Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 041129
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0429 MST Sunday, December 4, 2016

This forecast is for Sunday, December 4, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 34.9 F/1.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 379 ft/min (1.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 12310 ft MSL (5552 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 43.0 F/6.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1015 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 11295 ft MSL (4538 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 12/05....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:02:06 / 16:36:54 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 34 min 48 sec (574 min 48 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:49:36 MST... 28.75 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 12/04/2016 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 20352 ft MSL (13594 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 16014 ft MSL (9257 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +9.7
K index......................... -14.7

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.6 -80.7   295   52   27   2.9   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.0 -72.4   295   73   38   2.9   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.9 -65.0   285   64   33   2.8   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -53.0 -63.4   290   61   32  -0.6  -0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -53.3 -63.9   310   65   34  -0.5  -0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -53.6 -64.5   330   76   39   3.4   1.9      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -49.6 -57.3   330   79   41   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -45.1 -49.2   335   81   42   7.8   4.3   25.2  77.4    14.6      M    M
 29000  -42.8 -45.0   335   78   40   7.7   4.2   24.3  75.7    14.1      M    M
 28000  -40.5 -40.9   330   76   39   7.7   4.2   23.5  74.3    13.6      M    M
 27000  -38.2 -36.8   330   74   38   7.7   4.2   22.9  73.2    13.3      M    M
 26000  -35.9 -32.6   330   70   36   7.5   4.1   22.0  71.5    12.7      M    M
 25000  -33.6 -28.5   330   66   34   7.5   4.1   21.1  70.0    12.2      M    M
 24000  -31.4 -24.5   330   62   32   7.5   4.1   20.4  68.7    11.7      M    M
 23000  -29.1 -20.4   330   58   30   7.5   4.1   19.5  67.2    11.2      M    M
 22000  -26.9 -16.4   330   55   28   7.5   4.1   18.7  65.7    10.6      M    M
 21000  -24.6 -12.3   325   51   26   7.3   4.0   18.0  64.4    10.1      M    M
 20000  -22.6  -8.7   325   47   24   6.7   3.7   16.9  62.5     9.3      M    M
 19500  -21.6  -6.9   325   45   23   6.7   3.7   16.4  61.5     8.9      M    M
 19000  -20.6  -5.1   325   44   23   6.7   3.7   15.9  60.6     8.5      M    M
 18500  -19.6  -3.3   320   42   22   6.7   3.7   15.4  59.7     8.1      M    M
 18000  -18.6  -1.5   320   41   21   6.5   3.6   14.9  58.8     7.7      M    M
 17500  -17.6   0.3   320   40   21   6.5   3.6   14.3  57.8     7.2      M    M
 17000  -16.6   2.1   320   40   21   6.9   3.8   13.8  56.9     6.8      M    M
 16500  -15.6   3.9   320   40   20   7.0   3.8   13.4  56.0     6.4      M    M
 16000  -14.6   5.7   320   39   20   6.9   3.8   12.9  55.2     6.0      M    M
 15500  -13.6   7.5   315   37   19   6.6   3.6   12.4  54.3     5.6      M    M
 15000  -12.1  10.2   310   34   17   5.7   3.1   11.6  52.9     4.9      M    M
 14500  -11.3  11.7   305   30   15   5.2   2.8   10.8  51.5     4.3      M    M
 14000  -10.5  13.1   300   27   14   4.4   2.4   10.1  50.2     3.7      M    M
 13500  -10.0  14.0   295   24   12   3.1   1.7    9.1  48.3     2.7      M    M
 13000   -9.5  14.9   290   22   11   2.3   1.2    8.0  46.4     1.7      M    M
 12500   -9.5  14.9   290   21   11  -0.0  -0.0    6.5  43.7     0.3      M    M
 12000   -9.6  14.7   295   19   10  -0.8  -0.4    4.9  40.8    -1.2    370  1.9
 11750   -9.6  14.7   300   17    9   0.9   0.5    4.1  39.4    -2.0    363  1.8
 11500   -9.5  14.9   300   16    8   1.7   0.9    3.5  38.2    -2.6    353  1.8
 11250   -9.4  15.1   305   15    8   1.4   0.8    2.8  37.1    -3.3    342  1.7
 11000   -9.3  15.3   305   14    7   1.7   0.9    2.2  35.9    -3.9    332  1.7
 10750   -9.1  15.6   310   12    6   3.4   1.9    1.6  34.9    -4.5    320  1.6
 10500   -8.8  16.2   320   12    6   4.6   2.5    1.2  34.1    -4.9    303  1.5
 10250   -8.5  16.7   325   11    6   4.1   2.2    0.8  33.4    -5.4    286  1.5
 10000   -8.2  17.2   330   10    5   4.9   2.7    0.3  32.6    -5.8    269  1.4
  9750   -7.8  18.0   340   10    5   6.5   3.5    0.0  32.1    -6.1    249  1.3
  9500   -7.3  18.9   345   10    5   6.8   3.8   -0.2  31.6    -6.4    227  1.2
  9250   -6.8  19.8   350   10    5   6.8   3.7   -0.4  31.2    -6.6    204  1.0
  9000   -6.2  20.8   355   10    5   7.6   4.2   -0.6  30.9    -6.8    181  0.9
  8750   -5.7  21.7   360    9    5   7.3   4.0   -0.8  30.6    -7.0    156  0.8
  8500   -5.1  22.8   360    9    4   7.8   4.3   -1.0  30.2    -7.2    133  0.7
  8250   -4.6  23.7   360    8    4   4.3   2.3   -1.2  29.9    -7.4    110  0.6
  8000   -4.5  23.9   345    9    4  -1.3  -0.7   -1.9  28.6    -8.2    101  0.5
  7750   -4.6  23.7   335   10    5   0.4   0.2   -2.7  27.2    -9.0     96  0.5
  7500   -4.6  23.7   320    9    5  -2.0  -1.1   -3.4  25.9    -9.7     88  0.4
  7250   -5.3  22.5   305    9    5 -17.6  -9.6   -4.6  23.8   -10.9    101  0.5
  7000   -7.2  19.0   300    8    4 -33.0 -18.1   -6.8  19.8   -13.1    153  0.8
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           12/04/2016 at 0800 MST          |       12/04/2016 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -9.3  LI... +6.0                | K index... -3.3  LI... +3.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.1 -79.8  290  52 27   2.5   1.4 | -61.9 -79.4  280  55 28   2.9   1.6
 45000 -58.2 -72.8  285  71 37   2.2   1.2 | -57.5 -71.5  280  65 34   2.4   1.3
 40000 -56.0 -68.8  280  66 34   1.5   0.8 | -56.4 -69.5  280  60 31   0.7   0.4
 38000 -55.3 -67.5  280  63 32   0.6   0.3 | -55.9 -68.6  280  57 30   1.1   0.6
 36000 -54.9 -66.8  300  64 33   0.6   0.3 | -55.2 -67.4  295  55 29   1.1   0.6
 34000 -54.4 -65.9  315  69 36   5.8   3.2 | -53.7 -64.7  300  55 28   8.2   4.5
 32000 -49.6 -57.3  315  65 33   7.9   4.3 | -49.1 -56.4  295  54 28   7.8   4.3
 30000 -44.4 -47.9  315  61 31   7.1   3.9 | -44.4 -47.9  295  53 27   7.6   4.2
 29000 -42.2 -44.0  315  60 31   7.2   3.9 | -42.1 -43.8  300  51 26   7.6   4.2
 28000 -40.1 -40.2  320  60 31   7.2   3.9 | -39.8 -39.6  300  50 26   7.6   4.2
 27000 -37.9 -36.2  320  60 31   7.2   4.0 | -37.5 -35.5  305  48 25   7.6   4.2
 26000 -35.7 -32.3  325  60 31   7.6   4.1 | -35.3 -31.5  310  49 25   7.4   4.1
 25000 -33.4 -28.1  325  59 30   7.6   4.1 | -33.1 -27.6  315  49 25   7.4   4.1
 24000 -31.2 -24.2  325  58 30   7.5   4.1 | -30.8 -23.4  315  50 26   7.4   4.1
 23000 -28.8 -19.8  325  58 30   7.9   4.4 | -28.5 -19.3  315  48 25   7.7   4.2
 22000 -26.4 -15.5  325  57 29   7.9   4.4 | -26.2 -15.2  310  45 23   7.7   4.2
 21000 -24.1 -11.4  325  57 29   8.0   4.4 | -23.9 -11.0  305  43 22   7.5   4.1
 20000 -21.7  -7.1  320  52 27   8.0   4.4 | -21.8  -7.2  305  41 21   7.1   3.9
 19500 -20.5  -4.9  320  49 25   8.0   4.4 | -20.7  -5.3  305  40 21   7.1   3.9
 19000 -19.3  -2.7  320  46 24   8.0   4.4 | -19.6  -3.3  300  40 20   7.2   3.9
 18500 -18.1  -0.6  315  44 23   7.7   4.2 | -18.6  -1.5  300  39 20   7.4   4.0
 18000 -17.1   1.2  315  42 21   6.1   3.4 | -17.4   0.7  300  39 20   8.0   4.4
 17500 -16.2   2.8  310  39 20   6.3   3.4 | -16.2   2.8  300  39 20   8.0   4.4
 17000 -15.3   4.5  310  38 19   5.7   3.1 | -15.1   4.8  300  39 20   7.7   4.2
 16500 -14.4   6.1  305  37 19   5.6   3.1 | -13.9   7.0  300  39 20   7.7   4.2
 16000 -13.6   7.5  300  37 19   5.5   3.0 | -12.2  10.0  300  38 20   7.2   4.0
 15500 -12.8   9.0  300  37 19   5.3   2.9 | -11.1  12.0  300  37 19   7.3   4.0
 15000 -11.6  11.1  300  37 19   5.6   3.1 | -10.1  13.8  305  36 18   6.4   3.5
 14500 -10.8  12.6  300  36 18   5.8   3.2 |  -9.2  15.4  305  34 18   6.2   3.4
 14000  -9.9  14.2  300  35 18   5.4   3.0 |  -8.2  17.2  305  32 17   5.4   3.0
 13500  -9.1  15.6  300  33 17   5.1   2.8 |  -7.5  18.5  310  30 15   4.9   2.7
 13000  -8.4  16.9  305  31 16   4.5   2.5 |  -6.8  19.8  310  27 14   4.8   2.7
 12500  -7.8  18.0  305  29 15   3.6   1.9 |  -6.1  21.0  310  25 13   5.1   2.8
 12000  -7.4  18.7  305  25 13   2.3   1.3 |  -5.6  21.9  315  22 11   3.2   1.8
 11750  -7.2  19.0  305  24 12   2.9   1.6 |  -5.2  22.6  315  21 11   5.1   2.8
 11500  -7.0  19.4  305  22 11   2.9   1.6 |  -4.8  23.4  315  20 10   5.0   2.8
 11250  -6.7  19.9  305  21 11   3.4   1.9 |  -4.5  23.9  315  19 10   4.8   2.7
 11000  -6.5  20.3  305  19 10   1.4   0.8 |  -4.1  24.6  315  18  9   5.7   3.1
 10750  -6.5  20.3  300  17  9   1.1   0.6 |  -3.6  25.5  315  17  9   5.9   3.2
 10500  -6.3  20.7  300  15  8   2.7   1.5 |  -3.2  26.2  315  16  8   5.0   2.7
 10250  -6.1  21.0  300  13  7   2.5   1.4 |  -2.8  27.0  310  15  8   5.7   3.1
 10000  -6.0  21.2  295  12  6   1.6   0.9 |  -2.5  27.5  305  14  7   2.3   1.2
  9750  -5.8  21.6  295   9  5   2.7   1.5 |  -2.4  27.7  300  13  7   2.2   1.2
  9500  -5.5  22.1  295   8  4   4.6   2.5 |  -2.1  28.2  290  12  6   5.3   2.9
  9250  -5.2  22.6  295   6  3   4.1   2.2 |  -1.7  28.9  285  11  6   3.9   2.2
  9000  -4.9  23.2  290   5  2   3.6   2.0 |  -1.5  29.3  275  10  5   1.6   0.9
  8750  -4.7  23.5  280   3  2   4.6   2.5 |  -1.5  29.3  265   9  5  -0.6  -0.4
  8500  -4.2  24.4  265   2  1   6.8   3.7 |  -1.6  29.1  255   9  4  -1.8  -1.0
  8250  -3.8  25.2  225   1  1   4.3   2.4 |  -1.7  28.9  240   9  5   1.0   0.5
  8000  -3.6  25.5  225   1  1   1.0   0.5 |  -1.5  29.3  230   8  4   4.2   2.3
  7750  -3.5  25.7  230   2  1   2.5   1.4 |  -1.1  30.0  215   7  4   5.4   3.0
  7500  -3.4  25.9  245   3  1  -1.0  -0.5 |  -0.7  30.7  200   7  4   7.5   4.1
  7250  -4.0  24.8  255   4  2 -17.6  -9.6 |  -0.1  31.8  185   7  4   8.7   4.8
  7000  -6.0  21.2  270   4  2 -32.8 -18.0 |   0.6  33.1  185   7  4  10.0   5.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           12/04/2016 at 1400 MST          |       12/04/2016 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +4.1  LI... +4.2                | K index... +3.9  LI... +4.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.6                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.2 -80.0  270  54 28   3.3   1.8 | -63.2 -81.8  270  49 25   3.4   1.9
 45000 -57.3 -71.1  270  57 29   2.7   1.5 | -57.8 -72.0  270  50 26   2.6   1.4
 40000 -55.9 -68.6  270  58 30   0.9   0.5 | -56.7 -70.1  270  55 29   0.7   0.4
 38000 -55.4 -67.7  275  58 30   0.5   0.3 | -56.2 -69.2  275  56 29   0.9   0.5
 36000 -55.1 -67.2  290  60 31   0.5   0.3 | -55.7 -68.3  285  56 29   0.9   0.5
 34000 -54.0 -65.2  300  64 33   8.4   4.6 | -54.8 -66.6  290  58 30   7.7   4.2
 32000 -49.2 -56.6  290  59 31   7.9   4.3 | -49.2 -56.6  285  57 29   8.3   4.5
 30000 -44.5 -48.1  280  56 29   7.4   4.0 | -44.3 -47.7  280  54 28   7.7   4.2
 29000 -42.3 -44.1  285  53 27   7.4   4.1 | -42.0 -43.6  285  49 25   7.7   4.2
 28000 -40.1 -40.2  290  51 26   7.4   4.1 | -39.7 -39.5  285  43 22   7.7   4.2
 27000 -37.9 -36.2  295  50 26   7.6   4.2 | -37.4 -35.3  290  38 19   8.2   4.5
 26000 -35.5 -31.9  295  47 24   8.1   4.4 | -34.8 -30.6  290  37 19   8.7   4.8
 25000 -33.0 -27.4  300  45 23   8.1   4.4 | -32.2 -26.0  290  37 19   8.7   4.8
 24000 -30.6 -23.1  300  43 22   8.1   4.4 | -29.6 -21.3  290  37 19   8.7   4.8
 23000 -28.2 -18.8  300  40 21   8.3   4.5 | -27.1 -16.8  285  32 17   8.2   4.5
 22000 -25.7 -14.3  295  38 19   8.3   4.5 | -24.6 -12.3  275  28 14   8.2   4.5
 21000 -23.2  -9.8  290  35 18   8.3   4.5 | -22.1  -7.8  270  23 12   8.4   4.6
 20000 -20.7  -5.3  295  36 19   8.2   4.5 | -19.6  -3.3  280  26 13   8.6   4.7
 19500 -19.5  -3.1  295  37 19   8.2   4.5 | -18.3  -0.9  285  27 14   8.6   4.7
 19000 -18.3  -0.9  295  37 19   8.2   4.5 | -17.0   1.4  290  29 15   8.5   4.7
 18500 -17.0   1.4  295  38 19   7.8   4.3 | -15.8   3.6  290  31 16   8.2   4.5
 18000 -16.0   3.2  295  37 19   6.5   3.6 | -14.6   5.7  295  32 16   7.2   4.0
 17500 -15.0   5.0  295  37 19   6.6   3.6 | -13.6   7.5  295  33 17   7.3   4.0
 17000 -14.1   6.6  290  36 19   6.3   3.5 | -12.5   9.5  300  33 17   6.8   3.7
 16500 -13.1   8.4  295  35 18   6.3   3.5 | -11.5  11.3  295  34 17   6.7   3.7
 16000 -11.7  10.9  295  34 18   6.8   3.7 | -10.5  13.1  295  34 17   6.2   3.4
 15500 -10.7  12.7  290  34 18   6.7   3.7 |  -9.3  15.3  300  34 18   5.5   3.0
 15000  -9.7  14.5  290  34 17   7.2   3.9 |  -8.5  16.7  300  35 18   5.6   3.1
 14500  -8.6  16.5  295  33 17   7.3   4.0 |  -7.6  18.3  300  35 18   5.6   3.1
 14000  -7.5  18.5  295  33 17   7.3   4.0 |  -6.8  19.8  300  36 18   5.3   2.9
 13500  -6.4  20.5  295  30 16   7.2   4.0 |  -6.1  21.0  300  36 18   5.0   2.7
 13000  -5.3  22.5  300  28 14   7.3   4.0 |  -5.3  22.5  300  36 18   5.3   2.9
 12500  -4.2  24.4  300  26 13   7.6   4.2 |  -4.5  23.9  300  35 18   6.0   3.3
 12000  -3.1  26.4  300  24 12   6.8   3.7 |  -3.7  25.3  300  33 17   5.6   3.1
 11750  -2.6  27.3  300  23 12   7.0   3.8 |  -3.2  26.2  300  32 17   6.9   3.8
 11500  -2.1  28.2  300  24 12   6.9   3.8 |  -2.7  27.1  295  31 16   7.1   3.9
 11250  -1.6  29.1  300  25 13   7.2   3.9 |  -2.2  28.0  295  30 15   7.0   3.9
 11000  -1.1  30.0  300  26 13   5.7   3.1 |  -1.6  29.1  295  28 15   6.6   3.6
 10750  -0.8  30.6  300  27 14   3.6   2.0 |  -1.2  29.8  290  27 14   6.5   3.5
 10500  -0.5  31.1  300  25 13   3.5   1.9 |  -0.7  30.7  290  25 13   6.6   3.6
 10250  -0.3  31.5  295  24 12   3.7   2.0 |  -0.2  31.6  285  24 12   6.8   3.7
 10000  -0.0  32.0  295  23 12   3.1   1.7 |   0.3  32.5  285  22 11   5.8   3.2
  9750   0.2  32.4  290  22 11   3.1   1.7 |   0.7  33.3  280  21 11   6.2   3.4
  9500   0.4  32.7  280  20 10   3.3   1.8 |   1.2  34.2  275  20 10   7.0   3.8
  9250   0.6  33.1  275  19 10   4.4   2.4 |   1.7  35.1  270  19 10   7.9   4.3
  9000   0.8  33.4  265  17  9  -4.2  -2.3 |   2.2  36.0  265  18  9   3.3   1.8
  8750   0.3  32.5  260  16  8  -1.1  -0.6 |   2.2  36.0  255  17  9   0.8   0.5
  8500   0.8  33.4  250  14  7   8.6   4.7 |   2.4  36.3  245  16  8   4.1   2.2
  8250   1.3  34.3  235  12  6   6.5   3.6 |   2.7  36.9  235  16  8   2.3   1.3
  8000   1.9  35.4  225  11  6   8.8   4.8 |   2.6  36.7  230  15  8  -4.3  -2.4
  7750   2.6  36.7  220  10  5   8.7   4.8 |   2.2  36.0  220  15  8  -4.8  -2.6
  7500   3.2  37.8  215  10  5   8.0   4.4 |   2.2  36.0  210  14  7   3.9   2.2
  7250   3.8  38.8  210   9  5   7.8   4.3 |   2.3  36.1  205  13  7  -6.4  -3.5
  7000   4.3  39.7  205   9  5   7.4   4.0 |   0.9  33.6  200  10  5 -31.7 -17.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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