Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 211007
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0407 MDT Tuesday, October 21, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, October 21, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 64.2 F/17.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1096 ft/min (5.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 16080 ft MSL (9322 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 68.0 F/20.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9221 ft MSL (2463 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/22.... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Neutral
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 28710 ft MSL (21952 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/22....... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:14:43 / 18:13:27 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 58 min 44 sec (658 min 44 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:43:40 MDT... 40.21 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 10/21/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 13456 ft MSL (6698 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 15396 ft MSL (8638 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15157 ft MSL (8399 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.0
K index......................... +26.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -66.3 -87.3   225   31   16   4.4   2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -59.0 -74.2   230   36   18   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -49.7 -57.5   235   26   14   6.4   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -45.8 -50.4   240   24   12   6.4   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -42.0 -43.6   245   21   11   6.5   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -39.1 -38.4   255   20   10   2.7   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -37.5 -35.5   270   21   11   2.7   1.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -35.5 -31.9   270   19   10   3.9   2.1   34.6  94.2    11.3      M    M
 29000  -34.3 -29.7   265   18    9   3.9   2.1   32.3  90.1     9.6      M    M
 28000  -33.2 -27.8   255   17    9   3.6   2.0   30.2  86.3     8.0      M    M
 27000  -31.1 -24.0   250   15    8   8.8   4.8   29.1  84.4     7.3      M    M
 26000  -28.4 -19.1   240   14    7   8.8   4.9   28.7  83.7     7.0      M    M
 25000  -25.8 -14.4   235   13    7   8.8   4.8   28.4  83.2     6.9      M    M
 24000  -23.2  -9.8   230   13    7   8.4   4.6   28.0  82.5     6.6      M    M
 23000  -20.7  -5.3   230   14    7   8.4   4.6   27.5  81.5     6.2      M    M
 22000  -18.2  -0.8   230   14    7   8.4   4.6   27.1  80.7     5.9      M    M
 21000  -16.0   3.2   230   15    8   7.0   3.8   26.3  79.3     5.3      M    M
 20000  -13.9   7.0   230   15    8   7.0   3.8   25.3  77.5     4.4      M    M
 19500  -12.8   9.0   235   15    8   6.9   3.8   24.9  76.7     4.0      M    M
 19000  -11.8  10.8   235   15    8   6.6   3.6   24.4  76.0     3.7      M    M
 18500  -11.0  12.2   235   15    8   5.4   3.0   23.7  74.7     3.0      M    M
 18000  -10.2  13.6   235   15    8   5.5   3.0   23.0  73.4     2.4      M    M
 17500   -9.5  14.9   235   14    7   5.7   3.1   22.3  72.1     1.7      M    M
 17000   -8.7  16.3   235   14    7   5.8   3.2   21.6  70.9     1.0      M    M
 16500   -7.3  18.9   235   12    6   8.4   4.6   20.8  69.4     0.2      M    M
 16000   -6.1  21.0   235   12    6   8.4   4.6   20.6  69.0    -0.1    876  4.4
 15500   -4.9  23.2   235   12    6   8.3   4.6   20.4  68.6    -0.3    824  4.2
 15000   -3.6  25.5   235   12    6   8.3   4.5   20.1  68.2    -0.6    773  3.9
 14500   -2.4  27.7   230   12    6   8.4   4.6   19.9  67.8    -0.8    721  3.7
 14000   -1.2  29.8   230   12    6   8.5   4.7   19.7  67.4    -1.0    669  3.4
 13500    0.1  32.2   230   12    6   8.6   4.7   19.5  67.0    -1.2    616  3.1
 13000    1.5  34.7   225   12    6   9.4   5.2   19.4  66.9    -1.3    560  2.8
 12500    2.9  37.2   225   12    6   8.2   4.5   19.3  66.8    -1.4    503  2.6
 12000    4.1  39.4   225   12    6   8.9   4.9   19.0  66.3    -1.7    452  2.3
 11750    4.7  40.5   225   12    6   8.6   4.7   19.0  66.1    -1.7    425  2.2
 11500    5.4  41.7   225   12    6   8.7   4.8   18.9  66.0    -1.8    398  2.0
 11250    6.0  42.8   225   13    6   9.5   5.2   18.8  65.9    -1.9    371  1.9
 11000    6.7  44.1   225   13    7   8.9   4.9   18.8  65.9    -1.9    342  1.7
 10750    7.3  45.1   225   13    7   7.7   4.2   18.7  65.6    -2.1    317  1.6
 10500    7.9  46.2   225   13    7   8.2   4.5   18.5  65.4    -2.2    292  1.5
 10250    8.5  47.3   225   14    7   7.2   4.0   18.4  65.1    -2.4    267  1.4
 10000    9.0  48.2   225   14    7   7.4   4.1   18.2  64.7    -2.6    244  1.2
  9750    9.6  49.3   225   14    7   8.4   4.6   18.1  64.5    -2.7    219  1.1
  9500   10.3  50.5   225   14    7   8.3   4.5   17.9  64.3    -2.8    193  1.0
  9250   10.8  51.4   225   14    7   7.0   3.8   17.8  64.1    -3.0    168  0.9
  9000   11.3  52.3   225   14    7   6.0   3.3   17.5  63.6    -3.3    147  0.7
  8750   11.8  53.2   220   14    7   8.2   4.5   17.3  63.2    -3.5    124  0.6
  8500   12.4  54.3   220   14    7   7.1   3.9   17.2  63.0    -3.6     97  0.5
  8250   12.8  55.0   220   14    7   1.7   0.9   16.8  62.3    -4.0     81  0.4
  8000   12.7  54.9   220   13    7  -3.2  -1.8   16.0  60.8    -4.8     75  0.4
  7750   12.6  54.7   225   13    7   6.7   3.7   15.2  59.4    -5.6     69  0.4
  7500   13.2  55.8   225   13    7  -5.0  -2.7   15.0  59.0    -5.8     46  0.2
  7250   11.5  52.7   230   11    6 -32.1 -17.6   13.0  55.3    -7.9     89  0.5
  7000    9.2  48.6   235    8    4 -23.6 -12.9   10.4  50.7   -10.5    150  0.8
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           10/21/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       10/21/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +21.4  LI... +0.8               | K index... +19.3  LI... -0.8
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -148.5                 | CAPE... +75.3  CIN... -23.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.0 -86.8  215  34 18   3.8   2.1 | -66.5 -87.7  210  41 21   4.2   2.3
 45000 -59.4 -74.9  215  40 21   6.2   3.4 | -59.4 -74.9  210  46 24   6.2   3.4
 40000 -50.1 -58.2  225  31 16   6.3   3.5 | -50.1 -58.2  220  39 20   5.7   3.1
 38000 -46.3 -51.3  230  28 14   6.4   3.5 | -46.9 -52.4  225  35 18   5.4   2.9
 36000 -42.4 -44.3  240  25 13   6.4   3.5 | -43.7 -46.7  230  32 17   5.4   2.9
 34000 -39.4 -38.9  250  21 11   3.2   1.8 | -40.8 -41.4  235  28 14   4.5   2.5
 32000 -37.5 -35.5  270  17  9   3.2   1.8 | -37.7 -35.9  240  21 11   4.5   2.5
 30000 -35.4 -31.7  260  16  8   3.5   1.9 | -34.9 -30.8  235  19 10   4.8   2.6
 29000 -34.4 -29.9  250  17  9   3.6   2.0 | -33.5 -28.3  230  20 10   4.8   2.6
 28000 -33.3 -27.9  235  19 10   3.3   1.8 | -32.1 -25.8  225  21 11   4.6   2.5
 27000 -31.2 -24.2  230  20 10   9.1   5.0 | -30.1 -22.2  220  21 11   7.9   4.3
 26000 -28.5 -19.3  225  19 10   9.2   5.0 | -27.8 -18.0  215  22 11   7.9   4.4
 25000 -25.7 -14.3  215  19 10   9.1   5.0 | -25.4 -13.7  215  23 12   8.0   4.4
 24000 -23.1  -9.6  215  19 10   8.2   4.5 | -23.1  -9.6  210  23 12   7.7   4.2
 23000 -20.7  -5.3  210  19 10   8.2   4.5 | -20.8  -5.4  215  23 12   7.7   4.2
 22000 -18.2  -0.8  210  19 10   8.2   4.5 | -18.5  -1.3  215  23 12   7.7   4.2
 21000 -16.0   3.2  210  18  9   7.0   3.8 | -16.3   2.7  220  22 11   6.9   3.8
 20000 -13.9   7.0  215  16  8   7.0   3.8 | -14.3   6.3  220  21 11   6.8   3.7
 19500 -12.9   8.8  215  15  8   7.0   3.8 | -13.3   8.1  220  20 10   6.8   3.7
 19000 -11.9  10.6  220  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -12.3   9.9  225  20 10   6.8   3.8
 18500 -10.9  12.4  225  13  7   6.3   3.5 | -11.2  11.8  225  19 10   6.9   3.8
 18000 -10.0  14.0  230  13  6   6.4   3.5 | -10.2  13.6  225  17  9   6.9   3.8
 17500  -9.1  15.6  230  12  6   5.8   3.2 |  -9.2  15.4  225  16  8   7.0   3.8
 17000  -8.3  17.1  235  12  6   5.8   3.2 |  -8.2  17.2  225  15  7   7.0   3.8
 16500  -7.0  19.4  235  12  6   6.6   3.6 |  -7.2  19.0  225  13  7   6.9   3.8
 16000  -6.1  21.0  235  12  6   6.7   3.7 |  -6.2  20.8  225  12  6   6.8   3.8
 15500  -5.1  22.8  235  11  6   7.5   4.1 |  -4.7  23.5  230  11  6   7.2   4.0
 15000  -3.9  25.0  235  11  6   8.1   4.4 |  -3.6  25.5  230  11  6   7.5   4.1
 14500  -2.7  27.1  235  11  6   8.3   4.6 |  -2.5  27.5  235  11  5   7.6   4.2
 14000  -1.5  29.3  235  11  6   8.7   4.8 |  -1.4  29.5  235  10  5   7.9   4.3
 13500  -0.2  31.6  230  11  6   8.8   4.8 |  -0.2  31.6  235  10  5   8.0   4.4
 13000   1.2  34.2  230  12  6   9.2   5.1 |   1.1  34.0  235  11  5   9.3   5.1
 12500   2.5  36.5  225  12  6   8.0   4.4 |   2.4  36.3  235  11  6   8.4   4.6
 12000   3.7  38.7  225  12  6   9.1   5.0 |   3.6  38.5  235  11  6   8.9   4.9
 11750   4.4  39.9  225  12  6   8.7   4.8 |   4.3  39.7  235  11  6   8.6   4.7
 11500   5.0  41.0  225  12  6   8.9   4.9 |   4.9  40.8  235  11  6   9.0   4.9
 11250   5.7  42.3  220  13  6   8.4   4.6 |   5.5  41.9  235  11  6   7.7   4.2
 11000   6.3  43.3  220  13  7   8.6   4.7 |   6.0  42.8  230  11  6   7.9   4.3
 10750   7.0  44.6  220  13  7   9.0   4.9 |   6.7  44.1  230  11  6   9.2   5.1
 10500   7.6  45.7  220  13  7   9.4   5.1 |   7.4  45.3  230  11  6   9.4   5.2
 10250   8.3  46.9  220  13  7   6.9   3.8 |   8.0  46.4  225  11  6   7.2   3.9
 10000   8.7  47.7  220  13  7   6.9   3.8 |   8.5  47.3  225  11  6   7.6   4.2
  9750   9.4  48.9  220  13  7   9.6   5.3 |   9.2  48.6  220  11  5  10.4   5.7
  9500  10.0  50.0  215  13  7   9.3   5.1 |   9.9  49.8  220  10  5  10.0   5.5
  9250  10.7  51.3  215  13  7   8.2   4.5 |  10.6  51.1  215  10  5   8.8   4.8
  9000  11.3  52.3  220  13  6   7.2   4.0 |  11.2  52.2  210  10  5   8.0   4.4
  8750  11.8  53.2  220  12  6   8.0   4.4 |  11.9  53.4  205  10  5  10.0   5.5
  8500  12.4  54.3  220  12  6   6.9   3.8 |  12.7  54.9  205  10  5  10.7   5.9
  8250  12.8  55.0  220  12  6   2.9   1.6 |  13.4  56.1  200  10  5   9.7   5.3
  8000  12.9  55.2  220  11  6   0.1   0.0 |  14.1  57.4  195  10  5   9.7   5.3
  7750  12.9  55.2  225  11  6   4.0   2.2 |  14.8  58.6  190  10  5   8.8   4.8
  7500  13.2  55.8  225  11  5  -1.3  -0.7 |  15.4  59.7  190  10  5   9.2   5.0
  7250  12.6  54.7  225   9  4 -12.7  -7.0 |  16.2  61.2  190   9  5  11.3   6.2
  7000  11.6  52.9  235   6  3  -9.9  -5.4 |  17.0  62.6  190   9  5  11.1   6.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           10/21/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       10/21/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +23.5  LI... -0.8               | K index... +23.7  LI... -0.2
CAPE... +55.3  CIN... -33.5                | CAPE... +5.5  CIN... -6.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.0 -86.8  210  45 23   3.9   2.1 | -64.8 -84.6  215  44 23   3.8   2.1
 45000 -59.3 -74.7  210  51 27   5.3   2.9 | -58.6 -73.5  210  53 28   4.6   2.5
 40000 -51.3 -60.3  215  42 22   5.1   2.8 | -51.7 -61.1  215  52 27   4.2   2.3
 38000 -48.4 -55.1  225  40 21   4.9   2.7 | -49.6 -57.3  225  48 25   3.5   1.9
 36000 -45.5 -49.9  235  38 20   4.9   2.7 | -47.4 -53.3  235  46 24   3.5   1.9
 34000 -42.3 -44.1  235  35 18   5.6   3.1 | -44.3 -47.7  240  42 22   6.7   3.7
 32000 -38.9 -38.0  240  30 16   5.6   3.1 | -40.3 -40.5  235  36 19   6.7   3.7
 30000 -34.9 -30.8  230  28 14   6.2   3.4 | -35.6 -32.1  230  34 17   7.4   4.1
 29000 -33.1 -27.6  225  28 14   6.3   3.4 | -33.3 -27.9  225  34 18   7.4   4.1
 28000 -31.2 -24.2  220  28 15   6.2   3.4 | -31.1 -24.0  225  35 18   7.4   4.1
 27000 -29.2 -20.6  215  28 15   7.1   3.9 | -29.0 -20.2  225  35 18   7.2   4.0
 26000 -27.1 -16.8  215  28 15   7.1   3.9 | -26.8 -16.2  230  34 17   7.3   4.0
 25000 -25.0 -13.0  215  28 15   7.2   3.9 | -24.7 -12.5  230  32 17   7.3   4.0
 24000 -22.8  -9.0  215  28 14   7.8   4.3 | -22.5  -8.5  235  31 16   7.6   4.2
 23000 -20.5  -4.9  215  26 13   7.8   4.3 | -20.2  -4.4  235  28 14   7.6   4.2
 22000 -18.2  -0.8  220  24 13   7.8   4.3 | -18.0  -0.4  235  25 13   7.6   4.2
 21000 -16.0   3.2  220  23 12   7.0   3.8 | -15.9   3.4  235  22 11   6.7   3.7
 20000 -14.0   6.8  225  21 11   6.9   3.8 | -13.9   7.0  240  19 10   6.7   3.7
 19500 -13.0   8.6  225  20 10   7.0   3.8 | -13.0   8.6  240  17  9   6.7   3.7
 19000 -12.0  10.4  225  19 10   7.0   3.8 | -12.0  10.4  240  16  8   6.7   3.7
 18500 -10.9  12.4  225  19 10   7.1   3.9 | -11.0  12.2  240  15  8   7.0   3.9
 18000  -9.9  14.2  225  18  9   7.1   3.9 | -10.0  14.0  240  15  8   7.0   3.9
 17500  -8.8  16.2  230  18  9   7.0   3.8 |  -8.9  16.0  240  15  8   7.0   3.8
 17000  -7.8  18.0  230  17  9   6.9   3.8 |  -7.9  17.8  240  15  8   7.0   3.9
 16500  -6.8  19.8  230  16  8   6.9   3.8 |  -6.9  19.6  240  14  7   7.1   3.9
 16000  -5.8  21.6  230  15  8   6.9   3.8 |  -5.8  21.6  240  14  7   7.3   4.0
 15500  -4.8  23.4  235  14  7   6.9   3.8 |  -4.8  23.4  240  13  7   7.3   4.0
 15000  -3.2  26.2  235  13  7   7.2   4.0 |  -3.1  26.4  240  12  6   7.9   4.3
 14500  -2.1  28.2  235  12  6   7.4   4.1 |  -1.9  28.6  235  11  6   8.0   4.4
 14000  -1.0  30.2  240  11  6   8.3   4.5 |  -0.6  30.9  235  11  6   8.9   4.9
 13500   0.2  32.4  240  11  5   8.2   4.5 |   0.7  33.3  230  11  6   8.8   4.9
 13000   1.6  34.9  240  10  5   9.9   5.4 |   2.0  35.6  225  11  6   8.9   4.9
 12500   3.0  37.4  240  10  5   8.4   4.6 |   3.3  37.9  220  11  6   8.8   4.8
 12000   4.2  39.6  235  10  5   9.1   5.0 |   4.5  40.1  215  12  6   7.7   4.2
 11750   4.8  40.6  230   9  5   8.7   4.8 |   5.1  41.2  215  12  6   7.8   4.3
 11500   5.5  41.9  230   9  5   9.0   5.0 |   5.7  42.3  210  13  7   7.6   4.2
 11250   6.1  43.0  225   9  5   8.3   4.5 |   6.2  43.2  210  13  7   8.4   4.6
 11000   6.7  44.1  220  10  5   8.0   4.4 |   6.9  44.4  205  15  7   8.0   4.4
 10750   7.3  45.1  215  10  5   8.3   4.5 |   7.4  45.3  205  16  8   6.6   3.6
 10500   7.9  46.2  210  11  6   9.1   5.0 |   7.9  46.2  200  17  9   7.6   4.2
 10250   8.5  47.3  205  12  6   5.6   3.1 |   8.4  47.1  200  18  9   5.0   2.7
 10000   8.8  47.8  195  13  7   6.5   3.6 |   8.7  47.7  195  18  9   5.0   2.7
  9750   9.5  49.1  195  13  7  10.7   5.9 |   9.2  48.6  190  19 10   7.6   4.2
  9500  10.3  50.5  190  14  7   9.9   5.5 |   9.7  49.5  190  19 10   7.1   3.9
  9250  11.0  51.8  185  15  8   9.2   5.0 |  10.2  50.4  185  20 10   7.2   4.0
  9000  11.6  52.9  185  15  8   8.4   4.6 |  10.7  51.3  185  20 10   7.3   4.0
  8750  12.3  54.1  180  15  8  10.0   5.5 |  11.3  52.3  185  20 10   8.0   4.4
  8500  13.1  55.6  180  15  8  10.8   5.9 |  11.9  53.4  180  20 11   8.3   4.6
  8250  13.9  57.0  180  15  8  10.5   5.8 |  12.5  54.5  180  21 11   8.5   4.6
  8000  14.7  58.5  180  15  8  11.0   6.0 |  13.1  55.6  180  20 10   8.7   4.8
  7750  15.5  59.9  180  15  8   9.6   5.2 |  13.7  56.7  180  19 10   8.6   4.7
  7500  16.1  61.0  180  14  7   8.6   4.7 |  14.3  57.7  175  17  9   6.4   3.5
  7250  16.8  62.2  175  14  7  10.4   5.7 |  14.6  58.3  175  15  8   0.4   0.2
  7000  17.6  63.7  175  13  7  11.0   6.0 |  14.4  57.9  175  12  6  -4.7  -2.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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