Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 121122
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0521 MDT Friday, September 12, 2014

This forecast is for Friday, September 12, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 52.4 F/11.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10429 ft MSL (3259 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 47.0 F/8.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9795 ft MSL (2625 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Saturday 09/13..... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Good
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 12094 ft MSL (4924 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 16525 ft MSL (9355 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Saturday 09/13........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:37:43 / 19:13:31 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 12 hr 35 min 49 sec (755 min 49 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:55:08 MDT... 55.04 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 09/12/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 7249 ft MSL (79 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 8413 ft MSL (1243 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11602 ft MSL (4432 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +11.5
K index......................... +10.2

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.4 -83.9   275   51   26   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -60.6 -77.1   270   74   38   5.5   3.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -52.0 -61.6   270   69   36   4.8   2.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.1 -56.4   275   68   35   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -46.1 -51.0   280   67   34   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -42.6 -44.7   280   65   33   6.3   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -38.9 -38.0   280   62   32   6.3   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -34.6 -30.3   280   58   30   7.5   4.1   36.4  97.6    21.6      M    M
 29000  -32.4 -26.3   280   57   29   7.5   4.1   35.6  96.0    21.2      M    M
 28000  -30.1 -22.2   280   55   28   7.6   4.1   34.8  94.7    20.9      M    M
 27000  -27.9 -18.2   280   53   27   7.4   4.1   33.9  93.1    20.5      M    M
 26000  -25.1 -13.2   280   50   26   7.4   4.1   32.8  91.1    19.8      M    M
 25000  -22.9  -9.2   280   48   25   7.4   4.0   32.0  89.7    19.4      M    M
 24000  -20.5  -4.9   280   46   24   8.1   4.5   31.3  88.4    19.1      M    M
 23000  -18.1  -0.6   285   45   23   8.1   4.5   30.7  87.3    18.8      M    M
 22000  -15.6   3.9   285   43   22   8.5   4.7   30.2  86.4    18.6      M    M
 21000  -13.8   7.2   285   42   21   5.2   2.8   28.8  83.9    17.6      M    M
 20000  -12.3   9.9   285   40   21   5.2   2.8   27.3  81.1    16.4      M    M
 19500  -11.5  11.3   285   39   20   5.2   2.9   26.5  79.7    15.8      M    M
 19000  -10.8  12.6   285   38   20   3.9   2.2   25.7  78.3    15.2      M    M
 18500  -10.3  13.5   280   37   19   3.4   1.9   24.6  76.3    14.3      M    M
 18000   -9.8  14.4   280   37   19   3.5   1.9   23.6  74.4    13.4      M    M
 17500   -9.1  15.6   280   36   19   6.2   3.4   22.8  73.0    12.7      M    M
 17000   -8.3  17.1   280   36   18   6.0   3.3   22.1  71.8    12.2      M    M
 16500   -7.3  18.9   275   35   18   8.6   4.7   21.7  71.0    11.8      M    M
 16000   -6.0  21.2   275   35   18   9.2   5.0   21.6  70.8    11.7      M    M
 15500   -4.7  23.5   270   35   18   9.0   5.0   21.5  70.7    11.6      M    M
 15000   -3.4  25.9   270   34   17   8.7   4.8   21.3  70.4    11.4      M    M
 14500   -2.2  28.0   270   32   17   8.6   4.7   21.2  70.1    11.2      M    M
 14000   -1.3  29.7   265   31   16   5.6   3.1   20.7  69.2    10.7      M    M
 13500   -0.5  31.1   260   29   15   6.6   3.6   20.0  68.1    10.1      M    M
 13000   -0.1  31.8   255   27   14  -0.3  -0.2   19.0  66.2     9.1      M    M
 12500   -0.1  31.8   250   25   13   0.5   0.3   17.5  63.5     7.7      M    M
 12000   -0.2  31.6   245   22   11  -2.1  -1.2   15.9  60.6     6.2      M    M
 11750   -0.3  31.5   240   20   10  -2.6  -1.4   14.9  58.8     5.3      M    M
 11500   -0.5  31.1   235   18    9  -2.6  -1.4   13.9  57.1     4.4      M    M
 11250   -0.7  30.7   235   17    9  -2.5  -1.4   13.0  55.3     3.5      M    M
 11000   -0.9  30.4   230   15    7  -2.0  -1.1   12.0  53.6     2.7      M    M
 10750   -1.0  30.2   235   12    6  -3.4  -1.9   11.1  51.9     1.8      M    M
 10500   -1.3  29.7   235   11    6  -4.3  -2.3   10.0  50.0     0.8      M    M
 10250   -1.6  29.1   240    9    5  -5.1  -2.8    8.9  48.0    -0.2    334  1.7
 10000   -2.5  27.5   265    6    3  -6.6  -3.6    6.4  43.5    -2.6    346  1.8
  9750   -3.0  26.6   290    5    3  -8.0  -4.4    5.1  41.2    -3.8    354  1.8
  9500   -3.5  25.7   310    5    3  -4.1  -2.3    3.8  38.9    -5.1    361  1.8
  9250   -3.6  25.5   330    5    2  -0.8  -0.5    2.9  37.3    -5.9    357  1.8
  9000   -3.7  25.3   350    5    2  -1.9  -1.0    2.1  35.8    -6.8    353  1.8
  8750   -3.7  25.3   010    6    3   3.4   1.8    1.3  34.4    -7.5    345  1.8
  8500   -3.2  26.2   025    6    3   7.5   4.1    1.1  33.9    -7.8    324  1.6
  8250   -2.7  27.1   030    7    3   6.8   3.8    0.9  33.6    -8.0    301  1.5
  8000   -2.2  28.0   040    7    4   6.7   3.7    0.7  33.2    -8.3    279  1.4
  7750   -1.7  28.9   040    7    4  10.0   5.5    0.5  32.9    -8.5    255  1.3
  7500   -0.7  30.7   045    6    3  16.6   9.1    0.8  33.4    -8.3    218  1.1
  7250    0.3  32.5   050    6    3   4.5   2.5    1.1  33.9    -8.0    181  0.9
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/12/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/12/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... -13.9  LI... +2.6               | K index... -25.8  LI... +4.7
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.8                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.3 -83.7  275  51 26   2.2   1.2 | -64.4 -83.9  275  52 27   2.2   1.2
 45000 -60.2 -76.4  275  75 39   4.8   2.6 | -60.3 -76.5  275  74 38   4.6   2.5
 40000 -52.5 -62.5  275  71 36   5.5   3.0 | -53.0 -63.4  280  72 37   6.1   3.3
 38000 -49.3 -56.7  280  70 36   5.4   3.0 | -49.4 -56.9  280  73 38   5.9   3.3
 36000 -46.1 -51.0  285  69 35   5.4   3.0 | -45.9 -50.6  285  75 39   5.9   3.2
 34000 -42.7 -44.9  285  66 34   5.7   3.1 | -42.5 -44.5  285  71 37   5.5   3.0
 32000 -39.3 -38.7  280  62 32   5.7   3.1 | -39.2 -38.6  285  65 34   5.5   3.0
 30000 -35.0 -31.0  280  57 30   8.0   4.4 | -34.9 -30.8  285  59 30   7.9   4.4
 29000 -32.6 -26.7  280  55 28   8.0   4.4 | -32.5 -26.5  280  56 29   7.9   4.4
 28000 -30.2 -22.4  280  53 27   8.0   4.4 | -30.2 -22.4  280  52 27   8.0   4.4
 27000 -28.0 -18.4  280  51 26   7.3   4.0 | -27.9 -18.2  280  50 26   7.3   4.0
 26000 -25.3 -13.5  280  48 25   7.3   4.0 | -25.2 -13.4  285  47 24   7.3   4.0
 25000 -23.1  -9.6  280  46 24   7.2   3.9 | -23.0  -9.4  285  45 23   7.2   3.9
 24000 -20.7  -5.3  285  45 23   8.3   4.6 | -20.6  -5.1  285  43 22   8.3   4.5
 23000 -18.2  -0.8  285  44 23   8.3   4.6 | -18.2  -0.8  285  42 22   8.3   4.5
 22000 -15.7   3.7  285  43 22   8.4   4.6 | -15.7   3.7  290  40 21   8.3   4.5
 21000 -13.7   7.3  290  41 21   6.0   3.3 | -13.6   7.5  290  39 20   6.3   3.5
 20000 -11.9  10.6  290  40 21   6.0   3.3 | -11.7  10.9  290  37 19   6.4   3.5
 19500 -11.0  12.2  295  40 20   6.0   3.3 | -10.7  12.7  295  36 18   6.4   3.5
 19000 -10.1  13.8  295  39 20   5.8   3.2 |  -9.8  14.4  295  35 18   6.1   3.3
 18500  -9.3  15.3  295  39 20   5.7   3.1 |  -8.9  16.0  295  34 18   6.0   3.3
 18000  -8.4  16.9  295  39 20   5.6   3.1 |  -8.0  17.6  295  33 17   6.1   3.4
 17500  -7.6  18.3  295  39 20   4.9   2.7 |  -7.0  19.4  295  33 17   7.0   3.8
 17000  -6.9  19.6  295  39 20   5.1   2.8 |  -6.0  21.2  295  33 17   7.0   3.8
 16500  -6.2  20.8  290  39 20   4.5   2.5 |  -5.0  23.0  300  33 17   6.0   3.3
 16000  -5.6  21.9  285  38 19   4.8   2.6 |  -4.1  24.6  295  34 17   5.9   3.2
 15500  -5.0  23.0  285  37 19   6.4   3.5 |  -3.2  26.2  295  34 18   5.4   3.0
 15000  -3.9  25.0  280  35 18   8.2   4.5 |  -2.5  27.5  295  35 18   5.1   2.8
 14500  -2.8  27.0  280  34 17   8.7   4.8 |  -1.7  28.9  295  36 18   5.6   3.1
 14000  -1.4  29.5  280  32 17   9.7   5.3 |  -0.8  30.6  290  35 18   7.3   4.0
 13500  -0.0  32.0  275  31 16  10.1   5.6 |   0.2  32.4  285  34 17   7.7   4.2
 13000   0.8  33.4  275  30 15   2.2   1.2 |   1.4  34.5  285  32 17   9.9   5.4
 12500   1.1  34.0  270  28 14   4.1   2.2 |   2.8  37.0  285  30 15  11.6   6.4
 12000   0.9  33.6  265  26 13  -7.0  -3.9 |   3.2  37.8  285  28 14  -0.9  -0.5
 11750   0.4  32.7  265  24 12  -5.1  -2.8 |   3.5  38.3  280  26 14   5.2   2.8
 11500  -0.0  32.0  260  23 12  -5.6  -3.1 |   3.7  38.7  280  25 13   5.8   3.2
 11250  -0.4  31.3  260  21 11  -4.8  -2.6 |   4.0  39.2  275  24 13  -2.4  -1.3
 11000  -0.7  30.7  255  19 10  -3.9  -2.1 |   3.2  37.8  275  22 11 -13.1  -7.2
 10750  -1.0  30.2  250  17  9  -4.0  -2.2 |   2.3  36.1  270  20 10 -10.9  -6.0
 10500  -1.3  29.7  245  15  8  -3.6  -2.0 |   1.5  34.7  265  19 10 -10.5  -5.8
 10250  -1.5  29.3  235  14  7  -4.9  -2.7 |   0.7  33.3  260  18  9  -9.8  -5.4
 10000  -2.4  27.7  225  11  6  -6.4  -3.5 |  -0.7  30.7  245  15  7  -8.9  -4.9
  9750  -2.9  26.8  215  10  5  -7.6  -4.2 |  -1.3  29.7  235  13  7  -8.5  -4.6
  9500  -3.3  26.1  205   9  5  -3.1  -1.7 |  -1.8  28.8  220  13  7  -3.9  -2.1
  9250  -3.3  26.1  200   8  4   0.5   0.2 |  -1.9  28.6  210  12  6  -0.5  -0.3
  9000  -3.3  26.1  190   8  4  -1.2  -0.7 |  -2.0  28.4  195  12  6  -1.8  -1.0
  8750  -3.4  25.9  175   8  4   2.5   1.4 |  -2.0  28.4  180  12  6   3.4   1.9
  8500  -2.9  26.8  165   8  4   7.5   4.1 |  -1.4  29.5  170  13  7   9.3   5.1
  8250  -2.4  27.7  155   8  4   8.0   4.4 |  -0.7  30.7  165  13  7   9.9   5.5
  8000  -1.8  28.8  150   8  4   7.5   4.1 |  -0.0  32.0  160  13  7   9.0   4.9
  7750  -1.2  29.8  150   8  4  11.5   6.3 |   0.7  33.3  160  13  7  14.0   7.7
  7500  -0.0  32.0  145   7  4  19.0  10.4 |   2.1  35.8  155  12  6  24.7  13.6
  7250   1.1  34.0  140   7  4   5.4   3.0 |   3.6  38.5  150  11  6   5.1   2.8
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           09/12/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/12/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... -12.6  LI... +3.4               | K index... +5.2  LI... +2.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.5 -84.1  275  54 28   2.0   1.1 | -64.5 -84.1  275  49 25   1.6   0.9
 45000 -60.9 -77.6  275  75 39   3.9   2.2 | -61.2 -78.2  280  73 38   4.1   2.3
 40000 -54.5 -66.1  280  71 36   7.0   3.9 | -54.5 -66.1  280  67 35   7.1   3.9
 38000 -50.4 -58.7  280  73 38   6.7   3.7 | -50.4 -58.7  280  69 35   6.9   3.8
 36000 -46.4 -51.5  280  76 39   6.7   3.7 | -46.2 -51.2  280  70 36   6.9   3.8
 34000 -42.6 -44.7  280  73 37   6.2   3.4 | -42.3 -44.1  285  67 34   6.5   3.6
 32000 -38.9 -38.0  285  67 35   6.2   3.4 | -38.4 -37.1  285  62 32   6.5   3.6
 30000 -34.6 -30.3  285  60 31   7.6   4.2 | -34.1 -29.4  285  57 29   7.3   4.0
 29000 -32.3 -26.1  285  56 29   7.6   4.2 | -31.9 -25.4  285  54 28   7.3   4.0
 28000 -30.1 -22.2  280  52 27   7.6   4.2 | -29.7 -21.5  285  51 26   7.3   4.0
 27000 -27.8 -18.0  280  49 25   7.7   4.2 | -27.4 -17.3  290  49 25   7.9   4.4
 26000 -24.9 -12.8  285  46 24   7.7   4.2 | -24.4 -11.9  290  47 24   7.9   4.4
 25000 -22.6  -8.7  285  44 23   7.7   4.2 | -22.0  -7.6  290  45 23   8.1   4.4
 24000 -20.2  -4.4  285  42 21   7.9   4.3 | -19.8  -3.6  290  43 22   7.0   3.8
 23000 -17.9  -0.2  285  39 20   7.9   4.3 | -17.8  -0.0  290  41 21   7.0   3.9
 22000 -15.5   4.1  285  37 19   7.9   4.3 | -15.7   3.7  290  39 20   7.1   3.9
 21000 -13.4   7.9  290  36 18   7.1   3.9 | -13.6   7.5  295  38 20   7.0   3.8
 20000 -11.2  11.8  290  34 18   7.1   3.9 | -11.5  11.3  295  37 19   7.0   3.8
 19500 -10.1  13.8  295  34 17   7.2   4.0 | -10.4  13.3  295  37 19   7.1   3.9
 19000  -9.1  15.6  295  33 17   5.5   3.0 |  -9.4  15.1  295  36 19   5.4   2.9
 18500  -8.3  17.1  295  34 17   5.3   2.9 |  -8.7  16.3  295  36 19   5.1   2.8
 18000  -7.6  18.3  295  34 18   5.4   3.0 |  -7.9  17.8  295  36 19   5.1   2.8
 17500  -6.7  19.9  295  35 18   5.9   3.2 |  -7.1  19.2  290  36 18   5.2   2.9
 17000  -5.8  21.6  300  36 18   5.9   3.2 |  -6.4  20.5  290  35 18   5.4   3.0
 16500  -5.0  23.0  300  36 19   5.9   3.2 |  -5.5  22.1  290  35 18   8.0   4.4
 16000  -4.1  24.6  295  37 19   6.0   3.3 |  -4.4  24.1  290  32 17   8.2   4.5
 15500  -3.3  26.1  295  37 19   6.6   3.6 |  -3.3  26.1  290  30 16   8.9   4.9
 15000  -2.3  27.9  295  35 18   7.1   3.9 |  -1.9  28.6  290  29 15   9.3   5.1
 14500  -1.4  29.5  295  33 17   7.8   4.3 |  -0.5  31.1  290  27 14   9.4   5.1
 14000  -0.2  31.6  295  31 16   9.0   4.9 |   0.9  33.6  290  25 13   9.4   5.2
 13500   1.1  34.0  295  29 15   9.0   4.9 |   2.2  36.0  295  23 12   9.5   5.2
 13000   2.4  36.3  295  27 14   8.7   4.8 |   3.5  38.3  295  21 11   7.7   4.2
 12500   3.7  38.7  295  24 12   9.8   5.4 |   4.6  40.3  295  18  9   9.0   4.9
 12000   4.4  39.9  290  21 11   2.1   1.1 |   5.1  41.2  295  14  7   1.2   0.7
 11750   4.7  40.5  290  20 10   5.4   3.0 |   5.4  41.7  295  13  7   4.6   2.5
 11500   5.0  41.0  290  18  9   6.6   3.6 |   5.7  42.3  295  11  6   5.5   3.0
 11250   5.4  41.7  290  16  8  -1.3  -0.7 |   5.9  42.6  295   9  5  -1.2  -0.7
 11000   4.7  40.5  285  15  8 -11.7  -6.4 |   5.4  41.7  285   8  4  -9.9  -5.4
 10750   3.8  38.8  280  13  7 -12.3  -6.7 |   4.7  40.5  280   7  4  -8.3  -4.5
 10500   2.8  37.0  280  12  6 -12.8  -7.0 |   4.1  39.4  270   6  3  -6.4  -3.5
 10250   1.8  35.2  275  11  6 -14.2  -7.8 |   3.5  38.3  255   5  3 -10.8  -5.9
 10000  -0.5  31.1  250   7  4 -14.0  -7.7 |   1.3  34.3  230   6  3 -14.3  -7.8
  9750  -1.4  29.5  225   7  3  -9.7  -5.3 |   0.3  32.5  220   8  4 -13.8  -7.6
  9500  -1.8  28.8  200   7  4  -0.7  -0.4 |  -0.5  31.1  210   9  5  -4.6  -2.5
  9250  -1.5  29.3  185   8  4   5.9   3.2 |  -0.4  31.3  200  10  5   3.3   1.8
  9000  -1.2  29.8  175   9  5   3.6   2.0 |  -0.3  31.5  190  11  6   0.7   0.4
  8750  -0.9  30.4  165  11  6   5.6   3.1 |  -0.1  31.8  185  13  6   2.8   1.5
  8500  -0.3  31.5  160  12  6   9.7   5.3 |   0.2  32.4  175  14  7   7.2   3.9
  8250   0.5  32.9  160  12  6  11.1   6.1 |   0.8  33.4  175  14  7   9.3   5.1
  8000   1.2  34.2  160  12  6  11.0   6.0 |   1.5  34.7  175  14  7   8.1   4.4
  7750   2.1  35.8  150  12  6  14.7   8.1 |   2.1  35.8  170  13  7  10.8   5.9
  7500   3.4  38.1  150  11  6  19.4  10.7 |   3.1  37.6  165  12  6  16.8   9.2
  7250   4.7  40.5  150  11  6  11.5   6.3 |   4.2  39.6  165  11  6   6.2   3.4
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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