Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 211112
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0412 MST Wednesday, January 21, 2015

This forecast is for Wednesday, January 21, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 27.6 F/-2.5 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10092 ft MSL (3334 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 25.0 F/-4.3 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ 0500 MST
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Thursday 01/22..... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:13:19 / 17:06:22 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 53 min 4 sec (593 min 4 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:10:14 MST... 31.27 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 01/21/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 9108 ft MSL (2350 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 9230 ft MSL (2472 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +10.2
K index......................... +6.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -56.9 -70.4   285   41   21   0.7   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -55.8 -68.4   280   54   28   0.7   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -55.0 -67.0   275   66   34   0.5   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -54.9 -66.8   270   71   36  -1.6  -0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -55.7 -68.3   265   79   41  -1.4  -0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -56.6 -69.9   260   87   45  -1.5  -0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -54.4 -65.9   260   83   43   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -51.5 -60.7   265   75   39   4.6   2.5      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -48.8 -55.8   265   71   37   7.9   4.3   18.0  64.3    16.8      M    M
 28000  -46.5 -51.7   265   68   35   7.9   4.3   17.2  63.0    16.5      M    M
 27000  -44.1 -47.4   265   65   33   7.9   4.3   16.6  61.9    16.2      M    M
 26000  -41.9 -43.4   265   61   31   7.2   3.9   15.7  60.3    15.7      M    M
 25000  -39.8 -39.6   270   56   29   7.2   3.9   14.7  58.5    15.1      M    M
 24000  -37.6 -35.7   275   51   27   7.2   3.9   13.8  56.9    14.5      M    M
 23000  -35.4 -31.7   275   48   25   7.4   4.1   12.9  55.3    14.0      M    M
 22000  -33.2 -27.8   280   44   23   7.4   4.1   12.1  53.7    13.4      M    M
 21000  -31.0 -23.8   280   41   21   7.5   4.1   11.3  52.4    12.9      M    M
 20000  -28.9 -20.0   280   40   20   7.1   3.9   10.4  50.7    12.2      M    M
 19500  -27.8 -18.0   280   39   20   7.1   3.9    9.9  49.8    11.9      M    M
 19000  -26.8 -16.2   280   38   20   7.1   3.9    9.4  49.0    11.5      M    M
 18500  -25.7 -14.3   280   37   19   7.0   3.9    9.0  48.2    11.2      M    M
 18000  -24.6 -12.3   280   36   19   7.7   4.2    8.6  47.5    10.9      M    M
 17500  -23.5 -10.3   280   34   18   7.7   4.2    8.3  46.9    10.7      M    M
 17000  -22.3  -8.1   280   32   16   8.3   4.6    8.0  46.3    10.5      M    M
 16500  -21.0  -5.8   275   31   16   8.9   4.9    7.8  46.0    10.4      M    M
 16000  -19.7  -3.5   275   29   15   8.8   4.8    7.7  45.8    10.3      M    M
 15500  -18.4  -1.1   270   29   15   8.3   4.6    7.4  45.4    10.2      M    M
 15000  -17.2   1.0   265   28   15   8.5   4.7    7.2  45.0    10.0      M    M
 14500  -15.5   4.1   255   27   14   7.3   4.0    6.7  44.1     9.5      M    M
 14000  -14.5   5.9   250   26   13   6.1   3.4    6.3  43.4     9.2      M    M
 13500  -13.9   7.0   245   25   13   3.5   1.9    5.4  41.8     8.4      M    M
 13000  -13.3   8.1   240   23   12   3.0   1.7    4.4  40.0     7.5      M    M
 12500  -13.1   8.4   240   21   11   1.1   0.6    3.2  37.7     6.3      M    M
 12000  -13.0   8.6   240   19   10  -2.6  -1.4    1.7  35.1     5.0      M    M
 11750  -13.3   8.1   235   17    9  -2.8  -1.5    0.6  33.1     4.0      M    M
 11500  -13.3   8.1   230   14    7   0.3   0.2   -0.2  31.7     3.2      M    M
 11250  -13.3   8.1   225   12    6  -1.2  -0.7   -1.0  30.2     2.5      M    M
 11000  -13.4   7.9   220    9    5   1.7   0.9   -1.8  28.8     1.7      M    M
 10750  -13.1   8.4   210    8    4   3.7   2.1   -2.3  27.9     1.3      M    M
 10500  -12.9   8.8   200    7    4   2.7   1.5   -2.8  27.0     0.7      M    M
 10250  -12.7   9.1   180    6    3   2.7   1.5   -3.3  26.0     0.2      M    M
 10000  -12.5   9.5   165    7    3   4.5   2.5   -3.8  25.1    -0.3    277  1.4
  9750  -12.0  10.4   155    7    4   6.2   3.4   -4.1  24.5    -0.6    257  1.3
  9500  -11.6  11.1   145    7    4   5.6   3.1   -4.5  24.0    -0.9    237  1.2
  9250  -11.2  11.8   140    8    4   6.3   3.4   -4.8  23.4    -1.2    217  1.1
  9000  -10.7  12.7   130    8    4   7.5   4.1   -5.0  23.0    -1.4    194  1.0
  8750  -10.1  13.8   130    9    4   8.8   4.8   -5.1  22.8    -1.6    169  0.9
  8500   -9.4  15.1   125    9    4   9.8   5.4   -5.1  22.8    -1.6    141  0.7
  8250   -8.7  16.3   120    9    5   9.4   5.2   -5.1  22.8    -1.6    113  0.6
  8000   -8.0  17.6   120    8    4   9.1   5.0   -5.2  22.7    -1.7     85  0.4
  7750   -7.4  18.7   115    8    4   9.3   5.1   -5.2  22.6    -1.8     58  0.3
  7500   -6.7  19.9   115    7    4   8.0   4.4   -5.3  22.5    -1.9     31  0.2
  7250   -6.2  20.8   115    7    3   5.9   3.3   -5.2  22.6    -1.8      8  0.0
  7000   -5.8  21.6   115    6    3   5.5   3.0   -5.1  22.9    -1.7      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           01/21/2015 at 0800 MST          |       01/21/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +6.6  LI... +1.6                | K index... +1.0  LI... +2.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.1 -69.0  290  39 20   0.8   0.4 | -55.9 -68.6  290  30 16   1.3   0.7
 45000 -55.0 -67.0  280  49 25   0.8   0.4 | -53.8 -64.8  280  41 21   1.3   0.7
 40000 -55.2 -67.4  270  62 32  -0.3  -0.2 | -54.2 -65.6  270  55 29  -0.5  -0.3
 38000 -55.4 -67.7  265  68 35  -1.3  -0.7 | -54.5 -66.1  265  62 32  -1.4  -0.8
 36000 -56.1 -69.0  260  74 38  -1.2  -0.7 | -55.3 -67.5  260  69 35  -1.4  -0.7
 34000 -56.9 -70.4  260  80 41  -1.1  -0.6 | -56.1 -69.0  255  76 39  -1.2  -0.7
 32000 -55.1 -67.2  260  78 40   4.3   2.3 | -54.7 -66.5  250  78 40   3.8   2.1
 30000 -52.5 -62.5  255  74 38   3.9   2.2 | -52.1 -61.8  245  76 39   4.3   2.4
 29000 -49.7 -57.5  260  72 37   8.6   4.7 | -50.0 -58.0  250  74 38   8.0   4.4
 28000 -47.1 -52.8  260  70 36   8.6   4.7 | -47.6 -53.7  250  71 36   8.0   4.4
 27000 -44.6 -48.3  260  69 35   8.6   4.7 | -45.2 -49.4  255  68 35   7.9   4.4
 26000 -42.1 -43.8  260  65 34   7.7   4.2 | -42.9 -45.2  255  64 33   7.6   4.2
 25000 -39.8 -39.6  265  60 31   7.7   4.2 | -40.6 -41.1  260  60 31   7.6   4.2
 24000 -37.5 -35.5  265  55 28   7.7   4.2 | -38.3 -36.9  265  55 28   7.6   4.1
 23000 -35.4 -31.7  270  50 26   6.7   3.7 | -36.2 -33.2  265  51 26   6.6   3.6
 22000 -33.4 -28.1  275  45 23   6.6   3.6 | -34.2 -29.6  270  45 23   6.6   3.6
 21000 -31.4 -24.5  280  39 20   6.5   3.6 | -32.2 -26.0  275  40 21   6.5   3.6
 20000 -29.2 -20.6  280  36 19   7.7   4.2 | -30.0 -22.0  280  37 19   7.7   4.2
 19500 -28.1 -18.6  280  35 18   7.7   4.2 | -28.8 -19.8  280  35 18   7.7   4.2
 19000 -26.9 -16.4  285  34 17   7.7   4.2 | -27.7 -17.9  280  33 17   7.7   4.2
 18500 -25.8 -14.4  285  33 17   7.7   4.2 | -26.5 -15.7  280  31 16   7.7   4.2
 18000 -24.7 -12.5  285  31 16   7.0   3.8 | -25.3 -13.5  280  30 15   8.1   4.4
 17500 -23.7 -10.7  285  30 16   7.0   3.9 | -24.1 -11.4  275  28 14   8.1   4.4
 17000 -22.6  -8.7  285  29 15   7.3   4.0 | -22.9  -9.2  275  27 14   7.7   4.2
 16500 -21.5  -6.7  280  28 14   7.6   4.2 | -21.8  -7.2  275  25 13   7.2   3.9
 16000 -20.3  -4.5  280  27 14   7.8   4.3 | -20.8  -5.4  275  23 12   7.1   3.9
 15500 -19.0  -2.2  275  26 13   9.0   4.9 | -19.8  -3.6  275  22 11   6.5   3.6
 15000 -17.7   0.1  275  25 13   9.1   5.0 | -18.4  -1.1  270  21 11   6.5   3.6
 14500 -16.0   3.2  265  25 13   7.1   3.9 | -17.5   0.5  265  20 10   6.3   3.5
 14000 -15.0   5.0  260  25 13   6.1   3.3 | -16.5   2.3  265  20 10   5.5   3.0
 13500 -14.4   6.1  260  23 12   4.2   2.3 | -15.9   3.4  260  19 10   3.6   2.0
 13000 -13.8   7.2  260  22 11   3.3   1.8 | -15.4   4.3  260  18  9   3.8   2.1
 12500 -13.5   7.7  255  20 10   0.8   0.5 | -14.8   5.4  255  16  8   4.3   2.4
 12000 -13.4   7.9  250  17  9  -0.7  -0.4 | -14.1   6.6  245  14  7   4.0   2.2
 11750 -13.6   7.5  245  16  8  -3.4  -1.9 | -13.9   7.0  240  13  7   1.1   0.6
 11500 -13.8   7.2  240  14  7  -2.8  -1.5 | -13.9   7.0  230  12  6   0.2   0.1
 11250 -14.1   6.6  230  12  6  -4.6  -2.5 | -13.9   7.0  220  11  6  -0.5  -0.3
 11000 -14.3   6.3  220  10  5   1.9   1.0 | -13.9   7.0  210  11  5   3.1   1.7
 10750 -13.8   7.2  215  10  5   7.5   4.1 | -13.5   7.7  205  11  6   5.3   2.9
 10500 -13.4   7.9  200  10  5   5.2   2.8 | -13.2   8.2  195  11  6   3.2   1.8
 10250 -13.0   8.6  185  10  5   5.8   3.2 | -12.9   8.8  185  11  6   3.7   2.0
 10000 -12.5   9.5  175  11  6   6.7   3.7 | -12.6   9.3  175  12  6   5.2   2.8
  9750 -12.0  10.4  165  11  6   8.4   4.6 | -12.2  10.0  170  12  6   6.3   3.5
  9500 -11.3  11.7  160  11  6   9.0   5.0 | -11.7  10.9  165  13  7   5.6   3.1
  9250 -10.7  12.7  155  12  6   8.5   4.6 | -11.3  11.7  160  14  7   6.3   3.4
  9000 -10.1  13.8  150  12  6   7.0   3.9 | -10.8  12.6  155  14  7   6.3   3.5
  8750  -9.6  14.7  145  12  6   7.8   4.3 | -10.3  13.5  150  13  7   8.6   4.7
  8500  -9.0  15.8  140  12  6   9.4   5.1 |  -9.6  14.7  145  13  7  11.4   6.2
  8250  -8.3  17.1  135  12  6   9.2   5.1 |  -8.8  16.2  140  13  7  10.8   5.9
  8000  -7.6  18.3  130  11  6   9.4   5.2 |  -8.0  17.6  140  12  6  10.5   5.7
  7750  -6.9  19.6  130  11  5   8.8   4.8 |  -7.2  19.0  135  12  6  10.0   5.5
  7500  -6.3  20.7  125  10  5   7.3   4.0 |  -6.5  20.3  135  11  6   8.9   4.9
  7250  -5.8  21.6  120   9  5   6.5   3.6 |  -5.9  21.4  135  10  5   8.5   4.7
  7000  -5.4  22.3  120   8  4   6.6   3.6 |  -5.3  22.5  135  10  5   8.6   4.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           01/21/2015 at 1400 MST          |       01/21/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +2.3  LI... +3.3                | K index... +8.3  LI... +3.2
CAPE... +6.2  CIN... -1.2                  | CAPE... +34.6  CIN... -0.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -54.9 -66.8  285  28 14   1.1   0.6 | -55.5 -67.9  280  27 14   1.4   0.8
 45000 -53.1 -63.6  280  38 20   1.1   0.6 | -53.3 -63.9  285  32 17   1.4   0.8
 40000 -52.5 -62.5  270  53 27   0.3   0.2 | -51.7 -61.1  280  41 21   1.1   0.6
 38000 -52.4 -62.3  270  59 30  -1.7  -0.9 | -51.2 -60.2  280  45 23  -1.3  -0.7
 36000 -53.6 -64.5  260  62 32  -2.0  -1.1 | -52.1 -61.8  270  48 25  -1.6  -0.9
 34000 -54.8 -66.6  255  66 34  -1.9  -1.0 | -53.1 -63.6  265  53 27  -1.6  -0.9
 32000 -54.3 -65.7  250  70 36   2.0   1.1 | -53.1 -63.6  255  60 31   0.6   0.3
 30000 -52.9 -63.2  250  73 38   1.4   0.7 | -52.7 -62.9  250  71 36  -0.2  -0.1
 29000 -50.8 -59.4  250  72 37   8.4   4.6 | -50.9 -59.6  245  73 37   8.5   4.7
 28000 -48.3 -54.9  250  71 37   8.4   4.6 | -48.4 -55.1  245  73 38   8.5   4.6
 27000 -45.8 -50.4  250  70 36   8.4   4.6 | -45.8 -50.4  245  74 38   8.5   4.6
 26000 -43.4 -46.1  250  67 35   7.3   4.0 | -43.4 -46.1  245  73 38   7.0   3.8
 25000 -41.2 -42.2  255  62 32   7.3   4.0 | -41.3 -42.3  250  68 35   7.1   3.9
 24000 -39.1 -38.4  255  58 30   7.3   4.0 | -39.2 -38.6  255  64 33   7.1   3.9
 23000 -36.9 -34.4  260  53 27   7.0   3.8 | -37.1 -34.8  260  59 30   5.8   3.2
 22000 -34.8 -30.6  265  49 25   7.0   3.8 | -35.4 -31.7  265  53 27   5.9   3.3
 21000 -32.7 -26.9  270  45 23   7.0   3.8 | -33.6 -28.5  265  47 24   5.9   3.3
 20000 -30.5 -22.9  270  41 21   7.5   4.1 | -31.8 -25.2  270  39 20   6.2   3.4
 19500 -29.4 -20.9  270  39 20   7.5   4.1 | -30.8 -23.4  270  35 18   6.3   3.4
 19000 -28.2 -18.8  275  38 20   7.5   4.1 | -29.9 -21.8  270  31 16   6.3   3.4
 18500 -27.1 -16.8  275  36 19   7.5   4.1 | -29.0 -20.2  270  27 14   6.3   3.4
 18000 -26.0 -14.8  275  35 18   7.2   4.0 | -28.0 -18.4  270  23 12   7.1   3.9
 17500 -24.9 -12.8  275  33 17   7.2   3.9 | -26.9 -16.4  265  20 10   7.4   4.1
 17000 -23.9 -11.0  275  31 16   6.9   3.8 | -25.8 -14.4  265  17  9   7.0   3.8
 16500 -23.0  -9.4  275  29 15   6.3   3.5 | -24.9 -12.8  260  15  8   5.6   3.1
 16000 -22.0  -7.6  275  27 14   6.4   3.5 | -24.1 -11.4  255  12  6   5.7   3.2
 15500 -21.1  -6.0  270  24 12   6.7   3.7 | -23.4 -10.1  250   9  5   4.0   2.2
 15000 -19.6  -3.3  270  20 10   6.0   3.3 | -22.4  -8.3  225   5  3   4.9   2.7
 14500 -18.9  -2.0  270  17  9   4.8   2.7 | -21.5  -6.7  195   4  2   6.4   3.5
 14000 -18.2  -0.8  265  14  7   4.9   2.7 | -20.6  -5.1  160   5  2   6.3   3.5
 13500 -17.4   0.7  260  11  6   5.3   2.9 | -19.7  -3.5  150   5  3   6.1   3.3
 13000 -16.6   2.1  245   9  5   5.1   2.8 | -18.8  -1.8  140   6  3   6.4   3.5
 12500 -16.0   3.2  230   7  4   4.4   2.4 | -17.7   0.1  135   7  3   7.8   4.3
 12000 -15.3   4.5  200   7  3   3.1   1.7 | -16.5   2.3  130   7  4   6.6   3.6
 11750 -15.1   4.8  185   8  4   2.2   1.2 | -16.1   3.0  125   8  4   6.1   3.4
 11500 -14.9   5.2  180   8  4   3.4   1.8 | -15.6   3.9  120   9  4   7.0   3.8
 11250 -14.7   5.5  175   9  4   2.5   1.4 | -15.1   4.8  120   9  5   6.9   3.8
 11000 -14.5   5.9  170   9  5   4.9   2.7 | -14.6   5.7  115  10  5   6.3   3.5
 10750 -14.0   6.8  165   9  5   5.7   3.1 | -14.1   6.6  115  10  5   6.4   3.5
 10500 -13.7   7.3  160   9  5   4.0   2.2 | -13.6   7.5  110  11  6   7.1   3.9
 10250 -13.4   7.9  155  10  5   4.5   2.4 | -13.1   8.4  110  12  6   7.1   3.9
 10000 -13.0   8.6  150  10  5   4.8   2.6 | -12.6   9.3  110  12  6   6.2   3.4
  9750 -12.6   9.3  145  11  6   7.3   4.0 | -12.2  10.0  105  13  7   7.0   3.9
  9500 -12.0  10.4  145  11  6   8.6   4.7 | -11.6  11.1  105  14  7   8.4   4.6
  9250 -11.4  11.5  140  12  6   8.5   4.6 | -11.0  12.2  105  14  7   8.1   4.4
  9000 -10.7  12.7  135  13  6   8.4   4.6 | -10.4  13.3  105  15  8   7.9   4.4
  8750 -10.1  13.8  135  13  7  10.1   5.5 |  -9.8  14.4  105  15  8   8.8   4.8
  8500  -9.3  15.3  130  13  7  12.4   6.8 |  -9.1  15.6  105  14  7  10.0   5.5
  8250  -8.4  16.9  130  13  7  11.4   6.2 |  -8.4  16.9  105  14  7   9.7   5.3
  8000  -7.6  18.3  130  13  7  10.6   5.8 |  -7.7  18.1  105  13  7   9.5   5.2
  7750  -6.8  19.8  135  12  6  10.7   5.9 |  -7.0  19.4  105  13  7   9.4   5.2
  7500  -6.1  21.0  135  11  6   9.7   5.3 |  -6.3  20.7  105  12  6   7.8   4.3
  7250  -5.4  22.3  130  11  6   8.8   4.8 |  -5.8  21.6  105  11  5   6.1   3.3
  7000  -4.8  23.4  130  10  5   8.6   4.7 |  -5.4  22.3  105  10  5   6.1   3.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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