Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 231140
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0540 MDT Wednesday, July 23, 2014

This forecast is for Wednesday, July 23, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 78.7 F/26.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1082 ft/min (5.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 18384 ft MSL (11214 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 86.0 F/30.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1000 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 13492 ft MSL (6322 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Thursday 07/24..... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14543 ft MSL (7373 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Thursday 07/24........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:52:13 / 20:18:57 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 26 min 44 sec (866 min 44 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:26 MDT... 70.99 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/23/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16878 ft MSL (9708 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 17131 ft MSL (9961 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17549 ft MSL (10378 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -4.4
K index......................... +21.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -66.8 -88.2   295   27   14   1.4   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.2 -78.2   295   42   22   7.2   4.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -50.4 -58.7   290   41   21   7.0   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -45.7 -50.3   290   37   19   7.0   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -41.4 -42.5   290   33   17   7.3   4.0      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -37.1 -34.8   295   26   13   7.2   4.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -32.8 -27.0   300   18    9   6.9   3.8   43.8 110.9    10.5      M    M
 30000  -28.8 -19.8   290   10    5   6.7   3.7   41.2 106.1     8.7      M    M
 29000  -26.9 -16.4   280    6    3   6.7   3.7   40.1 104.2     7.9      M    M
 28000  -24.9 -12.8   270    4    2   6.4   3.5   39.0 102.1     7.0      M    M
 27000  -23.0  -9.4   295    3    1   6.4   3.5   37.6  99.7     6.0      M    M
 26000  -21.1  -6.0   325    3    1   6.4   3.5   36.4  97.5     5.1      M    M
 25000  -19.2  -2.6   350    3    2   7.4   4.1   35.3  95.6     4.2      M    M
 24000  -16.4   2.5   330    4    2   7.6   4.2   34.3  93.7     3.3      M    M
 23000  -14.2   6.4   320    4    2   7.7   4.2   33.6  92.4     2.7      M    M
 22000  -11.9  10.6   315    4    2   7.4   4.1   32.8  91.0     2.1      M    M
 21000   -9.8  14.4   310    4    2   7.4   4.1   31.9  89.5     1.3      M    M
 20000   -7.6  18.3   300    4    2   7.3   4.0   31.2  88.2     0.6      M    M
 19500   -6.4  20.5   295    4    2   8.8   4.8   30.9  87.7     0.4      M    M
 19000   -5.1  22.8   285    3    2   8.7   4.8   30.7  87.3     0.2      M    M
 18500   -3.8  25.2   265    3    2   8.4   4.6   30.6  87.0     0.1      M    M
 18000   -2.7  27.1   230    2    1   7.9   4.3   30.3  86.5    -0.3   1042  5.3
 17500   -1.5  29.3   185    3    1   7.8   4.3   30.0  85.9    -0.6    993  5.0
 17000   -0.3  31.5   170    4    2   8.6   4.7   29.7  85.5    -0.8    942  4.8
 16500    1.0  33.8   175    4    2   8.6   4.7   29.5  85.1    -1.0    888  4.5
 16000    2.3  36.1   175    5    3   7.7   4.2   29.3  84.8    -1.2    835  4.2
 15500    3.3  37.9   175    7    4   7.0   3.8   28.9  83.9    -1.6    789  4.0
 15000    4.4  39.9   175   10    5   7.0   3.9   28.4  83.1    -2.0    742  3.8
 14500    5.5  41.9   180   12    6   7.8   4.3   28.0  82.4    -2.4    694  3.5
 14000    6.6  43.9   185   14    7   7.6   4.2   27.7  81.9    -2.7    646  3.3
 13500    7.8  46.0   185   15    8   8.9   4.9   27.5  81.4    -3.0    595  3.0
 13000    9.1  48.4   190   16    8   8.7   4.8   27.3  81.1    -3.2    542  2.8
 12500   10.4  50.7   195   17    9  10.1   5.5   27.2  81.0    -3.3    487  2.5
 12000   11.7  53.1   195   18    9   7.9   4.4   27.1  80.8    -3.5    434  2.2
 11750   12.3  54.1   195   19   10   8.5   4.7   27.0  80.6    -3.7    410  2.1
 11500   12.9  55.2   195   19   10   9.5   5.2   26.9  80.5    -3.8    383  1.9
 11250   13.6  56.5   195   19   10   9.8   5.4   26.9  80.5    -3.8    355  1.8
 11000   14.3  57.7   195   20   10   8.3   4.6   26.9  80.4    -3.9    328  1.7
 10750   14.8  58.6   195   20   10   7.7   4.2   26.7  80.1    -4.1    304  1.5
 10500   15.4  59.7   195   21   11   8.9   4.9   26.6  79.9    -4.3    280  1.4
 10250   16.0  60.8   190   21   11   9.4   5.2   26.6  79.8    -4.4    252  1.3
 10000   16.7  62.1   190   21   11   9.1   5.0   26.5  79.8    -4.4    225  1.1
  9750   17.9  64.2   185   22   11   8.3   4.6   26.3  79.4    -4.7    176  0.9
  9500   18.5  65.3   185   22   11   8.6   4.7   26.2  79.2    -4.9    150  0.8
  9250   19.1  66.4   180   23   12   8.8   4.8   26.2  79.1    -5.0    125  0.6
  9000   19.7  67.5   180   23   12   8.0   4.4   26.1  78.9    -5.1     99  0.5
  8750   20.1  68.2   180   22   12   6.8   3.7   25.9  78.6    -5.4     78  0.4
  8500   20.6  69.1   180   22   11   6.2   3.4   25.6  78.2    -5.7     57  0.3
  8250   21.0  69.8   180   21   11   7.8   4.3   25.4  77.7    -6.0     36  0.2
  8000   21.5  70.7   180   20   11   2.0   1.1   25.2  77.3    -6.3     16  0.1
  7750   21.0  69.8   180   16    8 -11.2  -6.1   24.1  75.3    -7.5     21  0.1
  7500   19.9  67.8   185   10    5 -15.4  -8.4   22.3  72.1    -9.3     47  0.2
  7250   18.8  65.8   210    4    2 -13.1  -7.2   20.5  68.8   -11.2     72  0.4
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/23/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/23/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +15.2  LI... -2.5               | K index... +13.9  LI... -1.4
CAPE... +451.7  CIN... -77.5               | CAPE... +294.6  CIN... -78.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.9 -88.4  300  25 13   1.4   0.8 | -67.5 -89.5  290  23 12   2.2   1.2
 45000 -61.5 -78.7  300  40 21   7.1   3.9 | -61.1 -78.0  300  39 20   7.4   4.1
 40000 -50.7 -59.3  300  43 22   7.3   4.0 | -50.2 -58.4  300  43 22   6.8   3.7
 38000 -45.8 -50.4  300  37 19   7.3   4.0 | -45.6 -50.1  300  36 18   6.8   3.7
 36000 -41.4 -42.5  300  31 16   7.2   3.9 | -41.5 -42.7  305  29 15   7.2   4.0
 34000 -37.1 -34.8  300  25 13   7.2   4.0 | -37.1 -34.8  300  24 12   7.2   4.0
 32000 -32.8 -27.0  300  19 10   7.0   3.8 | -32.8 -27.0  300  19 10   7.0   3.8
 30000 -28.8 -19.8  280  10  5   6.7   3.7 | -28.8 -19.8  280  14  7   6.8   3.7
 29000 -26.8 -16.2  255   7  4   6.8   3.7 | -26.8 -16.2  265  12  6   6.8   3.7
 28000 -24.8 -12.6  230   6  3   6.8   3.8 | -24.7 -12.5  250  11  6   7.1   3.9
 27000 -22.8  -9.0  220   5  3   6.8   3.8 | -22.6  -8.7  235  11  6   7.1   3.9
 26000 -20.7  -5.3  205   4  2   6.9   3.8 | -20.5  -4.9  225  11  6   7.1   3.9
 25000 -18.7  -1.7  185   3  1   7.0   3.8 | -18.3  -0.9  215  12  6   7.4   4.0
 24000 -16.1   3.0  000   0  0   7.1   3.9 | -15.6   3.9  205   8  4   7.4   4.1
 23000 -14.1   6.6  350   2  1   7.1   3.9 | -13.4   7.9  190   6  3   7.5   4.1
 22000 -11.9  10.6  335   3  2   7.4   4.1 | -11.3  11.7  185   3  2   7.4   4.1
 21000  -9.8  14.4  310   5  3   7.4   4.1 |  -9.1  15.6  240   1  1   7.4   4.1
 20000  -7.6  18.3  300   7  4   7.3   4.0 |  -6.9  19.6  315   3  1   7.5   4.1
 19500  -6.4  20.5  295   8  4   8.9   4.9 |  -5.8  21.6  325   4  2   7.5   4.1
 19000  -5.1  22.8  295   8  4   8.8   4.8 |  -4.8  23.4  335   6  3   7.6   4.1
 18500  -3.8  25.2  295   8  4   8.5   4.7 |  -3.7  25.3  340   8  4   8.0   4.4
 18000  -2.6  27.3  285   6  3   7.8   4.3 |  -2.4  27.7  335   8  4   9.0   4.9
 17500  -1.5  29.3  265   3  2   7.7   4.2 |  -1.0  30.2  325   8  4   8.9   4.9
 17000  -0.3  31.5  225   2  1   8.5   4.7 |   0.3  32.5  320   8  4   9.4   5.2
 16500   0.9  33.6  200   3  1   8.5   4.6 |   1.7  35.1  310   7  3   9.4   5.1
 16000   2.2  36.0  180   4  2   8.3   4.5 |   3.1  37.6  295   6  3   8.5   4.7
 15500   3.4  38.1  160   6  3   8.1   4.4 |   4.3  39.7  265   3  2   7.8   4.3
 15000   4.6  40.3  150   9  5   8.0   4.4 |   5.4  41.7  205   3  2   7.7   4.2
 14500   5.8  42.4  155  11  6   7.3   4.0 |   6.6  43.9  175   5  3   7.4   4.0
 14000   6.8  44.2  160  13  7   7.4   4.0 |   7.7  45.9  165   7  4   7.4   4.0
 13500   7.9  46.2  165  15  8   7.5   4.1 |   8.8  47.8  170   9  5   7.6   4.2
 13000   9.1  48.4  170  17  9   7.4   4.1 |   9.9  49.8  175  11  6   7.6   4.2
 12500  10.3  50.5  175  18  9   8.4   4.6 |  11.1  52.0  180  13  7   7.0   3.8
 12000  11.5  52.7  180  18  9   8.1   4.4 |  12.2  54.0  190  15  7   8.6   4.7
 11750  12.1  53.8  180  18  9   8.3   4.5 |  12.9  55.2  195  15  8   8.3   4.6
 11500  12.7  54.9  185  18  9   8.5   4.7 |  13.5  56.3  195  15  8   8.2   4.5
 11250  13.4  56.1  185  17  9   8.7   4.8 |  14.1  57.4  200  15  8   8.1   4.5
 11000  14.0  57.2  190  17  9   8.9   4.9 |  14.7  58.5  205  16  8   7.8   4.3
 10750  14.7  58.5  190  17  9   9.0   5.0 |  15.2  59.4  205  16  8   7.7   4.2
 10500  15.3  59.5  195  17  9   8.9   4.9 |  15.7  60.3  205  16  8   8.0   4.4
 10250  16.0  60.8  195  18  9   8.9   4.9 |  16.3  61.3  205  16  8   8.3   4.5
 10000  16.6  61.9  190  18  9   8.9   4.9 |  16.8  62.2  205  16  8   8.2   4.5
  9750  17.8  64.0  190  19 10   7.7   4.2 |  17.9  64.2  200  17  9   8.5   4.7
  9500  18.2  64.8  190  19 10   7.2   3.9 |  18.4  65.1  200  16  8   9.0   5.0
  9250  18.7  65.7  185  20 10   7.9   4.3 |  19.0  66.2  195  16  8   9.1   5.0
  9000  19.2  66.6  185  20 11   6.1   3.3 |  19.6  67.3  195  16  8   9.1   5.0
  8750  19.5  67.1  180  20 10   6.6   3.6 |  20.3  68.5  190  16  8  10.0   5.5
  8500  20.0  68.0  180  20 10   8.8   4.8 |  21.1  70.0  190  16  8  10.9   6.0
  8250  20.5  68.9  180  20 10   8.3   4.6 |  21.8  71.2  190  16  8  10.5   5.7
  8000  21.1  70.0  175  19 10   8.3   4.6 |  22.6  72.7  190  16  8  11.4   6.3
  7750  21.7  71.1  175  17  9  12.0   6.6 |  23.6  74.5  190  16  8  17.9   9.8
  7500  22.8  73.0  175  14  7  18.8  10.3 |  25.3  77.5  190  15  8  25.9  14.2
  7250  23.8  74.8  175  12  6   6.8   3.7 |  26.9  80.4  185  14  7  12.6   6.9
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           07/23/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/23/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +18.1  LI... -0.1               | K index... +19.1  LI... +0.2
CAPE... +101.3  CIN... -61.5               | CAPE... +43.1  CIN... -90.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -68.1 -90.6  285  29 15   2.6   1.4 | -67.9 -90.2  295  34 18   2.0   1.1
 45000 -61.0 -77.8  295  41 21   7.8   4.3 | -61.3 -78.3  295  46 24   8.0   4.4
 40000 -49.7 -57.5  295  44 23   6.7   3.7 | -49.8 -57.6  295  46 24   6.7   3.7
 38000 -45.2 -49.4  295  36 18   6.7   3.7 | -45.3 -49.5  295  39 20   6.7   3.7
 36000 -41.1 -42.0  295  29 15   7.5   4.1 | -41.2 -42.2  300  32 17   7.8   4.3
 34000 -36.7 -34.1  295  25 13   7.4   4.1 | -36.6 -33.9  295  29 15   7.7   4.2
 32000 -32.2 -26.0  295  21 11   6.9   3.8 | -32.0 -25.6  295  26 13   7.4   4.0
 30000 -28.4 -19.1  285  16  8   6.4   3.5 | -27.8 -18.0  285  21 11   7.0   3.8
 29000 -26.5 -15.7  275  14  7   6.4   3.5 | -25.7 -14.3  280  19 10   7.0   3.8
 28000 -24.5 -12.1  265  13  7   7.1   3.9 | -23.7 -10.7  280  17  9   6.6   3.6
 27000 -22.4  -8.3  260  13  7   7.1   3.9 | -21.7  -7.1  280  16  8   6.6   3.6
 26000 -20.2  -4.4  255  13  7   7.1   3.9 | -19.8  -3.6  280  15  7   6.6   3.6
 25000 -18.1  -0.6  250  13  7   7.1   3.9 | -17.8  -0.0  280  13  7   6.4   3.5
 24000 -15.5   4.1  240  10  5   7.2   4.0 | -15.9   3.4  270  11  5   6.4   3.5
 23000 -13.4   7.9  225   8  4   7.4   4.0 | -13.6   7.5  245   9  4   6.5   3.5
 22000 -11.2  11.8  215   6  3   7.9   4.3 | -11.5  11.3  235   8  4   8.3   4.5
 21000  -8.8  16.2  220   5  3   7.9   4.3 |  -9.1  15.6  245   6  3   8.3   4.5
 20000  -6.5  20.3  225   4  2   8.0   4.4 |  -6.7  19.9  265   5  3   8.3   4.6
 19500  -5.4  22.3  230   3  1   7.7   4.2 |  -5.4  22.3  270   4  2   8.4   4.6
 19000  -4.3  24.3  270   1  1   7.7   4.2 |  -4.2  24.4  275   3  2   8.4   4.6
 18500  -3.2  26.2  360   2  1   7.9   4.3 |  -3.0  26.6  280   2  1   8.6   4.7
 18000  -2.0  28.4  340   3  2   8.1   4.5 |  -1.7  28.9  295   2  1   8.9   4.9
 17500  -0.8  30.6  330   4  2   8.1   4.4 |  -0.4  31.3  310   2  1   8.9   4.9
 17000   0.4  32.7  325   5  3   9.0   4.9 |   0.9  33.6  315   3  1   8.9   4.9
 16500   1.7  35.1  320   5  3   9.0   4.9 |   2.2  36.0  310   3  1   8.9   4.9
 16000   3.1  37.6  310   5  3   9.0   5.0 |   3.5  38.3  300   3  2   8.9   4.9
 15500   4.4  39.9  305   4  2   9.1   5.0 |   4.8  40.6  290   3  1   8.9   4.9
 15000   5.8  42.4  295   3  2   9.0   4.9 |   6.1  43.0  275   2  1   9.0   4.9
 14500   7.0  44.6  265   2  1   8.3   4.6 |   7.5  45.5  245   2  1   9.1   5.0
 14000   8.3  46.9  225   2  1   8.4   4.6 |   8.8  47.8  190   2  1   9.2   5.0
 13500   9.6  49.3  200   4  2   8.3   4.6 |  10.2  50.4  170   3  1   8.5   4.7
 13000  10.8  51.4  200   5  3   8.5   4.7 |  11.5  52.7  170   4  2   8.6   4.7
 12500  11.9  53.4  200   6  3   6.2   3.4 |  12.7  54.9  170   6  3   6.9   3.8
 12000  13.2  55.8  200   7  4   9.8   5.4 |  13.9  57.0  170   7  4   9.0   4.9
 11750  13.9  57.0  200   8  4   9.3   5.1 |  14.5  58.1  175   8  4   8.7   4.8
 11500  14.5  58.1  200   9  4   8.2   4.5 |  15.2  59.4  175   8  4   8.4   4.6
 11250  15.1  59.2  200   9  5   7.7   4.2 |  15.8  60.4  175   9  5   8.1   4.4
 11000  15.7  60.3  200  10  5   8.4   4.6 |  16.4  61.5  175  10  5   8.3   4.6
 10750  16.3  61.3  195  10  5   8.7   4.7 |  17.0  62.6  175  11  5   8.4   4.6
 10500  16.9  62.4  195  11  6   9.0   4.9 |  17.6  63.7  175  11  6   8.3   4.6
 10250  17.5  63.5  195  11  6   9.4   5.2 |  18.2  64.8  175  12  6   8.4   4.6
 10000  18.2  64.8  190  12  6   9.3   5.1 |  18.7  65.7  175  12  6   8.0   4.4
  9750  19.5  67.1  185  13  7   9.5   5.2 |  19.7  67.5  175  14  7   8.2   4.5
  9500  20.2  68.4  185  13  7  10.0   5.5 |  20.4  68.7  175  14  7   9.8   5.4
  9250  20.9  69.6  185  13  7  10.1   5.5 |  21.1  70.0  175  14  7   9.7   5.3
  9000  21.7  71.1  185  13  7   9.5   5.2 |  21.7  71.1  175  15  8   8.7   4.8
  8750  22.3  72.1  185  13  7  10.0   5.5 |  22.4  72.3  175  15  8   9.2   5.0
  8500  23.1  73.6  185  13  7  11.1   6.1 |  23.1  73.6  175  15  8  10.6   5.8
  8250  23.9  75.0  185  13  7  10.7   5.9 |  23.9  75.0  175  15  8  10.1   5.6
  8000  24.7  76.5  180  13  7  11.3   6.2 |  24.7  76.5  175  15  8  10.6   5.8
  7750  25.7  78.3  180  13  7  17.1   9.4 |  25.5  77.9  175  14  7  13.4   7.4
  7500  27.3  81.1  180  12  6  25.1  13.8 |  26.6  79.9  175  13  7  16.9   9.3
  7250  28.8  83.8  180  12  6  11.5   6.3 |  27.7  81.9  175  12  6  11.1   6.1
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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