Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 231141
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0440 MST Sunday, November 23, 2014

This forecast is for Sunday, November 23, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 37.8 F/3.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8042 ft MSL (872 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 33.0 F/1.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 11/24....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 14559 ft MSL (7389 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Monday 11/24.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:50:37 / 16:40:14 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 49 min 37 sec (589 min 37 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:45:35 MST... 30.66 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/23/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 10667 ft MSL (3497 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 9786 ft MSL (2615 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +5.4
K index......................... +16.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -58.7 -73.7   270   34   17   6.2   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -49.3 -56.7   275   55   28   6.9   3.8      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -47.1 -52.8   275   56   29   1.2   0.7      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.2 -51.2   275   58   30   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -45.1 -49.2   275   61   31   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -44.0 -47.2   275   65   33   2.1   1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -44.2 -47.6   270   61   32  -0.8  -0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -44.7 -48.5   265   57   29  -0.9  -0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -44.3 -47.7   260   52   27   2.6   1.4   23.8  74.9    17.9      M    M
 28000  -43.5 -46.3   260   46   24   2.7   1.5   21.0  69.7    15.9      M    M
 27000  -42.7 -44.9   255   40   21   2.6   1.4   18.3  65.0    14.0      M    M
 26000  -41.0 -41.8   250   35   18   8.2   4.5   15.9  60.7    12.3      M    M
 25000  -38.6 -37.5   245   34   17   8.1   4.5   15.2  59.4    11.9      M    M
 24000  -36.1 -33.0   240   33   17   8.2   4.5   14.7  58.5    11.6      M    M
 23000  -33.6 -28.5   235   33   17   9.1   5.0   14.3  57.7    11.4      M    M
 22000  -30.9 -23.6   235   31   16   9.1   5.0   14.0  57.2    11.3      M    M
 21000  -28.2 -18.8   240   29   15   9.2   5.0   13.8  56.9    11.2      M    M
 20000  -25.6 -14.1   240   28   14   8.1   4.5   13.4  56.1    11.0      M    M
 19500  -24.4 -11.9   245   27   14   8.1   4.5   13.1  55.5    10.8      M    M
 19000  -23.2  -9.8   250   26   13   8.1   4.5   12.8  55.0    10.6      M    M
 18500  -22.0  -7.6   250   25   13   8.1   4.5   12.6  54.6    10.4      M    M
 18000  -20.8  -5.4   255   24   12   7.2   4.0   12.3  54.2    10.2      M    M
 17500  -19.9  -3.8   265   23   12   6.6   3.6   11.8  53.2     9.8      M    M
 17000  -18.9  -2.0   270   23   12   6.5   3.6   11.2  52.2     9.3      M    M
 16500  -18.1  -0.6   280   22   11   5.2   2.9   10.6  51.0     8.8      M    M
 16000  -17.3   0.9   290   20   10   5.3   2.9    9.8  49.7     8.1      M    M
 15500  -16.4   2.5   300   18    9   6.1   3.4    9.1  48.5     7.6      M    M
 15000  -15.5   4.1   315   16    8   6.2   3.4    8.6  47.4     7.0      M    M
 14500  -14.6   5.7   325   16    8   6.2   3.4    8.0  46.4     6.5      M    M
 14000  -13.7   7.3   325   20   10   6.1   3.4    7.4  45.3     6.0      M    M
 13500  -12.8   9.0   325   23   12   5.8   3.2    6.8  44.3     5.5      M    M
 13000  -12.0  10.4   330   26   13   5.3   2.9    6.1  43.0     4.8      M    M
 12500  -11.2  11.8   335   28   15   5.7   3.1    5.4  41.7     4.2      M    M
 12000  -10.3  13.5   335   31   16   5.5   3.0    4.9  40.7     3.7      M    M
 11750   -9.9  14.2   335   32   17   4.0   2.2    4.4  40.0     3.3      M    M
 11500   -9.6  14.7   335   34   17   5.5   3.0    4.0  39.3     2.9      M    M
 11250   -9.1  15.6   335   35   18   7.3   4.0    3.8  38.8     2.7      M    M
 11000   -8.6  16.5   335   35   18   7.5   4.1    3.6  38.5     2.5      M    M
 10750   -8.0  17.6   335   36   18   6.8   3.7    3.4  38.1     2.3      M    M
 10500   -7.6  18.3   340   36   18   7.0   3.8    3.2  37.7     2.1      M    M
 10250   -7.0  19.4   340   36   18   7.6   4.2    3.0  37.4     1.9      M    M
 10000   -5.9  21.4   345   36   19   8.1   4.4    2.6  36.8     1.5      M    M
  9750   -5.3  22.5   345   36   19   7.6   4.2    2.5  36.5     1.4      M    M
  9500   -4.8  23.4   350   36   18   6.6   3.6    2.3  36.1     1.2      M    M
  9250   -4.4  24.1   355   35   18   6.8   3.7    2.1  35.7     0.9      M    M
  9000   -3.9  25.0   355   35   18   7.2   4.0    1.9  35.3     0.7      M    M
  8750   -3.3  26.1   360   35   18   7.6   4.2    1.7  35.0     0.5      M    M
  8500   -2.8  27.0   360   33   17   7.4   4.1    1.5  34.7     0.3      M    M
  8250   -2.3  27.9   005   31   16   7.7   4.2    1.3  34.4     0.1      M    M
  8000   -1.7  28.9   005   28   15   6.8   3.8    1.2  34.1    -0.1     28  0.1
  7750   -1.3  29.7   005   25   13   6.9   3.8    0.9  33.7    -0.4      7  0.0
  7500   -0.7  30.7   005   20   10   9.4   5.2    0.8  33.5    -0.5      M    M
  7250   -0.1  31.8   005   15    8   4.3   2.4    0.7  33.2    -0.6      M    M
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/23/2014 at 0800 MST          |       11/23/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +6.3  LI... +1.8                | K index... +3.3  LI... +2.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.3 -72.9  275  28 14   4.1   2.2 | -57.0 -70.6  265  36 19   3.5   1.9
 45000 -52.2 -62.0  275  48 25   4.2   2.3 | -51.8 -61.2  270  50 26   3.5   1.9
 40000 -48.1 -54.6  280  50 26   2.6   1.4 | -46.7 -52.1  285  60 31   3.5   1.9
 38000 -46.3 -51.3  280  51 26   2.7   1.5 | -44.6 -48.3  290  63 32   1.8   1.0
 36000 -44.7 -48.5  275  52 27   2.7   1.5 | -43.6 -46.5  285  59 30   1.7   1.0
 34000 -43.1 -45.6  275  54 28   2.9   1.6 | -42.5 -44.5  280  55 28   1.7   1.0
 32000 -42.8 -45.0  270  52 27   0.0   0.0 | -42.8 -45.0  275  48 25  -1.0  -0.5
 30000 -42.8 -45.0  265  48 25   0.0   0.0 | -43.3 -45.9  270  41 21  -0.9  -0.5
 29000 -42.7 -44.9  265  45 23   1.0   0.5 | -43.5 -46.3  265  37 19   0.1   0.1
 28000 -42.4 -44.3  260  41 21   1.0   0.5 | -43.4 -46.1  260  34 18   0.1   0.1
 27000 -42.1 -43.8  255  37 19   1.0   0.5 | -43.4 -46.1  255  31 16   0.2   0.1
 26000 -41.7 -43.1  245  33 17   3.3   1.8 | -43.3 -45.9  245  30 15   2.7   1.5
 25000 -40.4 -40.7  235  32 17   4.3   2.3 | -41.7 -43.1  240  32 17   5.3   2.9
 24000 -38.8 -37.8  225  32 17   4.3   2.4 | -39.8 -39.6  230  36 19   5.4   2.9
 23000 -37.1 -34.8  220  33 17   9.7   5.3 | -38.1 -36.6  230  37 19   6.6   3.6
 22000 -34.3 -29.7  230  33 17   9.3   5.1 | -36.1 -33.0  245  28 15   6.5   3.6
 21000 -31.6 -24.9  235  33 17   9.3   5.1 | -34.2 -29.6  265  23 12   6.6   3.6
 20000 -29.1 -20.4  245  33 17   7.6   4.2 | -31.8 -25.2  285  22 11   8.9   4.9
 19500 -28.0 -18.4  255  32 17   7.5   4.1 | -30.5 -22.9  290  21 11   8.9   4.9
 19000 -26.8 -16.2  260  32 17   7.5   4.1 | -29.2 -20.6  295  20 10   9.0   4.9
 18500 -25.7 -14.3  265  33 17   7.6   4.2 | -27.8 -18.0  295  20 10   8.9   4.9
 18000 -24.6 -12.3  270  33 17   8.1   4.5 | -26.5 -15.7  300  19 10   8.3   4.6
 17500 -23.3  -9.9  275  32 16   8.6   4.7 | -25.4 -13.7  305  21 11   7.7   4.2
 17000 -22.0  -7.6  280  31 16   8.6   4.7 | -24.2 -11.6  310  23 12   7.6   4.2
 16500 -20.7  -5.3  285  30 15   9.0   4.9 | -23.0  -9.4  315  26 13   8.1   4.5
 16000 -19.4  -2.9  290  28 14   9.2   5.1 | -21.8  -7.2  320  28 14   8.1   4.5
 15500 -18.2  -0.8  295  26 14   5.5   3.0 | -20.6  -5.1  325  30 16   8.0   4.4
 15000 -17.5   0.5  300  25 13   5.4   3.0 | -19.4  -2.9  325  33 17   8.0   4.4
 14500 -16.7   1.9  310  25 13   5.5   3.0 | -18.2  -0.8  330  35 18   7.3   4.0
 14000 -15.9   3.4  320  26 13   5.6   3.1 | -17.2   1.0  330  37 19   7.0   3.9
 13500 -15.0   5.0  325  28 14   6.3   3.5 | -16.1   3.0  335  39 20   6.5   3.6
 13000 -14.0   6.8  330  28 15   7.0   3.8 | -15.3   4.5  335  39 20   6.1   3.3
 12500 -13.0   8.6  335  30 15   7.0   3.8 | -14.4   6.1  335  39 20   6.0   3.3
 12000 -11.9  10.6  340  32 16   5.8   3.2 | -13.5   7.7  340  38 20   5.6   3.0
 11750 -11.6  11.1  345  33 17   3.9   2.1 | -13.2   8.2  340  38 19   4.6   2.5
 11500 -11.3  11.7  350  34 18   3.4   1.9 | -12.8   9.0  340  37 19   5.3   2.9
 11250 -11.1  12.0  350  35 18   2.5   1.4 | -12.4   9.7  345  37 19   6.0   3.3
 11000 -10.9  12.4  350  37 19   2.7   1.5 | -12.0  10.4  345  37 19   5.9   3.2
 10750 -10.7  12.7  355  38 20   2.1   1.1 | -11.6  11.1  345  37 19   5.2   2.9
 10500 -10.6  12.9  355  39 20   2.8   1.5 | -11.2  11.8  350  36 19   5.2   2.9
 10250 -10.3  13.5  355  40 21   3.8   2.1 | -10.8  12.6  350  36 19   5.9   3.2
 10000 -10.0  14.0  360  41 21   3.5   1.9 | -10.3  13.5  350  36 19   5.7   3.1
  9750  -9.4  15.1  360  43 22   5.9   3.2 |  -9.4  15.1  355  36 19   7.4   4.1
  9500  -8.9  16.0  360  42 21   7.3   4.0 |  -8.8  16.2  355  35 18   8.3   4.6
  9250  -8.4  16.9  360  41 21   6.8   3.7 |  -8.3  17.1  360  34 17   8.1   4.4
  9000  -7.9  17.8  360  40 21   7.6   4.2 |  -7.7  18.1  360  32 17   8.2   4.5
  8750  -7.3  18.9  360  38 20   8.7   4.8 |  -7.0  19.4  360  31 16   9.3   5.1
  8500  -6.7  19.9  360  36 19   8.8   4.8 |  -6.3  20.7  360  29 15  10.0   5.5
  8250  -6.0  21.2  355  34 17   8.7   4.8 |  -5.6  21.9  360  28 14  10.0   5.5
  8000  -5.4  22.3  355  32 16   9.2   5.1 |  -4.8  23.4  360  26 14  10.3   5.7
  7750  -4.7  23.5  355  29 15  11.0   6.0 |  -4.0  24.8  360  25 13  14.4   7.9
  7500  -3.8  25.2  355  24 12  12.5   6.9 |  -2.6  27.3  360  22 11  21.0  11.5
  7250  -2.9  26.8  350  19 10  10.1   5.6 |  -1.3  29.7  360  18 10   9.3   5.1
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/23/2014 at 1400 MST          |       11/23/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +6.2  LI... +1.4                | K index... +10.1  LI... +0.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4                   | CAPE... +5.5  CIN... -1.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -57.0 -70.6  270  41 21   2.8   1.5 | -56.8 -70.2  265  39 20   2.7   1.5
 45000 -52.6 -62.7  265  53 27   2.6   1.4 | -52.7 -62.9  265  41 21   2.8   1.5
 40000 -45.9 -50.6  285  54 28   4.5   2.5 | -46.9 -52.4  290  52 27   3.8   2.1
 38000 -43.6 -46.5  290  55 28   0.5   0.3 | -44.9 -48.8  295  57 29   0.5   0.3
 36000 -43.2 -45.8  285  55 28   0.6   0.3 | -44.5 -48.1  295  55 28   0.8   0.4
 34000 -42.9 -45.2  285  55 28   0.6   0.3 | -44.0 -47.2  290  53 27   0.7   0.4
 32000 -43.8 -46.8  285  49 25  -2.4  -1.3 | -44.5 -48.1  290  48 25  -1.6  -0.9
 30000 -45.2 -49.4  285  40 21  -2.4  -1.3 | -45.5 -49.9  290  42 22  -1.6  -0.9
 29000 -45.5 -49.9  285  37 19   2.8   1.6 | -45.7 -50.3  290  39 20   1.5   0.8
 28000 -44.6 -48.3  280  35 18   2.4   1.3 | -45.4 -49.7  290  38 19   1.2   0.7
 27000 -43.9 -47.0  280  33 17   2.4   1.3 | -44.9 -48.8  290  36 18   1.2   0.7
 26000 -43.2 -45.8  275  32 16   2.5   1.4 | -44.5 -48.1  290  35 18   3.5   1.9
 25000 -42.4 -44.3  265  33 17   2.5   1.4 | -43.2 -45.8  290  35 18   4.2   2.3
 24000 -41.7 -43.1  260  36 18   2.5   1.4 | -42.0 -43.6  285  36 19   4.2   2.3
 23000 -40.7 -41.3  255  38 19   7.8   4.3 | -40.7 -41.3  280  37 19   6.2   3.4
 22000 -38.1 -36.6  265  36 18   8.5   4.7 | -38.6 -37.5  280  39 20   7.0   3.8
 21000 -35.5 -31.9  275  35 18   8.5   4.7 | -36.5 -33.7  280  41 21   7.0   3.8
 20000 -33.0 -27.4  285  34 18   8.3   4.6 | -34.4 -29.9  285  41 21   7.4   4.1
 19500 -31.8 -25.2  290  34 17   8.3   4.6 | -33.3 -27.9  290  39 20   7.4   4.1
 19000 -30.5 -22.9  295  33 17   8.3   4.6 | -32.2 -26.0  290  38 19   7.4   4.1
 18500 -29.3 -20.7  295  33 17   8.3   4.6 | -31.1 -24.0  295  36 19   7.4   4.1
 18000 -28.0 -18.4  300  32 17   8.3   4.6 | -30.0 -22.0  300  35 18   7.5   4.1
 17500 -26.8 -16.2  305  32 16   8.3   4.5 | -28.8 -19.8  305  36 19   7.9   4.3
 17000 -25.6 -14.1  305  31 16   8.3   4.5 | -27.6 -17.7  310  39 20   7.9   4.3
 16500 -24.4 -11.9  310  31 16   7.8   4.3 | -26.5 -15.7  315  41 21   8.1   4.4
 16000 -23.2  -9.8  315  31 16   7.9   4.4 | -25.3 -13.5  320  41 21   8.1   4.4
 15500 -22.1  -7.8  315  32 16   6.9   3.8 | -24.0 -11.2  320  42 22   8.4   4.6
 15000 -21.1  -6.0  320  35 18   6.8   3.7 | -22.8  -9.0  320  42 21   8.5   4.7
 14500 -20.0  -4.0  325  38 19   7.2   4.0 | -21.5  -6.7  320  41 21   8.5   4.7
 14000 -18.9  -2.0  330  39 20   7.4   4.1 | -19.6  -3.3  320  40 21   8.4   4.6
 13500 -17.8  -0.0  330  41 21   7.7   4.2 | -18.4  -1.1  320  39 20   8.6   4.7
 13000 -16.6   2.1  335  40 21   8.0   4.4 | -17.1   1.2  320  38 20   8.6   4.7
 12500 -15.5   4.1  335  40 20   8.3   4.6 | -15.9   3.4  320  36 19   8.5   4.6
 12000 -14.1   6.6  340  39 20   8.1   4.4 | -14.7   5.5  325  34 18   7.2   4.0
 11750 -13.6   7.5  340  38 19   6.6   3.6 | -14.1   6.6  325  33 17   7.2   3.9
 11500 -13.1   8.4  340  37 19   7.0   3.8 | -13.6   7.5  325  32 17   7.6   4.2
 11250 -12.6   9.3  340  36 18   7.4   4.1 | -13.0   8.6  330  31 16   7.7   4.2
 11000 -12.0  10.4  340  35 18   7.5   4.1 | -12.5   9.5  330  30 16   7.1   3.9
 10750 -11.5  11.3  340  34 18   6.3   3.4 | -12.0  10.4  330  29 15   6.6   3.6
 10500 -10.7  12.7  345  32 16   6.3   3.5 | -11.5  11.3  335  28 15   6.8   3.7
 10250 -10.2  13.6  345  31 16   6.0   3.3 | -11.0  12.2  335  28 14   6.7   3.7
 10000  -9.8  14.4  350  30 15   6.6   3.6 | -10.5  13.1  340  27 14   7.1   3.9
  9750  -9.2  15.4  350  29 15   8.3   4.6 |  -9.9  14.2  340  27 14   7.7   4.2
  9500  -8.6  16.5  355  27 14   9.1   5.0 |  -9.4  15.1  340  26 13   7.8   4.3
  9250  -7.9  17.8  355  26 13   8.9   4.9 |  -8.8  16.2  345  26 13   7.9   4.3
  9000  -7.3  18.9  355  25 13   9.0   4.9 |  -8.2  17.2  345  25 13   7.4   4.1
  8750  -6.6  20.1  355  24 12   9.8   5.4 |  -7.7  18.1  345  25 13   8.3   4.6
  8500  -5.8  21.6  355  24 12  10.4   5.7 |  -7.0  19.4  345  25 13   9.5   5.2
  8250  -5.0  23.0  355  23 12  10.4   5.7 |  -6.3  20.7  345  24 12   9.4   5.1
  8000  -4.3  24.3  355  23 12  10.0   5.5 |  -5.6  21.9  345  24 12   8.5   4.6
  7750  -3.4  25.9  355  22 11  13.3   7.3 |  -5.1  22.8  345  22 11   7.3   4.0
  7500  -2.2  28.0  355  19 10  20.2  11.1 |  -4.5  23.9  345  19 10   8.3   4.5
  7250  -0.9  30.4  360  17  9   7.7   4.2 |  -3.9  25.0  345  16  8   4.7   2.6
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |  -4.0  24.8  345  14  7  -4.7  -2.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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