Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 141246
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0646 MDT Tuesday, October 14, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, October 14, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 56.0 F/13.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 464 ft/min (2.4 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 13400 ft MSL (6642 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 67.0 F/19.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 12207 ft MSL (5449 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/15.... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 12655 ft MSL (5897 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 46070 ft MSL (39312 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/15....... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:07:35 / 18:23:20 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 15 min 45 sec (675 min 45 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:45:01 MDT... 42.74 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 10/14/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14097 ft MSL (7339 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 20320 ft MSL (13562 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17380 ft MSL (10622 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +4.2
K index......................... -7.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -67.1 -88.8   325   55   28   2.3   1.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -63.1 -81.6   325   72   37   4.4   2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -56.2 -69.2   335   61   32   6.3   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -52.1 -61.8   335   56   29   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -48.0 -54.4   335   51   26   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -43.3 -45.9   340   49   25   8.3   4.6      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -38.3 -36.9   340   47   24   8.3   4.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -34.1 -29.4   345   45   23   6.1   3.3   36.9  98.3    13.4      M    M
 29000  -32.3 -26.1   345   45   23   6.1   3.3   35.4  95.8    12.4      M    M
 28000  -30.1 -22.2   350   44   23   6.1   3.3   33.8  92.9    11.4      M    M
 27000  -28.1 -18.6   350   44   22   6.6   3.6   32.5  90.6    10.4      M    M
 26000  -26.1 -15.0   350   44   22   6.6   3.6   31.3  88.4     9.6      M    M
 25000  -24.2 -11.6   350   43   22   6.6   3.6   30.3  86.5     8.8      M    M
 24000  -22.0  -7.6   345   42   22   7.8   4.3   29.4  84.9     8.2      M    M
 23000  -19.7  -3.5   345   41   21   7.8   4.3   28.6  83.5     7.6      M    M
 22000  -17.4   0.7   345   39   20   7.8   4.3   28.0  82.4     7.1      M    M
 21000  -15.0   5.0   345   38   20   7.8   4.3   27.3  81.2     6.6      M    M
 20000  -12.7   9.1   345   38   20   7.8   4.3   26.6  79.9     6.1      M    M
 19500  -11.5  11.3   350   38   19   7.9   4.3   26.3  79.4     5.9      M    M
 19000  -10.3  13.5   350   38   19   8.4   4.6   26.1  78.9     5.7      M    M
 18500   -9.0  15.8   345   36   19   8.9   4.9   25.9  78.6     5.5      M    M
 18000   -7.7  18.1   345   34   18   9.1   5.0   25.8  78.4     5.5      M    M
 17500   -6.5  20.3   345   34   17   7.1   3.9   25.5  77.9     5.2      M    M
 17000   -5.4  22.3   345   34   18   7.2   4.0   25.1  77.2     4.9      M    M
 16500   -4.3  24.3   345   34   18   6.9   3.8   24.7  76.4     4.6      M    M
 16000   -3.3  26.1   345   34   17   6.6   3.6   24.1  75.5     4.1      M    M
 15500   -2.2  28.0   350   33   17   6.5   3.6   23.6  74.6     3.7      M    M
 15000   -1.4  29.5   350   32   16   5.1   2.8   23.0  73.3     3.1      M    M
 14500   -0.6  30.9   350   31   16   5.4   3.0   22.2  72.0     2.4      M    M
 14000    0.2  32.4   350   30   16   2.6   1.4   20.7  69.3     1.1      M    M
 13500    0.5  32.9   350   29   15   2.4   1.3   19.6  67.2    -0.0    464  2.4
 13000    0.8  33.4   350   27   14   1.4   0.8   18.3  64.9    -1.3    442  2.2
 12500    1.0  33.8   350   25   13   1.8   1.0   17.0  62.5    -2.5    422  2.1
 12000    1.4  34.5   345   22   12   3.7   2.0   15.9  60.6    -3.6    395  2.0
 11750    1.6  34.9   345   21   11   3.5   1.9   15.4  59.7    -4.1    380  1.9
 11500    1.9  35.4   345   20   10   3.7   2.0   14.9  58.9    -4.6    365  1.9
 11250    2.1  35.8   340   19   10   4.7   2.6   14.5  58.1    -5.1    350  1.8
 11000    2.5  36.5   340   18    9   4.0   2.2   14.1  57.4    -5.5    332  1.7
 10750    2.7  36.9   335   17    9   2.7   1.5   13.6  56.4    -6.0    319  1.6
 10500    2.9  37.2   335   15    8   3.3   1.8   13.1  55.5    -6.6    306  1.6
 10250    3.1  37.6   330   15    7   5.2   2.9   12.6  54.7    -7.0    290  1.5
 10000    3.6  38.5   330   14    7   6.3   3.5   12.3  54.2    -7.3    269  1.4
  9750    4.0  39.2   330   13    7   5.7   3.1   12.0  53.7    -7.7    249  1.3
  9500    4.4  39.9   330   12    6   6.0   3.3   11.7  53.1    -8.0    229  1.2
  9250    4.9  40.8   330   12    6   6.6   3.6   11.5  52.6    -8.3    208  1.1
  9000    5.4  41.7   335   11    6   6.6   3.6   11.2  52.2    -8.6    186  0.9
  8750    5.8  42.4   340   10    5   6.9   3.8   11.0  51.8    -8.8    164  0.8
  8500    6.3  43.3   340   10    5   4.8   2.6   10.7  51.3    -9.1    143  0.7
  8250    6.5  43.7   340   10    5   2.3   1.2   10.2  50.4    -9.7    129  0.7
  8000    6.7  44.1   340   11    6   2.3   1.3    9.7  49.4   -10.3    117  0.6
  7750    6.8  44.2   335   12    6   2.2   1.2    9.1  48.4   -10.9    105  0.5
  7500    6.6  43.9   330   12    6 -12.8  -7.0    8.3  46.9   -11.8    105  0.5
  7250    4.9  40.8   320   10    5 -26.1 -14.3    6.2  43.2   -13.8    148  0.8
  7000    3.2  37.8   315    9    5 -16.0  -8.8    4.2  39.6   -15.8    191  1.0
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           10/14/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       10/14/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... -9.7  LI... +4.3                | K index... -11.2  LI... +4.2
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... 0.0                    | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.2 -89.0  320  53 27   2.4   1.3 | -67.5 -89.5  320  49 25   2.1   1.2
 45000 -63.0 -81.4  325  68 35   4.4   2.4 | -63.0 -81.4  325  61 31   5.3   2.9
 40000 -55.8 -68.4  340  51 26   6.9   3.8 | -54.9 -66.8  330  41 21   6.5   3.6
 38000 -51.6 -60.9  335  46 24   7.1   3.9 | -51.0 -59.8  330  41 21   6.5   3.6
 36000 -47.4 -53.3  330  41 21   7.1   3.9 | -47.1 -52.8  330  42 21   6.5   3.6
 34000 -43.2 -45.8  335  40 21   6.9   3.8 | -43.2 -45.8  335  42 22   6.6   3.6
 32000 -39.1 -38.4  340  41 21   6.8   3.8 | -39.2 -38.6  335  42 22   6.6   3.6
 30000 -35.0 -31.0  345  42 21   7.0   3.8 | -34.4 -29.9  340  43 22   7.4   4.1
 29000 -32.9 -27.2  345  42 21   7.0   3.8 | -32.2 -26.0  340  44 22   7.4   4.1
 28000 -30.3 -22.5  345  42 21   7.0   3.9 | -30.0 -22.0  340  44 23   7.5   4.1
 27000 -28.1 -18.6  350  43 22   7.2   4.0 | -27.7 -17.9  340  44 23   7.7   4.2
 26000 -26.0 -14.8  350  45 23   7.2   4.0 | -25.4 -13.7  345  45 23   7.7   4.2
 25000 -23.8 -10.8  350  47 24   7.2   4.0 | -23.1  -9.6  345  45 23   7.7   4.2
 24000 -21.5  -6.7  350  47 24   7.9   4.3 | -20.9  -5.6  350  44 23   7.4   4.1
 23000 -19.2  -2.6  350  46 24   7.9   4.3 | -18.6  -1.5  350  42 21   7.5   4.1
 22000 -16.8   1.8  350  45 23   8.0   4.4 | -16.4   2.5  350  40 20   7.5   4.1
 21000 -14.6   5.7  350  43 22   7.3   4.0 | -14.2   6.4  350  37 19   7.4   4.0
 20000 -12.4   9.7  350  41 21   7.3   4.0 | -12.0  10.4  350  35 18   7.4   4.0
 19500 -11.4  11.5  350  40 20   7.3   4.0 | -10.9  12.4  350  34 17   7.4   4.0
 19000 -10.3  13.5  350  38 20   7.9   4.4 |  -9.8  14.4  350  33 17   7.7   4.2
 18500  -9.0  15.8  350  37 19   8.3   4.5 |  -8.7  16.3  350  32 16   7.8   4.3
 18000  -7.7  18.1  350  36 19   8.3   4.6 |  -7.5  18.5  350  31 16   7.8   4.3
 17500  -6.6  20.1  350  35 18   7.4   4.1 |  -6.3  20.7  350  30 15   7.8   4.3
 17000  -5.5  22.1  350  34 18   7.5   4.1 |  -5.2  22.6  350  29 15   7.8   4.3
 16500  -4.3  24.3  350  33 17   7.3   4.0 |  -4.0  24.8  350  28 14   7.1   3.9
 16000  -3.3  26.1  350  32 17   7.2   3.9 |  -3.0  26.6  350  27 14   6.9   3.8
 15500  -2.2  28.0  350  32 16   7.0   3.8 |  -2.0  28.4  350  27 14   6.8   3.7
 15000  -1.2  29.8  350  31 16   6.4   3.5 |  -1.0  30.2  350  26 13   6.5   3.6
 14500  -0.3  31.5  350  31 16   6.5   3.6 |   0.5  32.9  350  25 13   6.3   3.4
 14000   1.0  33.8  350  29 15   5.1   2.8 |   1.4  34.5  350  25 13   6.1   3.3
 13500   1.7  35.1  350  29 15   4.6   2.5 |   2.3  36.1  350  24 12   5.8   3.2
 13000   2.3  36.1  350  27 14   3.8   2.1 |   3.1  37.6  350  24 12   5.3   2.9
 12500   2.9  37.2  350  25 13   3.5   1.9 |   4.0  39.2  350  23 12   4.5   2.5
 12000   3.3  37.9  350  23 12   2.8   1.5 |   4.6  40.3  345  22 11   4.5   2.5
 11750   3.5  38.3  345  22 11   2.8   1.6 |   4.9  40.8  345  21 11   4.4   2.4
 11500   3.7  38.7  345  21 11   2.8   1.5 |   5.2  41.4  345  20 10   4.3   2.3
 11250   3.9  39.0  345  19 10   2.6   1.4 |   5.5  41.9  340  19 10   3.7   2.0
 11000   4.0  39.2  345  18  9   2.3   1.3 |   5.7  42.3  340  18  9   3.3   1.8
 10750   4.2  39.6  345  17  9   2.0   1.1 |   6.0  42.8  340  17  9   3.2   1.8
 10500   4.3  39.7  350  16  8   2.7   1.5 |   6.2  43.2  340  15  8   3.4   1.8
 10250   4.5  40.1  350  15  8   4.4   2.4 |   6.4  43.5  335  14  7   3.5   1.9
 10000   4.9  40.8  350  14  7   4.9   2.7 |   6.7  44.1  335  12  6   3.9   2.2
  9750   5.2  41.4  350  12  6   4.3   2.3 |   6.9  44.4  330  10  5   4.0   2.2
  9500   5.5  41.9  355  11  6   4.7   2.6 |   7.2  45.0  320   8  4   5.2   2.9
  9250   5.9  42.6  350  10  5   5.5   3.0 |   7.6  45.7  310   7  4   7.1   3.9
  9000   6.3  43.3  350   9  5   5.7   3.1 |   8.2  46.8  300   6  3   7.5   4.1
  8750   6.7  44.1  345   8  4   5.4   3.0 |   8.7  47.7  290   5  2   9.1   5.0
  8500   7.1  44.8  345   7  3   4.9   2.7 |   9.4  48.9  275   4  2  10.4   5.7
  8250   7.4  45.3  335   7  4   4.3   2.3 |  10.2  50.4  270   4  2  10.3   5.7
  8000   7.7  45.9  330   8  4   5.5   3.0 |  11.0  51.8  265   3  2  10.0   5.5
  7750   8.0  46.4  325   8  4   1.1   0.6 |  11.7  53.1  260   3  2  11.4   6.2
  7500   7.8  46.0  320   9  4  -2.4  -1.3 |  12.6  54.7  260   3  2  10.9   6.0
  7250   7.7  45.9  315   7  4  -0.0  -0.0 |  13.3  55.9  255   3  2   8.7   4.8
  7000   7.6  45.7  310   6  3  -2.2  -1.2 |  14.0  57.2  250   3  1  10.5   5.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           10/14/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       10/14/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... -10.7  LI... +3.9               | K index... -8.6  LI... +4.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -68.7 -91.7  315  46 24   2.9   1.6 | -68.8 -91.8  305  51 26   3.1   1.7
 45000 -62.7 -80.9  325  61 31   6.5   3.6 | -62.5 -80.5  320  58 30   6.9   3.8
 40000 -53.1 -63.6  320  48 25   4.7   2.6 | -52.4 -62.3  325  54 28   3.5   1.9
 38000 -50.2 -58.4  325  46 24   4.8   2.6 | -50.1 -58.2  325  50 26   3.9   2.1
 36000 -47.4 -53.3  325  44 23   4.8   2.7 | -47.8 -54.0  325  47 24   3.9   2.2
 34000 -43.6 -46.5  330  42 22   6.9   3.8 | -43.9 -47.0  330  43 22   7.5   4.1
 32000 -39.4 -38.9  335  40 21   7.0   3.8 | -38.9 -38.0  330  39 20   7.4   4.0
 30000 -34.2 -29.6  340  40 20   8.2   4.5 | -33.9 -29.0  335  37 19   8.5   4.6
 29000 -31.7 -25.1  340  40 21   8.2   4.5 | -31.4 -24.5  335  36 18   8.5   4.6
 28000 -29.3 -20.7  345  40 21   8.0   4.4 | -28.9 -20.0  335  35 18   8.2   4.5
 27000 -27.0 -16.6  345  41 21   7.6   4.1 | -26.5 -15.7  340  34 17   7.7   4.2
 26000 -24.7 -12.5  345  41 21   7.6   4.1 | -24.2 -11.6  340  33 17   7.7   4.2
 25000 -22.4  -8.3  345  41 21   7.6   4.2 | -21.9  -7.4  345  32 16   7.8   4.3
 24000 -20.2  -4.4  345  39 20   7.3   4.0 | -19.7  -3.5  345  31 16   7.3   4.0
 23000 -18.1  -0.6  345  37 19   7.3   4.0 | -17.5   0.5  345  30 15   7.3   4.0
 22000 -15.9   3.4  345  35 18   7.3   4.0 | -15.3   4.5  345  28 15   7.3   4.0
 21000 -13.7   7.3  345  33 17   7.4   4.1 | -13.1   8.4  340  27 14   7.3   4.0
 20000 -11.5  11.3  345  31 16   7.4   4.1 | -10.9  12.4  340  26 13   7.3   4.0
 19500 -10.4  13.3  340  30 15   7.4   4.1 |  -9.8  14.4  340  25 13   7.3   4.0
 19000  -9.2  15.4  340  29 15   8.0   4.4 |  -8.7  16.3  340  24 13   8.0   4.4
 18500  -8.0  17.6  340  28 14   8.2   4.5 |  -7.5  18.5  335  24 12   8.1   4.5
 18000  -6.8  19.8  340  28 14   8.2   4.5 |  -6.3  20.7  335  23 12   8.1   4.4
 17500  -5.6  21.9  340  27 14   7.7   4.2 |  -5.1  22.8  335  23 12   7.7   4.2
 17000  -4.4  24.1  335  26 13   7.8   4.3 |  -4.0  24.8  335  23 12   7.8   4.3
 16500  -3.3  26.1  335  26 13   7.2   3.9 |  -2.8  27.0  335  22 11   7.0   3.8
 16000  -2.2  28.0  335  25 13   7.0   3.9 |  -1.8  28.8  335  22 11   6.8   3.7
 15500  -1.2  29.8  335  25 13   6.8   3.8 |  -0.3  31.5  330  21 11   6.2   3.4
 15000   0.3  32.5  335  24 12   6.5   3.6 |   0.6  33.1  330  20 10   6.3   3.4
 14500   1.2  34.2  340  23 12   6.2   3.4 |   1.5  34.7  330  20 10   6.3   3.5
 14000   2.1  35.8  340  23 12   6.1   3.3 |   2.4  36.3  330  19 10   6.4   3.5
 13500   3.0  37.4  340  22 11   6.0   3.3 |   3.4  38.1  330  18  9   6.4   3.5
 13000   3.9  39.0  340  21 11   5.9   3.3 |   4.3  39.7  330  17  9   6.5   3.6
 12500   4.8  40.6  345  21 11   5.4   3.0 |   5.3  41.5  330  16  8   6.8   3.7
 12000   5.6  42.1  340  20 10   5.9   3.2 |   6.3  43.3  330  15  8   7.0   3.8
 11750   6.1  43.0  340  20 10   5.8   3.2 |   6.8  44.2  330  14  7   6.9   3.8
 11500   6.5  43.7  340  20 10   5.7   3.1 |   7.3  45.1  330  14  7   7.4   4.1
 11250   6.9  44.4  340  19 10   5.1   2.8 |   7.9  46.2  330  13  7   7.5   4.1
 11000   7.2  45.0  335  17  9   4.8   2.6 |   8.4  47.1  330  12  6   6.2   3.4
 10750   7.5  45.5  335  16  8   4.8   2.6 |   8.8  47.8  330  12  6   5.9   3.2
 10500   7.9  46.2  335  14  7   5.1   2.8 |   9.3  48.7  335  11  6   5.7   3.1
 10250   8.2  46.8  330  12  6   4.9   2.7 |   9.6  49.3  335   9  5   5.1   2.8
 10000   8.5  47.3  325   9  5   6.7   3.7 |   9.9  49.8  335   8  4   4.7   2.6
  9750   9.1  48.4  325   7  4   9.0   4.9 |  10.2  50.4  340   6  3   4.4   2.4
  9500   9.7  49.5  320   5  3   8.6   4.7 |  10.5  50.9  350   4  2   4.3   2.3
  9250  10.3  50.5  315   4  2   8.2   4.5 |  10.8  51.4  360   2  1   3.8   2.1
  9000  10.9  51.6  310   3  2   8.3   4.5 |  11.0  51.8  025   1  0   3.9   2.1
  8750  11.6  52.9  300   2  1   9.2   5.0 |  11.3  52.3  145   1  1   4.2   2.3
  8500  12.3  54.1  295   2  1  10.2   5.6 |  11.6  52.9  155   3  1   5.5   3.0
  8250  13.1  55.6  290   1  1  10.5   5.8 |  12.1  53.8  160   4  2   6.7   3.7
  8000  13.8  56.8  280   1  1  10.6   5.8 |  12.6  54.7  165   5  2   6.3   3.5
  7750  14.6  58.3  265   1  1  10.0   5.5 |  13.0  55.4  165   6  3   7.2   4.0
  7500  15.3  59.5  260   1  0   9.3   5.1 |  13.5  56.3  165   6  3   2.9   1.6
  7250  16.0  60.8  250   1  0   9.5   5.2 |  13.4  56.1  165   5  3  -1.9  -1.0
  7000  16.7  62.1  235   1  0   9.3   5.1 |  13.3  55.9  160   5  2   1.9   1.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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