.2   0.1
 38000 -56.8 -70.2  340  44 23   6.4   3.5 | -57.4 -71.3  340  48 25   8.1   4.4
 36000 -53.0 -63.4  345  46 24   6.4   3.5 | -52.5 -62.5  340  48 25   8.1   4.4
 34000 -48.5 -55.3  345  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -47.6 -53.7  340  46 23   8.2   4.5
 32000 -43.6 -46.5  345  42 22   8.2   4.5 | -42.7 -44.9  340  42 22   8.2   4.5
 30000 -38.9 -38.0  345  37 19   7.2   4.0 | -38.0 -36.4  340  37 19   7.5   4.1
 29000 -36.8 -34.2  345  34 17   7.2   4.0 | -35.7 -32.3  345  33 17   7.5   4.1
 28000 -34.6 -30.3  345  31 16   7.2   4.0 | -33.5 -28.3  345  30 15   7.5   4.1
 27000 -32.4 -26.3  345  28 14   7.6   4.1 | -31.3 -24.3  345  27 14   7.3   4.0
 26000 -30.1 -22.2  345  26 13   7.6   4.1 | -29.1 -20.4  345  26 13   7.3   4.0
 25000 -27.3 -17.1  340  24 12   7.5   4.1 | -26.4 -15.5  345  23 12   7.2   4.0
 24000 -24.9 -12.8  335  23 12   8.4   4.6 | -24.1 -11.4  345  22 11   7.7   4.2
 23000 -22.3  -8.1  335  23 12   8.5   4.6 | -21.8  -7.2  340  22 11   7.7   4.2
 22000 -19.8  -3.6  335  23 12   8.6   4.7 | -19.5  -3.1  340  21 11   7.8   4.3
 21000 -17.5   0.5  340  22 11   7.5   4.1 | -17.3   0.9  335  20 10   7.1   3.9
 20000 -15.2   4.6  340  22 11   7.5   4.1 | -15.2   4.6  335  19 10   7.1   3.9
 19500 -14.1   6.6  345  21 11   7.6   4.2 | -14.1   6.6  335  19 10   7.1   3.9
 19000 -13.0   8.6  345  21 11   7.0   3.8 | -13.0   8.6  335  18  9   7.3   4.0
 18500 -12.0  10.4  350  20 10   6.8   3.7 | -11.9  10.6  335  18  9   7.4   4.1
 18000 -11.0  12.2  350  20 10   6.8   3.7 | -10.8  12.6  335  17  9   7.4   4.1
 17500 -10.1  13.8  350  19 10   6.4   3.5 |  -9.7  14.5  335  17  9   7.4   4.0
 17000  -9.1  15.6  350  18  9   6.5   3.6 |  -8.6  16.5  340  16  8   7.4   4.1
 16500  -8.2  17.2  350  17  9   6.1   3.3 |  -7.6  18.3  340  15  8   7.2   3.9
 16000  -7.3  18.9  350  16  8   6.1   3.3 |  -6.5  20.3  340  14  7   7.2   3.9
 15500  -6.5  20.3  350  16  8   6.2   3.4 |  -5.5  22.1  340  14  7   7.1   3.9
 15000  -5.6  21.9  345  15  7   6.5   3.6 |  -4.5  23.9  335  13  7   7.0   3.8
 14500  -4.7  23.5  340  14  7   6.7   3.7 |  -3.5  25.7  335  13  7   7.1   3.9
 14000  -3.7  25.3  335  13  6   7.2   4.0 |  -2.4  27.7  330  13  7   7.3   4.0
 13500  -2.7  27.1  330  12  6   7.2   4.0 |  -1.4  29.5  325  13  6   7.3   4.0
 13000  -1.7  28.9  325  11  5   7.6   4.2 |  -0.3  31.5  325  12  6   8.0   4.4
 12500  -0.6  30.9  325   9  5   7.6   4.2 |   0.8  33.4  320  12  6   8.2   4.5
 12000   0.5  32.9  320   9  4   8.5   4.7 |   1.7  35.1  320  11  6   6.3   3.4
 11750   1.2  34.2  315   9  4   9.1   5.0 |   2.2  36.0  315  11  6   7.8   4.3
 11500   1.8  35.2  315   9  4   9.2   5.1 |   2.7  36.9  315  10  5   7.4   4.1
 11250   2.5  36.5  310   9  4   8.1   4.5 |   3.2  37.8  315  10  5   8.1   4.4
 11000   3.0  37.4  305  10  5   6.5   3.6 |   3.8  38.8  315   9  5   8.0   4.4
 10750   3.5  38.3  300  10  5   6.2   3.4 |   4.3  39.7  310   9  4   7.2   3.9
 10500   3.9  39.0  295  12  6   6.4   3.5 |   4.8  40.6  310   8  4   7.6   4.2
 10250   4.4  39.9  290  13  7   5.0   2.7 |   5.2  41.4  305   7  4   5.4   2.9
 10000   4.6  40.3  285  12  6   3.8   2.1 |   5.4  41.7  290   6  3   3.1   1.7
  9750   5.0  41.0  280   9  5   2.1   1.2 |   6.0  42.8  250   5  2   5.7   3.1
  9500   5.2  41.4  275   9  4   2.4   1.3 |   6.4  43.5  225   5  2   5.6   3.1
  9250   5.3  41.5  265   8  4   2.0   1.1 |   6.7  44.1  210   6  3   5.5   3.0
  9000   5.4  41.7  250   8  4   3.3   1.8 |   7.1  44.8  195   7  4   6.5   3.6
  8750   5.7  42.3  235   8  4   7.0   3.8 |   7.7  45.9  185   8  4   9.6   5.3
  8500   6.3  43.3  220   7  4   8.1   4.4 |   8.4  47.1  180   9  5  11.1   6.1
  8250   6.8  44.2  210   7  4   7.6   4.1 |   9.2  48.6  180   9  5  11.4   6.2
  8000   7.4  45.3  200   8  4   7.4   4.1 |  10.1  50.2  175   9  5  10.1   5.6
  7750   8.0  46.4  190   9  4  12.4   6.8 |  10.9  51.6  175   9  5  15.8   8.7
  7500   9.3  48.7  185   8  4  21.6  11.8 |  12.5  54.5  170   9  5  29.0  15.9
  7250  10.5  50.9  180   7  4   4.9   2.7 |  14.3  57.7  170   9  5   7.2   3.9
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           05/30/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       05/30/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +16.8  LI... +269.0             | K index... +24.2  LI... +270.9
CAPE... +997.9  CIN... -4.0                | CAPE... +405.2  CIN... -15.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.6 -77.1  295  14  7   1.7   0.9 | -62.2 -80.0  315  18  9   0.2   0.1
 45000 -58.7 -73.7  315  21 11  -1.7  -0.9 | -61.9 -79.4  325  28 14   0.2   0.1
 40000 -61.4 -78.5  335  46 24   1.0   0.6 | -61.5 -78.7  325  42 22   4.2   2.3
 38000 -56.9 -70.4  335  46 24   8.0   4.4 | -56.6 -69.9  330  41 21   8.3   4.5
 36000 -52.1 -61.8  335  45 23   8.0   4.4 | -51.6 -60.9  330  40 20   8.3   4.5
 34000 -47.3 -53.1  335  44 22   8.1   4.4 | -46.7 -52.1  335  39 20   8.2   4.5
 32000 -42.5 -44.5  335  41 21   8.1   4.4 | -41.8 -43.2  335  38 20   8.1   4.5
 30000 -37.7 -35.9  335  37 19   7.9   4.4 | -36.8 -34.2  335  34 17   8.7   4.8
 29000 -34.7 -30.5  335  34 18   7.9   4.4 | -34.2 -29.6  335  30 16   8.7   4.8
 28000 -32.3 -26.1  340  32 16   7.9   4.3 | -31.0 -23.8  335  26 14   8.5   4.7
 27000 -30.1 -22.2  340  29 15   7.4   4.1 | -28.7 -19.7  335  25 13   7.6   4.2
 26000 -27.8 -18.0  335  25 13   7.4   4.1 | -26.4 -15.5  330  24 13   7.6   4.2
 25000 -25.6 -14.1  335  22 11   7.4   4.1 | -24.1 -11.4  330  24 12   7.7   4.2
 24000 -23.4 -10.1  335  20 10   7.5   4.1 | -22.0  -7.6  330  23 12   7.1   3.9
 23000 -21.1  -6.0  335  19 10   7.5   4.1 | -19.9  -3.8  325  23 12   7.1   3.9
 22000 -18.9  -2.0  330  18  9   7.5   4.1 | -17.8  -0.0  320  23 12   7.1   3.9
 21000 -16.8   1.8  330  18  9   7.1   3.9 | -15.7   3.7  315  22 11   7.3   4.0
 20000 -14.6   5.7  325  18  9   7.1   3.9 | -13.6   7.5  310  21 11   7.3   4.0
 19500 -13.6   7.5  320  18  9   7.1   3.9 | -12.5   9.5  305  20 10   7.3   4.0
 19000 -12.5   9.5  320  19 10   7.0   3.9 | -11.5  11.3  305  20 10   7.3   4.0
 18500 -11.5  11.3  315  19 10   7.1   3.9 | -10.4  13.3  305  18  9   7.2   4.0
 18000 -10.4  13.3  315  20 10   7.2   3.9 |  -9.4  15.1  305  17  9   7.2   4.0
 17500  -9.3  15.3  310  20 10   8.3   4.5 |  -8.3  17.1  300  16  8   6.9   3.8
 17000  -8.1  17.4  310  20 10   8.3   4.5 |  -7.3  18.9  300  14  7   6.9   3.8
 16500  -7.0  19.4  310  20 10   8.0   4.4 |  -6.3  20.7  295  13  7   6.8   3.8
 16000  -5.8  21.6  310  19 10   8.0   4.4 |  -5.3  22.5  295  11  6   6.8   3.7
 15500  -4.7  23.5  310  18  9   8.0   4.4 |  -4.3  24.3  290  10  5   6.8   3.7
 15000  -3.5  25.7  310  17  9   8.0   4.4 |  -3.3  26.1  285   9  5   6.8   3.7
 14500  -1.8  28.8  315  15  8   7.7   4.2 |  -2.3  27.9  280   8  4   6.8   3.7
 14000  -0.7  30.7  315  14  7   7.6   4.2 |  -0.9  30.4  265   7  4   6.9   3.8
 13500   0.4  32.7  320  12  6   7.6   4.2 |   0.2  32.4  255   7  3   6.6   3.6
 13000   1.5  34.7  320  10  5   7.6   4.2 |   1.1  34.0  245   7  3   6.3   3.4
 12500   2.6  36.7  315   9  4   6.9   3.8 |   2.0  35.6  235   7  3   5.3   2.9
 12000   3.5  38.3  310   6  3   7.2   3.9 |   2.9  37.2  230   7  4   7.5   4.1
 11750   4.0  39.2  305   5  2   7.1   3.9 |   3.4  38.1  225   7  4   6.5   3.6
 11500   4.5  40.1  295   4  2   7.0   3.9 |   3.9  39.0  220   7  4   8.9   4.9
 11250   4.9  40.8  280   3  1   6.5   3.6 |   4.7  40.5  215   7  4  10.5   5.8
 11000   5.3  41.5  250   2  1   5.8   3.2 |   5.3  41.5  210   7  4   7.3   4.0
 10750   5.7  42.3  220   2  1   5.7   3.1 |   5.8  42.4  205   7  4   5.5   3.0
 10500   6.1  43.0  195   3  1   5.6   3.0 |   6.2  43.2  200   8  4   7.4   4.0
 10250   6.4  43.5  185   4  2   4.7   2.6 |   6.9  44.4  195   8  4  10.3   5.6
 10000   6.7  44.1  180   6  3   6.1   3.3 |   7.6  45.7  190   8  4   9.1   5.0
  9750   7.2  45.0  175   7  4   7.9   4.3 |   8.2  46.8  185   8  4   7.1   3.9
  9500   7.7  45.9  170   8  4   8.2   4.5 |   8.7  47.7  180   8  4   6.9   3.8
  9250   8.3  46.9  170   9  4   8.7   4.8 |   9.1  48.4  180   9  4   6.4   3.5
  9000   8.9  48.0  170   9  5   8.8   4.8 |   9.5  49.1  180   9  5   6.5   3.6
  8750   9.5  49.1  170   9  5   9.8   5.4 |  10.0  50.0  180   9  5   8.7   4.8
  8500  10.3  50.5  170   9  5  10.7   5.9 |  10.7  51.3  175  10  5   9.3   5.1
  8250  11.1  52.0  170   9  5  10.9   6.0 |  11.3  52.3  175  10  5   8.4   4.6
  8000  11.9  53.4  170   9  5  10.2   5.6 |  11.8  53.2  175  10  5   8.4   4.6
  7750  12.7  54.9  170   9  5  12.8   7.0 |  12.4  54.3  175  10  5   9.8   5.4
  7500  13.7  56.7  170  10  5  13.8   7.6 |  13.1  55.6  175  10  5   8.1   4.4
  7250  14.6  58.3  170   9  5  11.5   6.3 |  13.5  56.3  175  10  5   4.8   2.6
  7000  15.5  59.9  165   9  5  13.5   7.4 |  13.9  57.0  175   9  5   7.4   4.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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