Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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UXUS97 KPUB 281004
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Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0404 MDT Tuesday, October 28, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, October 28, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 47.5 F/8.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 411 ft/min (2.1 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 11961 ft MSL (5203 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 51.0 F/11.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1145 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10001 ft MSL (3243 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/29.... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 45565 ft MSL (38807 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/29....... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:22:07 / 18:04:22 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 42 min 15 sec (642 min 15 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:42:52 MDT... 37.80 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 10/28/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 9408 ft MSL (2650 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18155 ft MSL (11397 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14751 ft MSL (7993 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +6.7
K index......................... -13.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -62.2 -80.0   320   58   30   2.3   1.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.4 -73.1   320   68   35   4.2   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -51.8 -61.2   310   65   33   4.2   2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.8 -57.6   305   64   33   3.0   1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -48.0 -54.4   300   63   33   3.0   1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -46.0 -50.8   295   63   32   3.8   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -43.7 -46.7   290   61   31   3.8   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -41.1 -42.0   285   60   31   5.7   3.1   29.7  85.5    14.7      M    M
 29000  -39.4 -38.9   285   59   30   5.7   3.1   28.1  82.5    13.6      M    M
 28000  -37.3 -35.1   285   58   30   5.7   3.1   26.2  79.1    12.3      M    M
 27000  -35.3 -31.5   280   57   29   9.4   5.2   25.1  77.2    11.6      M    M
 26000  -32.6 -26.7   285   53   27   9.1   5.0   24.8  76.6    11.4      M    M
 25000  -29.9 -21.8   285   50   26   9.1   5.0   24.6  76.2    11.4      M    M
 24000  -27.2 -17.0   285   47   24   8.1   4.4   24.3  75.8    11.3      M    M
 23000  -24.8 -12.6   285   46   24   8.0   4.4   23.6  74.5    10.8      M    M
 22000  -22.5  -8.5   285   45   23   8.0   4.4   23.0  73.4    10.4      M    M
 21000  -20.2  -4.4   285   44   23   6.3   3.5   22.3  72.1     9.9      M    M
 20000  -18.3  -0.9   285   42   22   6.5   3.6   21.1  70.0     9.0      M    M
 19500  -17.3   0.9   285   41   21   6.5   3.6   20.6  69.0     8.5      M    M
 19000  -16.4   2.5   285   40   21   6.6   3.6   20.0  68.1     8.1      M    M
 18500  -15.4   4.3   285   39   20   6.1   3.4   19.5  67.1     7.7      M    M
 18000  -14.5   5.9   285   37   19   6.1   3.4   18.9  66.0     7.2      M    M
 17500  -13.5   7.7   285   36   18   6.0   3.3   18.3  64.9     6.8      M    M
 17000  -12.6   9.3   285   34   18   5.7   3.1   17.6  63.7     6.2      M    M
 16500  -11.7  10.9   290   33   17   5.7   3.1   16.9  62.5     5.7      M    M
 16000  -10.8  12.6   290   32   17   6.5   3.6   16.3  61.4     5.2      M    M
 15500   -9.8  14.4   290   31   16   6.5   3.6   15.8  60.4     4.7      M    M
 15000   -8.9  16.0   295   30   16   6.1   3.4   15.3  59.5     4.3      M    M
 14500   -8.0  17.6   295   29   15   6.0   3.3   14.6  58.3     3.7      M    M
 14000   -6.7  19.9   295   28   14   4.8   2.6   13.6  56.6     2.8      M    M
 13500   -6.0  21.2   295   27   14   4.9   2.7   12.9  55.2     2.1      M    M
 13000   -5.3  22.5   295   25   13   5.1   2.8   12.1  53.8     1.4      M    M
 12500   -4.5  23.9   295   23   12   5.1   2.8   11.4  52.5     0.6      M    M
 12000   -3.8  25.2   295   21   11   4.9   2.7   10.7  51.2    -0.1    407  2.1
 11750   -3.5  25.7   295   20   10   4.6   2.5   10.2  50.4    -0.5    390  2.0
 11500   -3.1  26.4   295   19   10   4.5   2.5    9.8  49.7    -0.9    373  1.9
 11250   -2.8  27.0   295   17    9   5.3   2.9    9.5  49.0    -1.3    356  1.8
 11000   -2.4  27.7   300   16    8   5.7   3.1    9.2  48.5    -1.6    336  1.7
 10750   -2.0  28.4   300   15    8   5.2   2.9    8.8  47.8    -2.0    317  1.6
 10500   -1.6  29.1   300   13    7   5.5   3.0    8.5  47.2    -2.3    299  1.5
 10250   -1.3  29.7   305   12    6   5.0   2.7    8.1  46.6    -2.7    280  1.4
 10000   -0.9  30.4   305   11    5   4.8   2.6    7.7  45.9    -3.1    262  1.3
  9750   -0.5  31.1   305   10    5   5.9   3.2    7.4  45.3    -3.4    244  1.2
  9500   -0.1  31.8   310    9    5   6.6   3.6    7.1  44.8    -3.7    223  1.1
  9250    0.4  32.7   315    8    4   5.4   3.0    6.9  44.4    -4.0    202  1.0
  9000    0.7  33.3   315    7    4   3.9   2.1    6.5  43.6    -4.4    185  0.9
  8750    1.0  33.8   315    7    3   5.8   3.2    6.1  42.9    -4.8    168  0.9
  8500    1.5  34.7   315    6    3   6.4   3.5    5.8  42.5    -5.1    146  0.7
  8250    1.8  35.2   315    6    3   3.0   1.6    5.5  41.8    -5.5    128  0.6
  8000    1.9  35.4   310    5    3  -0.1  -0.1    4.8  40.7    -6.2    118  0.6
  7750    2.0  35.6   305    5    2   5.0   2.8    4.2  39.5    -6.8    109  0.6
  7500    2.4  36.3   295    5    2   0.1   0.1    3.9  38.9    -7.2     90  0.5
  7250    1.8  35.2   290    4    2 -12.2  -6.7    2.9  37.2    -8.2    100  0.5
  7000    0.9  33.6   290    4    2  -8.0  -4.4    1.8  35.2    -9.3    119  0.6
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           10/28/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       10/28/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... -2.0  LI... +5.3                | K index... -3.5  LI... +7.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.1 -81.6  325  63 33   3.2   1.7 | -63.4 -82.1  325  62 32   3.2   1.8
 45000 -57.7 -71.9  325  78 40   5.2   2.9 | -57.9 -72.2  320  76 39   6.0   3.3
 40000 -49.8 -57.6  320  74 38   5.2   2.9 | -48.9 -56.0  320  77 40   6.1   3.3
 38000 -47.9 -54.2  315  70 36   2.6   1.4 | -46.4 -51.5  320  75 39   3.7   2.0
 36000 -46.3 -51.3  310  67 34   2.6   1.4 | -44.2 -47.6  315  72 37   3.7   2.0
 34000 -44.5 -48.1  305  64 33   3.9   2.1 | -42.0 -43.6  310  69 35   2.4   1.3
 32000 -42.2 -44.0  305  61 31   3.9   2.2 | -40.6 -41.1  310  65 34   2.4   1.3
 30000 -39.4 -38.9  300  57 29   4.3   2.3 | -38.9 -38.0  305  60 31   3.7   2.0
 29000 -38.2 -36.8  300  55 28   4.3   2.3 | -37.8 -36.0  305  56 29   3.7   2.0
 28000 -36.9 -34.4  295  53 27   4.2   2.3 | -36.6 -33.9  305  51 26   3.7   2.0
 27000 -35.4 -31.7  295  52 27   7.5   4.1 | -35.2 -31.4  305  48 25   8.3   4.6
 26000 -33.3 -27.9  295  51 26   7.1   3.9 | -32.8 -27.0  305  48 25   7.9   4.3
 25000 -31.1 -24.0  295  50 26   7.1   3.9 | -30.5 -22.9  305  48 25   7.9   4.3
 24000 -28.9 -20.0  290  49 25   9.0   5.0 | -28.1 -18.6  305  47 24   8.3   4.5
 23000 -26.1 -15.0  295  47 24   9.4   5.2 | -25.6 -14.1  310  47 24   8.4   4.6
 22000 -23.3  -9.9  295  45 23   9.5   5.2 | -23.1  -9.6  310  46 24   8.4   4.6
 21000 -20.7  -5.3  295  43 22   5.8   3.2 | -20.6  -5.1  310  44 23   8.7   4.8
 20000 -18.9  -2.0  295  41 21   6.3   3.4 | -18.0  -0.4  310  40 21   8.7   4.7
 19500 -18.0  -0.4  300  40 21   6.3   3.5 | -16.7   1.9  310  38 19   8.7   4.8
 19000 -17.1   1.2  300  39 20   6.5   3.5 | -15.4   4.3  310  36 18   8.9   4.9
 18500 -16.2   2.8  300  38 20   5.4   3.0 | -14.3   6.3  310  34 18   5.5   3.0
 18000 -15.4   4.3  300  37 19   5.4   2.9 | -13.5   7.7  305  33 17   5.4   3.0
 17500 -14.6   5.7  300  36 19   5.8   3.2 | -12.7   9.1  305  32 17   5.0   2.7
 17000 -13.6   7.5  300  35 18   6.7   3.7 | -12.1  10.2  310  33 17   4.1   2.3
 16500 -12.6   9.3  300  34 18   6.7   3.7 | -11.2  11.8  310  33 17   4.4   2.4
 16000 -11.6  11.1  305  33 17   6.7   3.7 | -10.5  13.1  310  33 17   4.7   2.6
 15500 -10.5  13.1  305  32 17   6.8   3.7 |  -9.8  14.4  310  33 17   5.0   2.7
 15000  -9.0  15.8  305  30 15   6.5   3.6 |  -8.9  16.0  310  32 17   6.2   3.4
 14500  -8.0  17.6  305  28 15   6.6   3.6 |  -7.9  17.8  310  32 16   6.2   3.4
 14000  -7.1  19.2  305  27 14   5.7   3.1 |  -6.9  19.6  310  31 16   6.6   3.6
 13500  -6.3  20.7  305  25 13   5.8   3.2 |  -5.9  21.4  310  29 15   6.7   3.7
 13000  -5.4  22.3  305  23 12   5.9   3.2 |  -4.9  23.2  310  27 14   6.1   3.3
 12500  -4.5  23.9  305  21 11   6.1   3.3 |  -4.0  24.8  310  24 12   6.1   3.4
 12000  -3.8  25.2  305  20 10   4.9   2.7 |  -3.2  26.2  310  21 11   5.6   3.1
 11750  -3.4  25.9  305  19 10   5.3   2.9 |  -2.8  27.0  310  20 10   5.5   3.0
 11500  -3.0  26.6  305  18  9   5.3   2.9 |  -2.3  27.9  310  18  9   5.8   3.2
 11250  -2.6  27.3  305  17  9   5.0   2.8 |  -1.9  28.6  305  17  9   4.8   2.7
 11000  -2.3  27.9  305  16  8   4.6   2.5 |  -1.7  28.9  305  16  8   3.6   2.0
 10750  -2.0  28.4  305  15  8   4.6   2.5 |  -1.4  29.5  305  14  7   3.7   2.0
 10500  -1.6  29.1  310  14  7   4.7   2.6 |  -1.2  29.8  305  13  7   4.0   2.2
 10250  -1.3  29.7  310  14  7   4.4   2.4 |  -0.9  30.4  300  11  6   3.3   1.8
 10000  -1.0  30.2  315  13  6   4.2   2.3 |  -0.7  30.7  305   9  4   3.9   2.2
  9750  -0.7  30.7  315  12  6   4.6   2.5 |  -0.4  31.3  315   6  3   7.1   3.9
  9500  -0.4  31.3  320  11  5   4.7   2.6 |   0.2  32.4  335   4  2   8.2   4.5
  9250  -0.0  32.0  325  10  5   4.8   2.7 |   0.8  33.4  010   3  1   8.4   4.6
  9000   0.3  32.5  335   9  5   4.9   2.7 |   1.4  34.5  015   3  1   8.3   4.5
  8750   0.7  33.3  340   9  5   5.2   2.9 |   2.1  35.8  020   3  1  10.4   5.7
  8500   1.0  33.8  345   9  5   5.6   3.1 |   2.9  37.2  025   3  1  11.7   6.4
  8250   1.5  34.7  350   9  5   6.0   3.3 |   3.7  38.7  030   3  1  10.2   5.6
  8000   1.9  35.4  350   9  4   5.4   2.9 |   4.5  40.1  035   3  2   9.9   5.4
  7750   2.3  36.1  350   8  4   8.1   4.4 |   5.2  41.4  040   3  2  10.5   5.7
  7500   3.0  37.4  345   8  4   6.5   3.5 |   6.0  42.8  040   3  2  11.0   6.0
  7250   3.2  37.8  345   7  4   1.5   0.8 |   6.9  44.4  045   3  2  10.9   6.0
  7000   3.4  38.1  340   5  3   5.5   3.0 |   7.7  45.9  050   3  2  11.0   6.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           10/28/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       10/28/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +2.0  LI... +5.4                | K index... +4.3  LI... +4.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.6                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.9 -83.0  315  52 27   3.5   1.9 | -63.9 -83.0  315  48 25   3.8   2.1
 45000 -58.3 -72.9  315  67 35   5.5   3.0 | -57.5 -71.5  315  59 31   5.0   2.7
 40000 -49.7 -57.5  315  69 36   5.5   3.0 | -50.0 -58.0  310  64 33   5.2   2.8
 38000 -46.3 -51.3  315  70 36   5.7   3.1 | -46.4 -51.5  310  65 33   6.1   3.3
 36000 -42.9 -45.2  315  72 37   5.7   3.1 | -42.8 -45.0  310  66 34   6.1   3.3
 34000 -40.0 -40.0  315  71 37   3.6   2.0 | -39.3 -38.7  310  66 34   5.4   2.9
 32000 -37.8 -36.0  310  68 35   3.6   2.0 | -36.1 -33.0  310  64 33   5.4   2.9
 30000 -36.1 -33.0  305  63 32   1.6   0.9 | -33.5 -28.3  310  60 31   1.7   0.9
 29000 -35.6 -32.1  305  59 30   1.6   0.9 | -33.0 -27.4  310  58 30   1.7   0.9
 28000 -35.0 -31.0  300  54 28   1.7   0.9 | -32.5 -26.5  310  55 28   1.7   0.9
 27000 -34.1 -29.4  300  50 26   6.3   3.5 | -31.9 -25.4  310  52 27   2.8   1.5
 26000 -32.2 -26.0  300  49 25   6.1   3.4 | -31.1 -24.0  310  49 25   2.7   1.5
 25000 -30.4 -22.7  300  47 24   6.1   3.4 | -30.3 -22.5  305  45 23   2.7   1.5
 24000 -28.4 -19.1  300  45 23   8.9   4.9 | -29.1 -20.4  305  42 22   8.7   4.8
 23000 -25.8 -14.4  300  43 22   8.7   4.8 | -26.6 -15.9  305  40 21   8.5   4.7
 22000 -23.3  -9.9  305  41 21   8.7   4.8 | -24.0 -11.2  305  39 20   8.6   4.7
 21000 -20.7  -5.3  305  38 20   8.7   4.8 | -21.5  -6.7  305  37 19   8.7   4.8
 20000 -18.1  -0.6  300  35 18   8.7   4.8 | -18.9  -2.0  305  36 18   8.7   4.8
 19500 -16.8   1.8  300  33 17   8.7   4.8 | -17.6   0.3  305  35 18   8.8   4.8
 19000 -15.5   4.1  300  32 16   8.8   4.8 | -16.3   2.7  300  34 18   8.7   4.8
 18500 -14.2   6.4  300  30 16   7.8   4.3 | -15.0   5.0  300  33 17   9.0   4.9
 18000 -13.0   8.6  300  30 15   7.8   4.3 | -13.6   7.5  300  30 16   8.9   4.9
 17500 -11.9  10.6  300  29 15   6.7   3.7 | -12.3   9.9  300  28 15   8.2   4.5
 17000 -11.0  12.2  300  29 15   5.7   3.1 | -11.2  11.8  305  29 15   7.7   4.2
 16500 -10.2  13.6  305  30 15   5.6   3.1 | -10.0  14.0  305  30 15   7.5   4.1
 16000  -9.5  14.9  305  31 16   4.8   2.6 |  -9.1  15.6  305  31 16   5.1   2.8
 15500  -8.8  16.2  310  32 17   4.9   2.7 |  -8.3  17.1  305  32 16   5.3   2.9
 15000  -8.1  17.4  310  33 17   4.1   2.3 |  -7.2  19.0  300  31 16   4.7   2.6
 14500  -7.5  18.5  310  33 17   4.1   2.2 |  -6.5  20.3  300  30 16   4.9   2.7
 14000  -6.4  20.5  305  31 16   6.3   3.5 |  -5.6  21.9  295  29 15   7.2   4.0
 13500  -5.5  22.1  300  28 14   6.0   3.3 |  -4.6  23.7  290  27 14   7.0   3.8
 13000  -4.5  23.9  300  25 13   8.0   4.4 |  -3.4  25.9  285  25 13   9.0   4.9
 12500  -3.3  26.1  295  22 11   8.2   4.5 |  -2.1  28.2  285  22 11   9.2   5.0
 12000  -2.3  27.9  290  19 10   5.3   2.9 |  -0.8  30.6  280  20 10   7.9   4.3
 11750  -1.9  28.6  290  16  8   4.8   2.6 |  -0.2  31.6  280  18  9   7.2   3.9
 11500  -1.6  29.1  290  14  7   5.6   3.1 |   0.3  32.5  280  16  8   8.2   4.5
 11250  -1.2  29.8  290  11  6   2.9   1.6 |   0.8  33.4  275  15  8   4.8   2.6
 11000  -1.1  30.0  280   8  4   3.8   2.1 |   1.0  33.8  275  13  7   3.6   2.0
 10750  -0.7  30.7  280   5  3   7.2   3.9 |   1.4  34.5  270  11  6   5.9   3.2
 10500  -0.2  31.6  265   3  1   6.2   3.4 |   1.8  35.2  265   9  5   5.7   3.1
 10250   0.3  32.5  195   1  1   6.9   3.8 |   2.2  36.0  260   7  4   4.0   2.2
 10000   0.8  33.4  190   1  1   8.4   4.6 |   2.4  36.3  250   7  3   3.0   1.6
  9750   1.5  34.7  170   1  1   9.8   5.4 |   2.7  36.9  235   6  3   4.9   2.7
  9500   2.3  36.1  150   2  1  10.1   5.5 |   3.1  37.6  215   6  3   5.1   2.8
  9250   3.0  37.4  140   2  1   9.7   5.3 |   3.4  38.1  200   6  3   4.6   2.5
  9000   3.7  38.7  145   2  1   9.5   5.2 |   3.8  38.8  195   6  3   4.2   2.3
  8750   4.4  39.9  140   2  1  10.0   5.5 |   4.1  39.4  190   6  3   5.5   3.0
  8500   5.2  41.4  135   3  1  10.4   5.7 |   4.5  40.1  180   7  4   6.7   3.7
  8250   6.0  42.8  135   3  1  10.2   5.6 |   5.0  41.0  175   8  4   7.1   3.9
  8000   6.7  44.1  135   3  1  10.2   5.6 |   5.6  42.1  175   8  4   6.4   3.5
  7750   7.5  45.5  135   3  2  10.3   5.6 |   6.1  43.0  170   9  4   9.6   5.3
  7500   8.3  46.9  130   3  2  10.3   5.7 |   6.8  44.2  165   9  5   4.2   2.3
  7250   9.0  48.2  130   3  2  10.3   5.6 |   6.6  43.9  165   8  4  -4.8  -2.6
  7000   9.8  49.6  125   4  2  10.3   5.6 |   6.4  43.5  160   6  3   2.2   1.2
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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