Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 241018
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0418 MDT Tuesday, March 24, 2015

This forecast is for Tuesday, March 24, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 42.8 F/6.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1590 ft/min (8.1 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 23318 ft MSL (16560 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 58.0 F/14.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 0845 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 16089 ft MSL (9332 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 03/25.... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:56:26 / 19:13:43 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 17 min 16 sec (737 min 16 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:14 MDT... 52.58 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 03/24/2015 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 8885 ft MSL (2127 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 12963 ft MSL (6205 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15362 ft MSL (8604 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -5.0
K index......................... +0.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -55.9 -68.6   260   32   16   0.5   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -55.2 -67.4   260   57   29   0.5   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.7 -62.9   265   48   25   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -52.0 -61.6   270   47   24   0.1   0.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -51.9 -61.4   280   52   27   0.1   0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -51.9 -61.4   285   58   30   0.6   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -50.2 -58.4   280   51   26   3.1   1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -48.3 -54.9   270   44   23   3.6   1.9      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -46.9 -52.4   260   40   20   5.0   2.7   20.3  68.5     4.5      M    M
 28000  -45.0 -49.0   250   35   18   5.0   2.7   18.0  64.3     2.8      M    M
 27000  -43.5 -46.3   240   32   16   4.6   2.5   16.3  61.3     1.5      M    M
 26000  -41.2 -42.2   240   29   15   8.7   4.8   15.5  59.8     0.8      M    M
 25000  -38.6 -37.5   240   27   14   8.7   4.8   15.0  59.1     0.5      M    M
 24000  -36.0 -32.8   245   24   12   8.7   4.8   14.7  58.5     0.2      M    M
 23000  -33.5 -28.3   250   22   11   8.6   4.7   14.3  57.8    -0.2   1553  7.9
 22000  -30.9 -23.6   255   20   10   8.6   4.7   13.9  57.0    -0.5   1447  7.4
 21000  -28.3 -18.9   265   19   10   8.5   4.7   13.5  56.4    -0.8   1341  6.8
 20000  -25.9 -14.6   270   22   11   8.3   4.5   13.0  55.4    -1.4   1237  6.3
 19500  -24.6 -12.3   275   23   12   8.3   4.5   12.7  54.9    -1.6   1185  6.0
 19000  -23.4 -10.1   275   25   13   8.3   4.5   12.5  54.5    -1.8   1133  5.8
 18500  -22.1  -7.8   280   27   14   8.3   4.5   12.3  54.1    -2.0   1081  5.5
 18000  -20.9  -5.6   280   29   15   8.3   4.5   12.0  53.6    -2.2   1029  5.2
 17500  -19.7  -3.5   280   32   16   8.3   4.5   11.8  53.2    -2.5    977  5.0
 17000  -18.4  -1.1   285   34   18   8.6   4.7   11.6  52.8    -2.7    925  4.7
 16500  -17.1   1.2   285   37   19   8.6   4.7   11.4  52.5    -2.8    871  4.4
 16000  -15.8   3.6   285   40   21   7.8   4.3   11.2  52.2    -3.0    817  4.1
 15500  -14.7   5.5   290   43   22   6.8   3.8   10.7  51.3    -3.4    771  3.9
 15000  -13.7   7.3   290   45   23   6.7   3.7   10.2  50.4    -3.9    725  3.7
 14500  -12.8   9.0   290   47   24   6.3   3.4    9.7  49.5    -4.4    682  3.5
 14000  -11.4  11.5   295   50   26   5.9   3.2    8.9  47.9    -5.2    618  3.1
 13500  -10.5  13.1   300   50   26   5.7   3.1    8.2  46.7    -5.9    578  2.9
 13000   -9.7  14.5   300   50   26   6.1   3.3    7.5  45.5    -6.6    539  2.7
 12500   -8.8  16.2   305   47   24   6.7   3.7    7.0  44.7    -7.1    495  2.5
 12000   -7.7  18.1   305   45   23   8.0   4.4    6.6  43.9    -7.6    450  2.3
 11750   -7.1  19.2   305   43   22   8.6   4.7    6.5  43.7    -7.8    425  2.2
 11500   -6.5  20.3   305   41   21   8.4   4.6    6.4  43.5    -7.9    399  2.0
 11250   -5.9  21.4   305   40   21   9.2   5.0    6.3  43.4    -8.0    373  1.9
 11000   -5.2  22.6   305   38   20  10.3   5.6    6.3  43.4    -8.1    344  1.7
 10750   -4.4  24.1   310   37   19   9.7   5.3    6.4  43.5    -8.1    315  1.6
 10500   -3.8  25.2   310   36   18   9.2   5.0    6.3  43.4    -8.2    287  1.5
 10250   -3.1  26.4   310   34   18   9.6   5.2    6.3  43.3    -8.2    259  1.3
 10000   -2.4  27.7   310   33   17   7.3   4.0    6.2  43.2    -8.3    232  1.2
  9750   -2.0  28.4   310   31   16   7.4   4.0    6.0  42.8    -8.6    211  1.1
  9500   -1.3  29.7   310   30   15   9.4   5.2    5.9  42.7    -8.7    184  0.9
  9250   -0.7  30.7   315   29   15   8.6   4.7    5.9  42.6    -8.9    158  0.8
  9000   -0.1  31.8   315   27   14   6.6   3.6    5.7  42.3    -9.1    134  0.7
  8750    0.3  32.5   315   25   13   5.8   3.2    5.4  41.8    -9.4    114  0.6
  8500    0.7  33.3   315   23   12   6.8   3.7    5.2  41.3    -9.7     94  0.5
  8250    1.1  34.0   320   21   11   5.5   3.0    4.9  40.8   -10.0     73  0.4
  8000    1.4  34.5   320   19   10   3.3   1.8    4.5  40.1   -10.5     57  0.3
  7750    1.7  35.1   325   17    9   4.2   2.3    4.0  39.2   -11.0     43  0.2
  7500    2.0  35.6   330   14    7   5.6   3.1    3.7  38.6   -11.4     24  0.1
  7250    2.3  36.1   340   11    6   0.9   0.5    3.3  38.0   -11.8      9  0.0
  7000    2.1  35.8   340    9    5  -6.6  -3.6    2.9  37.3   -12.2      9  0.0
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           03/24/2015 at 0900 MDT          |       03/24/2015 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... -27.8  LI... +276.0             | K index... -3.7  LI... +277.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.3 -69.3  255  32 17   0.8   0.4 | -55.5 -67.9  250  37 19   0.4   0.2
 45000 -55.2 -67.4  265  53 28   0.8   0.4 | -54.9 -66.8  265  55 28   0.5   0.3
 40000 -55.3 -67.5  270  53 27  -0.1  -0.1 | -58.5 -73.3  280  64 33  -2.6  -1.4
 38000 -55.4 -67.7  275  56 29  -0.4  -0.2 | -59.4 -74.9  285  67 35   0.5   0.3
 36000 -55.7 -68.3  280  68 35  -0.4  -0.2 | -59.1 -74.4  285  70 36   0.5   0.3
 34000 -55.9 -68.6  285  80 41   2.2   1.2 | -58.5 -73.3  285  72 37   7.7   4.2
 32000 -52.4 -62.3  295  71 36   5.9   3.3 | -52.9 -63.2  285  67 35   9.4   5.1
 30000 -48.9 -56.0  305  63 32   6.8   3.7 | -47.3 -53.1  285  63 32   8.4   4.6
 29000 -46.7 -52.1  305  65 33   7.4   4.0 | -44.8 -48.6  285  63 32   8.4   4.6
 28000 -44.5 -48.1  310  67 35   7.4   4.0 | -42.3 -44.1  290  64 33   8.4   4.6
 27000 -41.7 -43.1  315  70 36   7.4   4.1 | -39.2 -38.6  295  65 33   8.4   4.6
 26000 -39.3 -38.7  315  71 36   8.2   4.5 | -36.6 -33.9  295  64 33   8.4   4.6
 25000 -36.9 -34.4  315  71 37   8.2   4.5 | -34.1 -29.4  300  64 33   8.4   4.6
 24000 -34.4 -29.9  315  71 37   8.2   4.5 | -31.6 -24.9  300  64 33   8.3   4.6
 23000 -32.1 -25.8  315  70 36   7.9   4.3 | -29.2 -20.6  300  63 33   7.9   4.3
 22000 -29.7 -21.5  315  69 35   7.9   4.3 | -26.9 -16.4  305  62 32   7.9   4.3
 21000 -27.4 -17.3  315  67 34   7.8   4.3 | -24.5 -12.1  305  61 32   7.7   4.2
 20000 -25.1 -13.2  315  63 33   7.6   4.2 | -22.2  -8.0  305  59 30   7.6   4.2
 19500 -23.9 -11.0  315  62 32   7.6   4.2 | -21.1  -6.0  305  58 30   7.6   4.2
 19000 -22.8  -9.0  315  60 31   7.6   4.2 | -20.0  -4.0  305  57 29   7.6   4.2
 18500 -21.6  -6.9  315  58 30   7.4   4.1 | -18.8  -1.8  305  55 29   7.3   4.0
 18000 -20.6  -5.1  315  57 29   6.9   3.8 | -17.8  -0.0  305  54 28   6.8   3.7
 17500 -19.5  -3.1  315  57 29   6.9   3.8 | -16.8   1.8  300  52 27   6.8   3.7
 17000 -18.5  -1.3  315  55 29   6.9   3.8 | -15.8   3.6  300  50 26   7.0   3.8
 16500 -17.5   0.5  315  53 27   6.9   3.8 | -14.8   5.4  300  48 24   7.0   3.8
 16000 -16.4   2.5  315  50 26   7.5   4.1 | -13.7   7.3  295  46 24   6.6   3.6
 15500 -15.3   4.5  315  45 23   7.9   4.3 | -12.8   9.0  295  46 24   6.5   3.6
 15000 -14.1   6.6  315  40 20   8.0   4.4 | -11.8  10.8  295  46 24   6.7   3.7
 14500 -12.8   9.0  310  37 19   8.3   4.5 | -10.8  12.6  290  45 23   7.1   3.9
 14000 -11.6  11.1  310  35 18   8.3   4.6 |  -9.7  14.5  290  45 23   7.0   3.8
 13500  -9.6  14.7  310  33 17   9.1   5.0 |  -8.2  17.2  290  42 22   6.6   3.6
 13000  -8.2  17.2  305  33 17   9.5   5.2 |  -7.2  19.0  290  40 20   5.8   3.2
 12500  -6.8  19.8  305  36 18  10.4   5.7 |  -6.5  20.3  290  37 19   5.4   3.0
 12000  -5.7  21.7  305  40 20   6.0   3.3 |  -5.7  21.7  290  32 17   5.8   3.2
 11750  -5.1  22.8  305  40 21   8.6   4.7 |  -5.2  22.6  285  29 15   6.0   3.3
 11500  -4.5  23.9  305  41 21   7.6   4.2 |  -4.8  23.4  285  25 13   5.6   3.1
 11250  -3.9  25.0  305  41 21   9.0   4.9 |  -4.4  24.1  285  22 11   7.2   4.0
 11000  -3.2  26.2  305  43 22   7.4   4.1 |  -3.8  25.2  285  17  9   9.6   5.3
 10750  -2.8  27.0  310  42 21   5.3   2.9 |  -3.1  26.4  285  16  8   9.6   5.3
 10500  -2.4  27.7  310  41 21   5.9   3.3 |  -2.4  27.7  285  15  8   9.7   5.3
 10250  -1.9  28.6  310  40 21   5.7   3.1 |  -1.7  28.9  285  14  7   9.3   5.1
 10000  -1.6  29.1  310  38 20   3.1   1.7 |  -1.0  30.2  285  13  7   8.8   4.8
  9750  -1.5  29.3  310  36 18   1.2   0.7 |  -0.3  31.5  290  13  7   9.9   5.5
  9500  -1.5  29.3  310  33 17   1.6   0.9 |   0.5  32.9  290  12  6  10.8   5.9
  9250  -1.4  29.5  310  30 16   2.5   1.4 |   1.3  34.3  290  12  6  10.3   5.6
  9000  -1.2  29.8  310  28 14   3.8   2.1 |   2.0  35.6  290  11  6   9.4   5.2
  8750  -0.9  30.4  310  25 13   6.4   3.5 |   2.7  36.9  290  11  6   9.9   5.4
  8500  -0.3  31.5  305  23 12   7.9   4.3 |   3.5  38.3  290  11  6  10.6   5.8
  8250   0.2  32.4  305  20 10   8.4   4.6 |   4.3  39.7  290  10  5  10.4   5.7
  8000   0.9  33.6  305  19 10   9.9   5.4 |   5.0  41.0  290  10  5  10.8   5.9
  7750   1.6  34.9  305  18  9   9.1   5.0 |   5.8  42.4  290  10  5   9.8   5.4
  7500   2.3  36.1  310  16  8   8.3   4.5 |   6.5  43.7  295   9  5   8.9   4.9
  7250   2.9  37.2  310  15  8   7.6   4.2 |   7.2  45.0  295   8  4  11.7   6.4
  7000   3.4  38.1  310  13  7   7.1   3.9 |   8.2  46.8  295   8  4  15.3   8.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           03/24/2015 at 1500 MDT          |       03/24/2015 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +8.0  LI... +275.8              | K index... +12.9  LI... +275.2
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... 0.0                    | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.0 -68.8  265  36 19   0.6   0.3 | -55.4 -67.7  270  29 15  -0.1  -0.1
 45000 -55.1 -67.2  265  49 25   0.7   0.4 | -55.6 -68.1  270  47 24   0.1   0.0
 40000 -59.2 -74.6  275  62 32  -2.9  -1.6 | -60.5 -76.9  275  60 31  -3.5  -1.9
 38000 -59.9 -75.8  280  66 34   1.5   0.8 | -61.4 -78.5  275  62 32   2.9   1.6
 36000 -59.0 -74.2  280  67 34   1.4   0.8 | -59.6 -75.3  275  60 31   3.0   1.6
 34000 -57.8 -72.0  280  67 35   8.0   4.4 | -57.2 -71.0  275  58 30   9.0   4.9
 32000 -52.4 -62.3  280  66 34   9.0   4.9 | -52.1 -61.8  280  59 30   8.4   4.6
 30000 -47.1 -52.8  275  66 34   8.0   4.4 | -47.1 -52.8  280  60 31   8.6   4.7
 29000 -44.8 -48.6  280  66 34   7.9   4.3 | -44.5 -48.1  275  61 31   8.6   4.7
 28000 -42.4 -44.3  280  67 35   7.9   4.3 | -41.9 -43.4  275  61 31   8.6   4.7
 27000 -39.4 -38.9  280  68 35   8.2   4.5 | -39.4 -38.9  270  62 32   8.7   4.8
 26000 -36.9 -34.4  285  65 34   8.5   4.7 | -36.7 -34.1  275  60 31   8.8   4.8
 25000 -34.3 -29.7  285  63 32   8.5   4.7 | -34.1 -29.4  275  57 30   8.8   4.8
 24000 -31.8 -25.2  285  60 31   8.5   4.6 | -31.4 -24.5  275  55 28   8.8   4.8
 23000 -29.3 -20.7  290  59 30   8.3   4.5 | -29.0 -20.2  275  53 27   8.0   4.4
 22000 -26.8 -16.2  290  57 29   8.3   4.5 | -26.6 -15.9  275  50 26   8.1   4.4
 21000 -24.4 -11.9  290  55 28   8.0   4.4 | -24.2 -11.6  280  48 25   7.7   4.2
 20000 -22.0  -7.6  290  52 27   8.0   4.4 | -22.0  -7.6  280  46 24   7.4   4.0
 19500 -20.8  -5.4  290  50 26   8.0   4.4 | -20.9  -5.6  280  45 23   7.4   4.0
 19000 -19.7  -3.5  290  48 25   7.9   4.3 | -19.8  -3.6  280  43 22   7.4   4.0
 18500 -18.5  -1.3  290  46 24   7.4   4.1 | -18.7  -1.7  280  42 22   7.0   3.8
 18000 -17.5   0.5  290  45 23   6.9   3.8 | -17.7   0.1  285  41 21   6.3   3.4
 17500 -16.4   2.5  290  43 22   6.9   3.8 | -16.8   1.8  285  40 21   6.4   3.5
 17000 -15.5   4.1  290  43 22   5.9   3.3 | -15.9   3.4  285  38 20   5.4   3.0
 16500 -14.6   5.7  290  43 22   6.1   3.3 | -14.7   5.5  285  35 18   5.5   3.0
 16000 -13.7   7.3  290  42 22   5.7   3.1 | -13.8   7.2  285  33 17   6.5   3.6
 15500 -12.9   8.8  290  38 20   5.7   3.1 | -12.8   9.0  285  31 16   6.3   3.5
 15000 -12.1  10.2  290  34 18   6.3   3.5 | -11.8  10.8  285  29 15   8.2   4.5
 14500 -11.0  12.2  285  29 15   7.3   4.0 | -10.6  12.9  280  24 12   8.3   4.6
 14000  -9.4  15.1  280  23 12   8.9   4.9 |  -9.3  15.3  280  20 10   9.2   5.0
 13500  -8.0  17.6  280  21 11   9.3   5.1 |  -7.9  17.8  280  19 10   9.5   5.2
 13000  -6.6  20.1  275  19 10   9.6   5.3 |  -6.5  20.3  280  18  9   9.7   5.3
 12500  -5.1  22.8  275  18  9   9.8   5.4 |  -5.0  23.0  280  18  9   9.8   5.4
 12000  -3.6  25.5  275  16  8   9.8   5.4 |  -3.6  25.5  285  17  9   9.5   5.2
 11750  -2.9  26.8  275  16  8   9.4   5.2 |  -2.8  27.0  285  17  9   9.6   5.3
 11500  -2.2  28.0  275  15  8   9.2   5.1 |  -2.1  28.2  285  17  9   9.4   5.1
 11250  -1.5  29.3  275  15  8  10.4   5.7 |  -1.4  29.5  285  16  8  10.2   5.6
 11000  -0.7  30.7  275  15  8  10.7   5.9 |  -0.6  30.9  285  16  8  10.5   5.7
 10750   0.0  32.0  275  14  7   9.6   5.2 |   0.1  32.2  290  16  8   9.7   5.3
 10500   0.8  33.4  275  14  7  10.0   5.5 |   0.9  33.6  290  16  8  10.0   5.5
 10250   1.5  34.7  275  14  7   9.3   5.1 |   1.6  34.9  290  15  8   9.6   5.3
 10000   2.2  36.0  275  13  7   9.0   4.9 |   2.3  36.1  290  15  8   8.9   4.9
  9750   2.9  37.2  275  13  7  10.0   5.5 |   3.0  37.4  295  15  8   9.5   5.2
  9500   3.7  38.7  275  13  6  10.5   5.8 |   3.7  38.7  295  15  8  10.2   5.6
  9250   4.4  39.9  275  12  6  10.2   5.6 |   4.5  40.1  295  14  7  10.0   5.5
  9000   5.2  41.4  275  12  6   9.8   5.4 |   5.2  41.4  295  14  7   9.7   5.3
  8750   5.9  42.6  275  12  6  10.1   5.5 |   6.0  42.8  295  14  7  10.0   5.5
  8500   6.7  44.1  275  11  6  10.5   5.8 |   6.7  44.1  300  14  7  10.4   5.7
  8250   7.5  45.5  275  11  6  10.4   5.7 |   7.5  45.5  300  13  7  10.1   5.5
  8000   8.2  46.8  275  11  6  10.7   5.9 |   8.3  46.9  300  13  7  10.1   5.5
  7750   9.0  48.2  275  10  5   9.8   5.4 |   9.0  48.2  300  13  7   9.3   5.1
  7500   9.7  49.5  275  10  5   8.3   4.6 |   9.6  49.3  305  12  6   8.5   4.6
  7250  10.4  50.7  275   9  5  11.5   6.3 |  10.2  50.4  305  11  6   7.2   3.9
  7000  11.4  52.5  275   8  4  17.1   9.4 |  10.6  51.1  305  10  5   4.5   2.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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