Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 281113
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0413 MST Saturday, February 28, 2015

This forecast is for Saturday, February 28, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 34.4 F/1.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8477 ft MSL (1312 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 24.0 F/-4.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7791 ft MSL (626 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 03/01....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:33:01 / 17:49:20 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 16 min 19 sec (676 min 19 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:11:25 MST... 43.21 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 02/28/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 14075 ft MSL (6910 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11010 ft MSL (3845 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +8.8
K index......................... +9.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -54.6 -66.3   270   59   30   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -51.8 -61.2   265   57   29   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -50.8 -59.4   270   60   31   0.4   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -50.6 -59.1   275   62   32  -0.6  -0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -51.2 -60.2   270   64   33  -1.1  -0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -51.9 -61.4   270   66   34  -1.1  -0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -52.1 -61.8   265   64   33   0.3   0.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -51.9 -61.4   260   61   31   0.3   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -51.3 -60.3   255   60   31   5.8   3.2   16.1  60.9    15.7      M    M
 28000  -49.7 -57.5   250   61   31   5.4   2.9   14.2  57.6    14.5      M    M
 27000  -48.1 -54.6   250   61   32   5.4   3.0   12.6  54.6    13.4      M    M
 26000  -45.8 -50.4   245   62   32  10.1   5.5   11.0  51.8    12.3      M    M
 25000  -42.9 -45.2   245   60   31   9.8   5.4   10.9  51.6    12.4      M    M
 24000  -40.0 -40.0   245   58   30   9.8   5.4   11.0  51.7    12.6      M    M
 23000  -37.1 -34.8   245   56   29   7.9   4.3   10.9  51.6    12.7      M    M
 22000  -34.7 -30.5   250   53   27   8.0   4.4   10.2  50.4    12.3      M    M
 21000  -32.4 -26.3   255   50   26   8.0   4.4    9.6  49.3    11.9      M    M
 20000  -30.2 -22.4   260   46   24   6.5   3.6    8.8  47.8    11.3      M    M
 19500  -29.2 -20.6   265   43   22   6.5   3.6    8.2  46.7    10.9      M    M
 19000  -28.2 -18.8   265   40   20   6.5   3.6    7.6  45.7    10.5      M    M
 18500  -27.2 -17.0   270   37   19   6.6   3.6    7.1  44.8    10.1      M    M
 18000  -26.3 -15.3   275   34   18   7.3   4.0    6.6  43.9     9.7      M    M
 17500  -25.0 -13.0   275   31   16   8.5   4.7    6.3  43.4     9.5      M    M
 17000  -23.7 -10.7   270   28   15   8.7   4.8    6.2  43.1     9.4      M    M
 16500  -22.6  -8.7   270   26   13   6.5   3.6    5.8  42.4     9.1      M    M
 16000  -21.6  -6.9   270   24   12   6.7   3.7    5.3  41.5     8.7      M    M
 15500  -20.6  -5.1   265   22   11   7.0   3.8    4.8  40.6     8.3      M    M
 15000  -19.6  -3.3   265   20   10   7.0   3.9    4.3  39.8     7.9      M    M
 14500  -18.5  -1.3   260   18    9   7.8   4.3    3.9  39.0     7.5      M    M
 14000  -17.3   0.9   255   17    9   8.3   4.6    3.7  38.6     7.3      M    M
 13500  -16.1   3.0   255   15    8   8.3   4.5    3.5  38.2     7.1      M    M
 13000  -14.9   5.2   255   14    7   8.2   4.5    3.2  37.7     6.9      M    M
 12500  -13.7   7.3   255   13    7   8.3   4.5    2.9  37.3     6.7      M    M
 12000  -12.4   9.7   255   12    6   7.6   4.1    2.8  37.0     6.5      M    M
 11750  -11.9  10.6   255   11    6   5.6   3.1    2.5  36.5     6.3      M    M
 11500  -11.5  11.3   255   11    6   5.8   3.2    2.2  35.9     6.0      M    M
 11250  -11.1  12.0   255   10    5   6.1   3.4    1.9  35.4     5.7      M    M
 11000  -10.6  12.9   260    9    5   6.1   3.4    1.6  34.8     5.5      M    M
 10750  -10.2  13.6   260    9    5   6.0   3.3    1.3  34.3     5.2      M    M
 10500   -9.8  14.4   260    8    4   4.4   2.4    1.0  33.7     4.9      M    M
 10250   -9.5  14.9   255    8    4   3.5   1.9    0.5  32.9     4.4      M    M
 10000   -9.2  15.4   255    7    4   3.1   1.7   -0.0  32.0     4.0      M    M
  9750   -8.5  16.7   250    6    3   4.4   2.4   -0.8  30.6     3.2      M    M
  9500   -8.4  16.9   250    6    3   1.3   0.7   -1.4  29.5     2.7      M    M
  9250   -8.2  17.2   245    5    3   3.3   1.8   -2.0  28.5     2.1      M    M
  9000   -8.0  17.6   245    5    3  -1.5  -0.8   -2.5  27.4     1.5      M    M
  8750   -8.3  17.1   240    6    3  -3.2  -1.7   -3.6  25.5     0.5      M    M
  8500   -8.4  16.9   240    6    3  -0.7  -0.4   -4.4  24.1    -0.3    182  0.9
  8250   -8.4  16.9   240    6    3   0.9   0.5   -5.2  22.6    -1.0    176  0.9
  8000   -8.6  16.5   235    6    3 -11.1  -6.1   -6.1  21.0    -1.9    173  0.9
  7750  -10.2  13.6   235    6    3 -28.9 -15.8   -8.5  16.7    -4.3    215  1.1
  7500  -12.3   9.9   235    5    3 -24.4 -13.4  -11.4  11.6    -7.1    270  1.4
  7250  -14.4   6.1   230    4    2 -42.3 -23.2  -14.2   6.5    -9.9    325  1.7
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           02/28/2015 at 0800 MST          |       02/28/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +4.5  LI... +2.2                | K index... +3.9  LI... +2.8
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -54.7 -66.5  270  60 31   1.1   0.6 | -55.4 -67.7  265  61 31   0.7   0.4
 45000 -53.0 -63.4  265  61 31   1.1   0.6 | -54.4 -65.9  260  62 32   0.7   0.4
 40000 -52.0 -61.6  270  64 33   0.6   0.3 | -52.7 -62.9  265  68 35   1.2   0.7
 38000 -51.6 -60.9  270  66 34   0.3   0.2 | -52.0 -61.6  270  72 37  -0.1  -0.0
 36000 -51.5 -60.7  270  71 36   0.3   0.2 | -52.2 -62.0  270  87 45  -0.3  -0.2
 34000 -51.3 -60.3  275  76 39   0.3   0.2 | -52.4 -62.3  270 100 51  -0.4  -0.2
 32000 -50.8 -59.4  275  77 39   1.1   0.6 | -50.3 -58.5  270 101 52   4.4   2.4
 30000 -50.2 -58.4  275  75 39   1.1   0.6 | -47.6 -53.7  265  98 51   4.5   2.5
 29000 -49.4 -56.9  275  75 39   4.6   2.5 | -46.8 -52.2  265  91 47   1.7   1.0
 28000 -47.7 -53.9  270  77 40   4.5   2.5 | -46.3 -51.3  265  81 42   1.7   0.9
 27000 -46.4 -51.5  270  78 40   4.5   2.5 | -45.8 -50.4  260  70 36   1.7   0.9
 26000 -44.7 -48.5  270  78 40   9.1   5.0 | -44.8 -48.6  260  62 32   9.3   5.1
 25000 -42.2 -44.0  270  72 37   8.6   4.7 | -42.0 -43.6  255  59 30   9.6   5.2
 24000 -39.6 -39.3  270  67 35   8.6   4.7 | -39.1 -38.4  255  56 29   9.6   5.3
 23000 -37.1 -34.8  270  61 32   7.5   4.1 | -35.7 -32.3  250  52 27   8.5   4.6
 22000 -34.8 -30.6  270  55 28   7.6   4.2 | -33.2 -27.8  255  48 25   8.5   4.7
 21000 -32.5 -26.5  265  48 25   7.6   4.2 | -30.6 -23.1  260  45 23   8.6   4.7
 20000 -30.2 -22.4  265  44 23   8.1   4.4 | -28.3 -18.9  260  42 21   7.2   4.0
 19500 -29.0 -20.2  265  43 22   8.1   4.4 | -27.3 -17.1  260  40 21   7.2   3.9
 19000 -27.8 -18.0  265  43 22   8.1   4.4 | -26.2 -15.2  260  38 20   7.2   3.9
 18500 -26.5 -15.7  265  42 22   8.1   4.4 | -25.1 -13.2  265  37 19   7.2   3.9
 18000 -25.3 -13.5  265  42 22   7.7   4.2 | -24.0 -11.2  265  35 18   7.6   4.2
 17500 -24.3 -11.7  265  38 20   7.3   4.0 | -22.8  -9.0  265  33 17   7.8   4.3
 17000 -23.2  -9.8  270  35 18   7.3   4.0 | -21.7  -7.1  265  32 16   7.7   4.2
 16500 -22.1  -7.8  270  31 16   7.3   4.0 | -20.6  -5.1  265  30 15   7.3   4.0
 16000 -21.0  -5.8  270  28 15   7.3   4.0 | -19.5  -3.1  265  28 14   7.4   4.0
 15500 -19.9  -3.8  270  25 13   7.0   3.9 | -18.4  -1.1  265  26 13   7.2   4.0
 15000 -18.9  -2.0  270  23 12   7.0   3.9 | -17.3   0.9  260  24 12   7.3   4.0
 14500 -17.8  -0.0  270  21 11   7.4   4.0 | -16.3   2.7  260  22 11   6.7   3.7
 14000 -16.7   1.9  265  19 10   7.5   4.1 | -15.3   4.5  255  20 10   6.6   3.6
 13500 -15.6   3.9  260  18  9   7.6   4.2 | -14.3   6.3  255  19 10   6.5   3.6
 13000 -14.5   5.9  260  17  9   7.7   4.2 | -13.4   7.9  250  18  9   6.5   3.6
 12500 -13.4   7.9  260  15  8   8.2   4.5 | -12.5   9.5  245  17  9   6.7   3.7
 12000 -12.0  10.4  265  14  7   7.9   4.3 | -11.5  11.3  245  15  8   6.3   3.5
 11750 -11.5  11.3  265  13  7   6.1   3.3 | -11.1  12.0  245  14  7   5.5   3.0
 11500 -11.1  12.0  270  13  7   6.1   3.4 | -10.7  12.7  245  13  7   5.2   2.9
 11250 -10.6  12.9  270  12  6   6.3   3.4 | -10.3  13.5  245  12  6   4.9   2.7
 11000 -10.2  13.6  275  11  6   6.3   3.5 |  -9.9  14.2  245  11  6   5.1   2.8
 10750  -9.7  14.5  280  10  5   5.8   3.2 |  -9.5  14.9  250   9  5   4.8   2.6
 10500  -9.3  15.3  285  10  5   4.4   2.4 |  -9.2  15.4  250   8  4   3.2   1.8
 10250  -9.0  15.8  290   9  5   4.1   2.2 |  -9.0  15.8  255   7  4   2.3   1.3
 10000  -8.4  16.9  300   8  4   5.0   2.8 |  -8.9  16.0  265   6  3   2.7   1.5
  9750  -8.0  17.6  305   8  4   4.4   2.4 |  -8.7  16.3  275   5  2   2.1   1.2
  9500  -7.8  18.0  315   8  4   2.4   1.3 |  -8.5  16.7  305   4  2   0.8   0.5
  9250  -7.6  18.3  320   7  4   3.5   1.9 |  -8.4  16.9  325   4  2   1.3   0.7
  9000  -7.3  18.9  325   7  4   1.0   0.6 |  -8.3  17.1  335   5  2  -0.2  -0.1
  8750  -7.4  18.7  330   7  3   0.6   0.3 |  -8.4  16.9  350   5  3  -0.7  -0.4
  8500  -7.2  19.0  340   7  3   2.7   1.5 |  -8.4  16.9  360   5  3   0.4   0.2
  8250  -7.0  19.4  345   6  3   1.7   1.0 |  -8.4  16.9  010   6  3   0.6   0.3
  8000  -7.1  19.2  345   6  3  -5.8  -3.2 |  -8.4  16.9  015   6  3  -0.4  -0.2
  7750  -8.0  17.6  340   6  3 -16.7  -9.1 |  -8.3  17.1  025   5  3   6.4   3.5
  7500  -9.4  15.1  330   5  2 -19.1 -10.5 |  -7.3  18.9  030   5  3  21.0  11.5
  7250 -10.8  12.6  310   3  2 -19.2 -10.5 |  -6.3  20.7  040   5  2  -5.9  -3.3
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           02/28/2015 at 1400 MST          |       02/28/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +12.4  LI... +2.9               | K index... +10.3  LI... +1.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -55.8 -68.4  270  64 33   0.7   0.4 | -56.5 -69.7  265  67 35   1.3   0.7
 45000 -54.8 -66.6  260  67 34   0.7   0.4 | -54.6 -66.3  265  73 38   1.2   0.7
 40000 -54.0 -65.2  265  80 41   0.5   0.3 | -55.1 -67.2  265  92 47  -0.5  -0.3
 38000 -53.6 -64.5  265  89 46   0.5   0.3 | -55.0 -67.0  265 100 51   1.5   0.8
 36000 -53.3 -63.9  265 102 52   0.5   0.3 | -54.1 -65.4  265 110 56   1.6   0.9
 34000 -53.0 -63.4  265 115 59   0.0   0.0 | -53.1 -63.6  265 119 61   1.0   0.6
 32000 -49.9 -57.8  265 118 61   5.9   3.2 | -49.3 -56.7  260 121 62   7.0   3.9
 30000 -46.4 -51.5  265 119 61   6.0   3.3 | -45.1 -49.2  260 120 62   7.2   3.9
 29000 -45.0 -49.0  265 111 57   4.3   2.3 | -42.8 -45.0  260 117 60   7.5   4.1
 28000 -43.7 -46.7  260 100 51   4.3   2.3 | -40.6 -41.1  265 113 58   7.5   4.1
 27000 -42.5 -44.5  260  89 46   4.2   2.3 | -37.8 -36.0  265 107 55   7.4   4.1
 26000 -41.0 -41.8  255  79 41   7.1   3.9 | -36.0 -32.8  265 100 52   4.4   2.4
 25000 -39.0 -38.2  250  72 37   6.8   3.7 | -34.7 -30.5  265  90 46   4.3   2.4
 24000 -36.5 -33.7  245  63 32   6.9   3.8 | -33.4 -28.1  265  80 41   4.3   2.4
 23000 -34.1 -29.4  240  58 30   9.1   5.0 | -32.1 -25.8  260  72 37   4.7   2.6
 22000 -31.4 -24.5  245  55 28   9.1   5.0 | -30.7 -23.3  260  65 34   4.7   2.6
 21000 -28.7 -19.7  245  52 27   9.4   5.1 | -29.3 -20.7  260  58 30   4.7   2.6
 20000 -26.5 -15.7  250  49 25   6.4   3.5 | -27.3 -17.1  260  53 27   8.0   4.4
 19500 -25.6 -14.1  255  47 24   6.4   3.5 | -26.1 -15.0  260  51 26   8.0   4.4
 19000 -24.6 -12.3  255  46 24   6.4   3.5 | -25.0 -13.0  260  50 26   8.0   4.4
 18500 -23.7 -10.7  260  45 23   6.3   3.4 | -23.8 -10.8  260  48 25   8.1   4.4
 18000 -22.6  -8.7  265  43 22   8.5   4.7 | -22.6  -8.7  265  46 24   7.5   4.1
 17500 -21.3  -6.3  265  41 21   8.9   4.9 | -21.5  -6.7  265  44 22   7.3   4.0
 17000 -20.0  -4.0  265  39 20   8.5   4.6 | -20.5  -4.9  270  42 21   7.4   4.1
 16500 -18.9  -2.0  260  35 18   7.1   3.9 | -19.3  -2.7  270  40 20   8.6   4.7
 16000 -17.8  -0.0  260  32 16   7.4   4.0 | -18.0  -0.4  265  38 19   8.6   4.7
 15500 -17.0   1.4  255  28 15   4.4   2.4 | -16.8   1.8  265  36 18   7.7   4.2
 15000 -16.3   2.7  255  25 13   4.7   2.6 | -15.7   3.7  255  34 18   7.8   4.3
 14500 -15.6   3.9  255  21 11   4.3   2.4 | -14.6   5.7  250  33 17   5.8   3.2
 14000 -14.9   5.2  250  18  9   4.3   2.3 | -13.5   7.7  240  29 15   5.1   2.8
 13500 -14.2   6.4  245  16  8   5.8   3.2 | -12.7   9.1  235  26 13   5.2   2.8
 13000 -13.3   8.1  235  16  8   6.4   3.5 | -12.0  10.4  230  23 12   5.3   2.9
 12500 -12.3   9.9  225  16  8   6.8   3.7 | -11.3  11.7  225  21 11   4.3   2.4
 12000 -11.3  11.7  220  15  8   6.5   3.5 | -10.7  12.7  220  20 10   3.6   2.0
 11750 -10.9  12.4  220  15  8   5.5   3.0 | -10.4  13.3  215  18  9   3.0   1.6
 11500 -10.5  13.1  215  15  8   5.0   2.7 | -10.2  13.6  215  17  9   2.8   1.5
 11250 -10.2  13.6  215  13  7   4.5   2.5 | -10.0  14.0  210  16  8   2.6   1.4
 11000  -9.8  14.4  210  12  6   4.7   2.6 |  -9.8  14.4  210  15  8   3.3   1.8
 10750  -9.5  14.9  210  11  6   4.0   2.2 |  -9.6  14.7  205  14  7   1.4   0.8
 10500  -9.3  15.3  205  10  5   2.0   1.1 |  -9.6  14.7  205  13  6  -1.0  -0.5
 10250  -9.1  15.6  205   9  4   1.2   0.7 |  -9.7  14.5  200  11  6  -0.4  -0.2
 10000  -9.0  15.8  200   7  4   1.5   0.8 |  -9.7  14.5  195   9  5  -1.0  -0.5
  9750  -8.9  16.0  185   5  3  -1.5  -0.8 |  -9.8  14.4  190   7  3  -3.2  -1.8
  9500  -9.1  15.6  180   4  2  -2.8  -1.5 | -10.1  13.8  185   6  3  -4.2  -2.3
  9250  -9.3  15.3  165   3  1  -3.0  -1.7 | -10.4  13.3  175   5  3  -4.6  -2.5
  9000  -9.5  14.9  135   2  1  -0.7  -0.4 | -10.7  12.7  160   4  2  -1.9  -1.1
  8750  -9.4  15.1  115   2  1   3.6   1.9 | -10.7  12.7  150   5  3   3.4   1.8
  8500  -9.1  15.6  105   3  2   3.9   2.1 | -10.3  13.5  145   6  3   4.5   2.4
  8250  -8.8  16.2  095   4  2   4.6   2.5 | -10.1  13.8  135   7  4   3.8   2.1
  8000  -8.4  16.9  095   5  3   7.3   4.0 |  -9.7  14.5  130   8  4   6.1   3.3
  7750  -7.7  18.1  100   5  3  13.0   7.1 |  -9.2  15.4  135   8  4   8.2   4.5
  7500  -6.5  20.3  100   5  3  19.4  10.6 |  -8.6  16.5  135   7  4   8.3   4.6
  7250  -5.3  22.5  100   5  3   8.8   4.8 |  -8.0  17.6  135   7  4   7.5   4.1
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |  -7.5  18.5  130   7  3   4.5   2.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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