Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 241116
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0516 MDT Sunday, August 24, 2014

This forecast is for Sunday, August 24, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 65.6 F/18.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1144 ft/min (5.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 17325 ft MSL (10567 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 76.0 F/24.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1000 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 14871 ft MSL (8113 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 08/25....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Good
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Fair
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... 16870 ft MSL (10112 ft AGL)
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 40053 ft MSL (33295 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 08/25.......... Fair

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:20:41 / 19:42:32 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 21 min 52 sec (801 min 52 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:01:13 MDT... 61.97 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/24/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14026 ft MSL (7268 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 14291 ft MSL (7533 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15453 ft MSL (8695 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -3.0
K index......................... +26.5

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.1 -78.0   245   28   14   1.9   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -57.9 -72.2   250   42   21   2.9   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.4 -64.1   250   57   29   3.7   2.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -51.1 -60.0   255   58   30   3.9   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -48.7 -55.7   260   59   30   3.9   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -44.0 -47.2   255   58   30   8.5   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -38.9 -38.0   255   58   30   8.5   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -33.7 -28.7   250   56   29   8.5   4.7   36.0  96.7     8.9      M    M
 29000  -31.2 -24.2   250   54   28   8.5   4.7   35.5  95.9     8.7      M    M
 28000  -28.6 -19.5   250   53   27   8.4   4.6   35.2  95.4     8.5      M    M
 27000  -26.4 -15.5   250   51   26   7.1   3.9   34.2  93.5     7.8      M    M
 26000  -24.3 -11.7   250   49   25   7.1   3.9   33.2  91.7     7.1      M    M
 25000  -22.2  -8.0   245   47   24   7.0   3.8   32.3  90.1     6.4      M    M
 24000  -19.6  -3.3   245   44   23   9.2   5.0   31.8  89.2     6.0      M    M
 23000  -16.9   1.6   250   41   21   9.2   5.0   31.5  88.8     5.9      M    M
 22000  -14.1   6.6   250   38   20   9.4   5.1   31.4  88.5     5.9      M    M
 21000  -11.8  10.8   250   36   19   7.1   3.9   30.7  87.2     5.3      M    M
 20000   -9.7  14.5   250   34   18   7.2   3.9   29.7  85.5     4.5      M    M
 19500   -8.6  16.5   250   33   17   7.0   3.9   29.3  84.8     4.1      M    M
 19000   -7.6  18.3   245   32   17   5.2   2.8   29.0  84.1     3.8      M    M
 18500   -7.2  19.0   250   32   16   3.3   1.8   27.8  82.0     2.7      M    M
 18000   -6.8  19.8   255   31   16   3.3   1.8   26.7  80.1     1.7      M    M
 17500   -6.4  20.5   255   30   15   2.9   1.6   25.6  78.0     0.6      M    M
 17000   -6.0  21.2   250   28   14   3.1   1.7   24.4  76.0    -0.5    933  4.7
 16500   -5.6  21.9   250   26   13   5.6   3.1   23.4  74.1    -1.5    906  4.6
 16000   -3.9  25.0   250   27   14   7.7   4.2   22.8  73.1    -2.1    833  4.2
 15500   -2.8  27.0   255   27   14   7.0   3.8   22.4  72.4    -2.5    786  4.0
 15000   -1.9  28.6   255   27   14   6.9   3.8   22.0  71.5    -3.0    742  3.8
 14500   -0.9  30.4   255   27   14   7.6   4.2   21.5  70.7    -3.5    698  3.5
 14000    0.3  32.5   250   25   13   8.4   4.6   21.3  70.3    -3.8    648  3.3
 13500    1.5  34.7   250   24   12   8.5   4.7   21.1  69.9    -4.1    598  3.0
 13000    2.7  36.9   245   23   12   8.9   4.9   20.9  69.6    -4.3    545  2.8
 12500    4.0  39.2   245   21   11   8.3   4.5   20.8  69.4    -4.5    492  2.5
 12000    5.2  41.4   245   21   11   8.5   4.6   20.5  68.9    -4.9    443  2.2
 11750    5.8  42.4   245   20   10   8.3   4.6   20.4  68.7    -5.0    417  2.1
 11500    6.4  43.5   245   20   10   8.3   4.6   20.3  68.5    -5.1    391  2.0
 11250    7.0  44.6   240   19   10   7.7   4.2   20.2  68.3    -5.2    365  1.9
 11000    7.5  45.5   240   19   10   7.4   4.1   20.0  67.9    -5.4    341  1.7
 10750    8.1  46.6   240   18   10   7.6   4.2   19.8  67.6    -5.6    317  1.6
 10500    8.6  47.5   240   18    9   7.5   4.1   19.6  67.3    -5.8    294  1.5
 10250    9.2  48.6   240   18    9   6.0   3.3   19.4  66.9    -6.0    271  1.4
 10000    9.6  49.3   235   17    9   5.0   2.7   19.1  66.3    -6.4    251  1.3
  9750   10.0  50.0   235   17    9   5.4   3.0   18.7  65.7    -6.7    232  1.2
  9500   10.4  50.7   230   16    8   5.1   2.8   18.4  65.1    -7.1    212  1.1
  9250   10.7  51.3   225   15    8   3.9   2.1   18.0  64.3    -7.4    194  1.0
  9000   11.0  51.8   220   14    7   3.4   1.8   17.5  63.5    -7.9    177  0.9
  8750   11.4  52.5   215   12    6   4.7   2.6   17.0  62.7    -8.3    160  0.8
  8500   11.8  53.2   205   11    6   5.6   3.1   16.7  62.1    -8.6    140  0.7
  8250   12.2  54.0   200   10    5   6.1   3.3   16.4  61.5    -9.0    120  0.6
  8000   12.7  54.9   195    9    5   5.3   2.9   16.1  61.0    -9.3    100  0.5
  7750   13.1  55.6   185    8    4   8.8   4.8   15.8  60.5    -9.6     79  0.4
  7500   13.7  56.7   180    8    4   3.3   1.8   15.8  60.4    -9.7     53  0.3
  7250   13.4  56.1   180    7    3  -6.7  -3.7   15.1  59.3   -10.4     56  0.3
  7000   12.9  55.2   190    5    3  -0.4  -0.2   14.5  58.1   -11.2     61  0.3
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/24/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/24/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +23.9  LI... +0.9               | K index... +28.1  LI... -0.1
CAPE... +107.3  CIN... -47.4               | CAPE... +255.3  CIN... -15.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.6 -77.1  245  26 14   2.2   1.2 | -61.6 -78.9  245  24 12   2.3   1.3
 45000 -57.5 -71.5  250  45 23   1.7   0.9 | -58.3 -72.9  260  40 21   1.9   1.1
 40000 -54.6 -66.3  260  62 32   5.9   3.2 | -54.9 -66.8  270  66 34   6.6   3.6
 38000 -51.4 -60.5  260  61 32   5.4   3.0 | -51.2 -60.2  265  63 32   6.2   3.4
 36000 -48.1 -54.6  255  61 31   5.5   3.0 | -47.4 -53.3  260  61 31   6.3   3.5
 34000 -43.6 -46.5  250  60 31   8.3   4.5 | -42.9 -45.2  255  58 30   8.0   4.4
 32000 -38.7 -37.7  250  58 30   8.3   4.5 | -38.2 -36.8  250  56 29   8.0   4.4
 30000 -33.8 -28.8  250  56 29   8.0   4.4 | -33.2 -27.8  250  53 27   8.4   4.6
 29000 -31.5 -24.7  250  54 28   8.0   4.4 | -30.7 -23.3  250  51 26   8.4   4.6
 28000 -28.5 -19.3  250  52 27   7.5   4.1 | -27.6 -17.7  250  49 25   7.6   4.2
 27000 -26.4 -15.5  250  50 26   6.7   3.7 | -25.6 -14.1  250  48 24   6.7   3.7
 26000 -24.4 -11.9  250  49 25   6.7   3.7 | -23.6 -10.5  250  46 24   6.7   3.7
 25000 -22.4  -8.3  250  48 25   6.6   3.6 | -21.6  -6.9  250  44 23   6.6   3.6
 24000 -20.0  -4.0  250  46 24   8.6   4.7 | -19.5  -3.1  250  43 22   7.4   4.0
 23000 -17.5   0.5  250  44 23   8.6   4.7 | -17.3   0.9  250  41 21   7.4   4.1
 22000 -15.0   5.0  250  43 22   8.7   4.7 | -15.1   4.8  255  40 20   7.4   4.1
 21000 -12.5   9.5  250  39 20   8.3   4.5 | -12.5   9.5  250  38 19   8.9   4.9
 20000 -10.0  14.0  250  35 18   8.3   4.5 |  -9.9  14.2  250  35 18   8.9   4.9
 19500  -8.8  16.2  245  33 17   8.3   4.6 |  -8.6  16.5  250  34 18   9.0   4.9
 19000  -7.7  18.1  245  32 16   5.3   2.9 |  -7.4  18.7  250  33 17   6.5   3.5
 18500  -7.1  19.2  250  32 17   4.0   2.2 |  -6.6  20.1  250  34 17   5.8   3.2
 18000  -6.6  20.1  255  33 17   4.0   2.2 |  -5.8  21.6  250  35 18   5.7   3.1
 17500  -6.1  21.0  260  33 17   3.0   1.7 |  -5.3  22.5  255  36 18   2.3   1.3
 17000  -5.7  21.7  260  32 16   3.1   1.7 |  -5.0  23.0  260  37 19   2.6   1.5
 16500  -5.2  22.6  265  31 16   4.8   2.6 |  -4.6  23.7  260  38 20   4.5   2.5
 16000  -4.5  23.9  265  29 15   5.4   3.0 |  -3.9  25.0  260  36 18   5.0   2.8
 15500  -3.7  25.3  265  27 14   6.2   3.4 |  -3.3  26.1  260  33 17   5.9   3.2
 15000  -2.7  27.1  265  26 13   8.2   4.5 |  -2.3  27.9  260  31 16   7.5   4.1
 14500  -1.5  29.3  265  25 13   8.2   4.5 |  -1.2  29.8  260  28 14   7.6   4.2
 14000   0.2  32.4  260  24 12   7.8   4.3 |   0.6  33.1  260  24 13   8.7   4.8
 13500   1.3  34.3  255  23 12   8.2   4.5 |   1.8  35.2  255  22 11   8.5   4.7
 13000   2.5  36.5  255  22 11   8.7   4.8 |   3.0  37.4  250  20 10   8.1   4.5
 12500   3.7  38.7  250  21 11   7.7   4.2 |   4.2  39.6  245  18  9   7.1   3.9
 12000   4.8  40.6  245  20 10   8.7   4.8 |   5.2  41.4  235  17  9   8.4   4.6
 11750   5.5  41.9  245  19 10   8.5   4.7 |   5.9  42.6  235  16  8   8.3   4.6
 11500   6.1  43.0  245  19 10   8.2   4.5 |   6.5  43.7  230  16  8   7.3   4.0
 11250   6.6  43.9  240  19 10   7.6   4.1 |   7.0  44.6  225  16  8   7.3   4.0
 11000   7.2  45.0  240  18  9   7.9   4.3 |   7.6  45.7  225  16  8   9.0   4.9
 10750   7.8  46.0  235  18  9   8.2   4.5 |   8.3  46.9  220  15  8   9.3   5.1
 10500   8.4  47.1  235  17  9   7.9   4.3 |   8.9  48.0  215  15  8   8.8   4.8
 10250   8.9  48.0  235  17  9   6.7   3.7 |   9.5  49.1  210  15  8   6.0   3.3
 10000   9.4  48.9  230  17  9   6.7   3.7 |   9.9  49.8  200  15  8   8.1   4.5
  9750   9.9  49.8  230  17  9   7.7   4.2 |  10.7  51.3  200  15  8  11.5   6.3
  9500  10.4  50.7  225  16  8   6.8   3.7 |  11.5  52.7  195  15  8  10.2   5.6
  9250  10.9  51.6  225  16  8   4.6   2.5 |  12.3  54.1  195  15  8   9.2   5.1
  9000  11.2  52.2  220  16  8   4.2   2.3 |  12.9  55.2  190  15  8   9.1   5.0
  8750  11.6  52.9  215  15  8   6.8   3.8 |  13.7  56.7  190  15  8  10.6   5.8
  8500  12.2  54.0  205  15  7   8.2   4.5 |  14.5  58.1  190  15  8  11.0   6.0
  8250  12.8  55.0  200  14  7   8.1   4.4 |  15.3  59.5  190  15  8  10.5   5.7
  8000  13.4  56.1  195  13  6   7.6   4.1 |  16.1  61.0  190  15  8  10.3   5.7
  7750  14.0  57.2  190  12  6   9.8   5.4 |  16.9  62.4  185  15  8  11.0   6.0
  7500  14.8  58.6  185  12  6  10.3   5.7 |  17.7  63.9  185  15  8  13.0   7.1
  7250  15.5  59.9  185  11  6   8.0   4.4 |  18.7  65.7  185  15  7  13.9   7.7
  7000  16.1  61.0  185  10  5  10.0   5.5 |  19.7  67.5  185  14  7  13.3   7.3
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/24/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/24/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +27.1  LI... -1.6               | K index... +30.3  LI... -2.3
CAPE... +556.4  CIN... -9.7                | CAPE... +609.6  CIN... -20.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.1 -79.8  245  25 13   1.3   0.7 | -62.1 -79.8  250  27 14   0.8   0.4
 45000 -59.5 -75.1  255  41 21   3.0   1.7 | -59.9 -75.8  260  44 23   3.4   1.9
 40000 -54.4 -65.9  265  64 33   6.5   3.6 | -54.2 -65.6  265  58 30   6.3   3.4
 38000 -50.6 -59.1  265  61 31   6.3   3.5 | -50.5 -58.9  265  56 29   6.2   3.4
 36000 -46.8 -52.2  260  59 30   6.3   3.5 | -46.8 -52.2  260  55 28   6.2   3.4
 34000 -42.3 -44.1  260  56 29   7.8   4.3 | -42.3 -44.1  260  54 28   7.8   4.3
 32000 -37.7 -35.9  255  54 28   7.8   4.3 | -37.6 -35.7  260  53 27   7.8   4.3
 30000 -32.8 -27.0  255  52 27   8.4   4.6 | -32.8 -27.0  260  50 26   8.1   4.4
 29000 -30.3 -22.5  255  52 27   8.4   4.6 | -30.4 -22.7  260  49 25   8.1   4.4
 28000 -27.2 -17.0  255  51 26   7.1   3.9 | -28.0 -18.4  260  48 24   8.1   4.4
 27000 -25.3 -13.5  255  50 26   6.1   3.3 | -25.5 -13.9  260  46 24   6.5   3.6
 26000 -23.5 -10.3  255  49 25   6.1   3.3 | -23.5 -10.3  260  45 23   6.6   3.6
 25000 -21.7  -7.1  260  48 25   6.0   3.3 | -21.6  -6.9  260  44 23   6.6   3.6
 24000 -19.6  -3.3  260  47 24   7.3   4.0 | -19.4  -2.9  260  43 22   7.6   4.1
 23000 -17.5   0.5  260  45 23   7.3   4.0 | -17.2   1.0  260  43 22   7.6   4.2
 22000 -15.3   4.5  260  44 22   7.5   4.1 | -14.9   5.2  260  42 22   7.7   4.2
 21000 -12.7   9.1  260  41 21   9.0   5.0 | -12.6   9.3  260  40 21   8.0   4.4
 20000 -10.0  14.0  255  39 20   9.1   5.0 | -10.2  13.6  255  37 19   8.0   4.4
 19500  -8.7  16.3  255  38 20   9.2   5.0 |  -9.0  15.8  255  35 18   8.1   4.4
 19000  -7.4  18.7  255  37 19   7.6   4.2 |  -7.9  17.8  255  34 18   7.4   4.1
 18500  -6.3  20.7  255  36 19   7.4   4.0 |  -6.8  19.8  260  33 17   7.4   4.1
 18000  -5.2  22.6  255  35 18   6.8   3.7 |  -5.7  21.7  260  32 17   7.2   4.0
 17500  -4.6  23.7  260  35 18   4.0   2.2 |  -4.8  23.4  260  31 16   6.5   3.6
 17000  -4.0  24.8  265  35 18   4.2   2.3 |  -3.9  25.0  260  29 15   6.6   3.6
 16500  -3.4  25.9  265  34 17   6.7   3.7 |  -3.0  26.6  255  27 14   7.4   4.1
 16000  -2.5  27.5  265  30 16   7.2   3.9 |  -2.0  28.4  255  25 13   7.6   4.2
 15500  -1.6  29.1  265  27 14   7.4   4.1 |  -0.9  30.4  255  22 12   8.4   4.6
 15000  -0.5  31.1  260  25 13   7.5   4.1 |   0.4  32.7  255  22 11   9.2   5.0
 14500   0.5  32.9  260  23 12   7.6   4.2 |   1.7  35.1  250  21 11   9.2   5.1
 14000   2.4  36.3  255  21 11   8.7   4.8 |   3.1  37.6  250  20 10   9.0   4.9
 13500   3.6  38.5  250  20 10   8.9   4.9 |   5.0  41.0  245  19 10   9.2   5.1
 13000   5.0  41.0  245  19 10   9.0   5.0 |   6.4  43.5  240  19 10   9.5   5.2
 12500   6.3  43.3  240  19 10   9.0   4.9 |   7.8  46.0  240  19 10   8.6   4.7
 12000   7.6  45.7  235  18  9   8.8   4.8 |   9.1  48.4  235  19 10   9.3   5.1
 11750   8.3  46.9  230  18  9   9.1   5.0 |   9.8  49.6  230  19 10   9.3   5.1
 11500   8.9  48.0  225  17  9   7.8   4.3 |  10.5  50.9  230  19 10   8.8   4.8
 11250   9.4  48.9  220  17  9   8.1   4.5 |  11.1  52.0  225  19 10   8.5   4.7
 11000  10.1  50.2  215  17  9   9.8   5.4 |  11.7  53.1  225  19 10   8.8   4.8
 10750  10.8  51.4  210  17  9   9.4   5.2 |  12.4  54.3  220  19 10   8.8   4.8
 10500  11.5  52.7  210  17  9   9.5   5.2 |  13.0  55.4  220  19 10   8.6   4.7
 10250  12.2  54.0  210  17  9   9.1   5.0 |  13.6  56.5  215  19 10   7.4   4.1
 10000  12.9  55.2  205  17  9   9.8   5.4 |  14.1  57.4  210  19 10   8.4   4.6
  9750  13.7  56.7  205  17  9  10.5   5.8 |  14.8  58.6  210  19 10   9.7   5.3
  9500  14.5  58.1  205  17  9  10.1   5.5 |  15.5  59.9  205  19 10   9.2   5.0
  9250  15.2  59.4  200  17  9   9.2   5.1 |  16.2  61.2  200  18  9   8.2   4.5
  9000  15.9  60.6  200  17  9   9.3   5.1 |  16.8  62.2  200  18  9   8.4   4.6
  8750  16.6  61.9  200  17  9  11.0   6.0 |  17.4  63.3  200  18  9  10.2   5.6
  8500  17.4  63.3  200  17  9  11.2   6.1 |  18.2  64.8  195  18  9  10.7   5.9
  8250  18.2  64.8  200  17  9  10.3   5.6 |  19.0  66.2  195  18  9  10.0   5.5
  8000  19.0  66.2  195  17  9  10.3   5.7 |  19.7  67.5  195  17  9  10.1   5.6
  7750  19.7  67.5  195  17  9   9.9   5.4 |  20.5  68.9  190  17  9   9.3   5.1
  7500  20.5  68.9  195  16  8  11.1   6.1 |  21.1  70.0  190  17  9   7.9   4.3
  7250  21.4  70.5  195  16  8  13.2   7.2 |  21.6  70.9  190  16  8   7.6   4.2
  7000  22.3  72.1  195  15  8  12.2   6.7 |  22.1  71.8  190  14  7   7.5   4.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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