Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Graphics & Text | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
000
UXUS97 KPUB 171234
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0534 MST Monday, November 17, 2014

This forecast is for Monday, November 17, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 29.6 F/-1.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 257 ft/min (1.3 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10125 ft MSL (3367 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 29.0 F/-2.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1415 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8160 ft MSL (1402 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 11/18...... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... Little change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 33320 ft MSL (26562 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 11/18......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:44:07 / 16:43:46 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 59 min 39 sec (599 min 39 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:44:08 MST... 32.00 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/17/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 19801 ft MSL (13043 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15835 ft MSL (9077 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +11.1
K index......................... -21.8

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -58.8 -73.8   295   51   26  -0.1  -0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.9 -74.0   305   72   37  -0.1  -0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -56.3 -69.3   310   73   37   2.0   1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -55.2 -67.4   315   73   37   0.4   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -54.8 -66.6   320   77   40   0.5   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -54.5 -66.1   320   82   42   0.7   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -52.3 -62.1   320   84   43   4.7   2.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -49.5 -57.1   325   86   44   4.7   2.6      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -47.7 -53.9   325   85   44   5.2   2.8   20.0  68.0    16.7      M    M
 28000  -46.1 -51.0   325   82   42   5.2   2.8   18.2  64.7    15.5      M    M
 27000  -44.6 -48.3   325   80   41   5.2   2.8   16.5  61.7    14.3      M    M
 26000  -42.9 -45.2   320   78   40   6.7   3.7   15.0  59.1    13.3      M    M
 25000  -40.9 -41.6   320   75   39   6.7   3.7   13.8  56.8    12.5      M    M
 24000  -38.9 -38.0   320   72   37   6.7   3.7   12.7  54.9    11.8      M    M
 23000  -36.8 -34.2   320   69   35   7.1   3.9   11.7  53.0    11.1      M    M
 22000  -34.7 -30.5   320   65   34   7.1   3.9   10.7  51.2    10.4      M    M
 21000  -32.6 -26.7   325   61   32   7.2   3.9    9.8  49.6     9.7      M    M
 20000  -30.7 -23.3   325   58   30   6.0   3.3    8.6  47.5     8.8      M    M
 19500  -29.8 -21.6   325   57   29   6.0   3.3    7.9  46.3     8.3      M    M
 19000  -28.8 -19.8   325   55   28   6.0   3.3    7.3  45.2     7.8      M    M
 18500  -27.9 -18.2   325   54   28   6.0   3.3    6.7  44.1     7.3      M    M
 18000  -27.0 -16.6   325   52   27   6.0   3.3    6.1  43.0     6.8      M    M
 17500  -26.2 -15.2   330   51   26   6.0   3.3    5.5  41.8     6.3      M    M
 17000  -25.3 -13.5   330   50   26   5.9   3.2    4.8  40.7     5.8      M    M
 16500  -24.4 -11.9   330   49   25   5.9   3.2    4.2  39.5     5.2      M    M
 16000  -23.5 -10.3   330   48   25   5.8   3.2    3.5  38.3     4.6      M    M
 15500  -22.6  -8.7   335   47   24   5.7   3.1    2.9  37.1     4.1      M    M
 15000  -21.8  -7.2   335   46   24   5.7   3.1    2.2  36.0     3.5      M    M
 14500  -20.4  -4.7   335   45   23   6.3   3.4    1.3  34.3     2.7      M    M
 14000  -19.5  -3.1   340   44   23   6.5   3.5    0.7  33.3     2.2      M    M
 13500  -18.5  -1.3   340   43   22   6.9   3.8    0.3  32.5     1.8      M    M
 13000  -17.4   0.7   340   42   21   7.3   4.0   -0.2  31.6     1.3      M    M
 12500  -16.2   2.8   345   41   21   8.5   4.7   -0.5  31.2     1.1      M    M
 12000  -15.0   5.0   345   40   21   7.3   4.0   -0.7  30.7     0.9      M    M
 11750  -14.5   5.9   345   40   21   7.9   4.3   -0.9  30.4     0.7      M    M
 11500  -13.8   7.2   345   40   21   8.9   4.9   -1.0  30.2     0.6      M    M
 11250  -13.2   8.2   345   40   21   8.8   4.8   -1.1  30.1     0.5      M    M
 11000  -12.5   9.5   345   40   21   8.0   4.4   -1.2  29.9     0.4      M    M
 10750  -11.9  10.6   345   40   21   7.8   4.3   -1.3  29.6     0.3      M    M
 10500  -11.3  11.7   345   39   20   8.4   4.6   -1.4  29.4     0.2      M    M
 10250  -10.7  12.7   340   39   20   8.5   4.7   -1.6  29.2     0.0      M    M
 10000  -10.1  13.8   340   38   20   6.1   3.3   -1.7  28.9    -0.1    239  1.2
  9750   -9.7  14.5   340   36   19   5.6   3.0   -2.1  28.3    -0.5    221  1.1
  9500   -9.2  15.4   340   33   17   7.5   4.1   -2.3  27.9    -0.7    198  1.0
  9250   -8.7  16.3   335   31   16   6.4   3.5   -2.5  27.5    -0.9    175  0.9
  9000   -8.3  17.1   335   28   14   5.6   3.1   -2.8  27.0    -1.2    155  0.8
  8750   -7.9  17.8   330   25   13   3.7   2.0   -3.2  26.3    -1.6    137  0.7
  8500   -7.7  18.1   330   23   12   3.0   1.7   -3.7  25.4    -2.1    124  0.6
  8250   -7.6  18.3   325   21   11  -0.1  -0.1   -4.2  24.4    -2.7    112  0.6
  8000   -7.8  18.0   320   20   10  -5.3  -2.9   -5.2  22.6    -3.7    112  0.6
  7750   -8.1  17.4   315   19   10   1.8   1.0   -6.2  20.8    -4.7    112  0.6
  7500   -7.9  17.8   310   17    9  -4.5  -2.5   -6.8  19.8    -5.3    100  0.5
  7250   -9.2  15.4   305   15    7 -26.1 -14.3   -8.4  16.8    -7.0    130  0.7
  7000  -11.4  11.5   305   12    6 -30.0 -16.5  -10.9  12.3    -9.5    189  1.0
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/17/2014 at 0800 MST          |       11/17/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -24.8  LI... +5.4               | K index... -20.6  LI... +5.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.6                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.8 -70.2  295  46 24  -1.2  -0.6 | -57.5 -71.5  305  40 21  -0.9  -0.5
 45000 -58.6 -73.5  310  74 38  -1.2  -0.6 | -58.9 -74.0  310  69 36  -0.9  -0.5
 40000 -58.0 -72.4  310  76 39   0.8   0.4 | -58.4 -73.1  315  74 38   0.6   0.3
 38000 -57.4 -71.3  315  74 38   1.6   0.9 | -57.9 -72.2  315  73 38   1.9   1.0
 36000 -56.5 -69.7  315  77 40   1.6   0.9 | -56.8 -70.2  315  77 40   1.8   1.0
 34000 -55.5 -67.9  320  81 42   1.7   0.9 | -55.8 -68.4  315  81 42   1.8   1.0
 32000 -53.1 -63.6  320  83 43   4.9   2.7 | -53.3 -63.9  315  82 42   4.9   2.7
 30000 -50.2 -58.4  320  85 44   4.8   2.7 | -50.4 -58.7  315  82 42   4.8   2.6
 29000 -47.9 -54.2  325  85 44   6.6   3.6 | -48.0 -54.4  320  81 42   6.7   3.7
 28000 -45.9 -50.6  325  83 43   6.6   3.6 | -46.0 -50.8  320  80 41   6.7   3.7
 27000 -44.0 -47.2  325  82 42   6.6   3.6 | -44.0 -47.2  320  79 41   6.7   3.7
 26000 -42.0 -43.6  325  80 41   6.1   3.3 | -42.0 -43.6  320  77 40   6.7   3.7
 25000 -40.2 -40.4  325  76 39   6.1   3.4 | -40.0 -40.0  325  74 38   6.7   3.7
 24000 -38.4 -37.1  325  73 37   6.1   3.4 | -38.0 -36.4  325  72 37   6.6   3.6
 23000 -36.5 -33.7  325  69 35   6.3   3.5 | -36.1 -33.0  325  69 35   6.0   3.3
 22000 -34.6 -30.3  325  65 33   6.3   3.5 | -34.3 -29.7  325  65 33   6.1   3.3
 21000 -32.7 -26.9  325  60 31   6.3   3.5 | -32.5 -26.5  330  61 31   6.0   3.3
 20000 -30.8 -23.4  325  57 29   6.4   3.5 | -30.6 -23.1  325  57 29   6.5   3.6
 19500 -29.9 -21.8  325  55 28   6.4   3.5 | -29.6 -21.3  325  55 28   6.5   3.6
 19000 -28.9 -20.0  330  53 27   6.4   3.5 | -28.6 -19.5  325  53 27   6.5   3.6
 18500 -28.0 -18.4  330  52 27   6.4   3.5 | -27.7 -17.9  325  51 26   6.5   3.6
 18000 -27.0 -16.6  330  50 26   6.4   3.5 | -26.7 -16.1  325  49 25   6.7   3.7
 17500 -26.0 -14.8  330  49 25   6.4   3.5 | -25.7 -14.3  325  48 25   6.7   3.7
 17000 -25.1 -13.2  330  48 25   6.4   3.5 | -24.7 -12.5  325  47 24   6.5   3.6
 16500 -24.1 -11.4  330  47 24   6.2   3.4 | -23.7 -10.7  330  46 24   6.4   3.5
 16000 -23.2  -9.8  335  47 24   6.2   3.4 | -22.8  -9.0  330  45 23   6.2   3.4
 15500 -22.3  -8.1  335  46 24   5.6   3.1 | -21.9  -7.4  330  44 22   5.4   3.0
 15000 -21.5  -6.7  335  45 23   5.6   3.1 | -21.1  -6.0  330  43 22   5.5   3.0
 14500 -20.2  -4.4  335  44 23   6.0   3.3 | -19.9  -3.8  330  41 21   5.2   2.9
 14000 -19.3  -2.7  340  44 23   6.2   3.4 | -19.1  -2.4  330  40 21   5.6   3.1
 13500 -18.3  -0.9  340  43 22   6.6   3.6 | -18.2  -0.8  335  39 20   6.3   3.5
 13000 -17.3   0.9  340  42 22   6.9   3.8 | -17.2   1.0  335  38 20   6.8   3.7
 12500 -16.2   2.8  340  40 21   7.6   4.2 | -16.1   3.0  335  37 19   7.8   4.3
 12000 -15.1   4.8  340  39 20   7.2   4.0 | -15.0   5.0  340  36 18   6.7   3.7
 11750 -14.5   5.9  345  39 20   8.3   4.5 | -14.5   5.9  340  35 18   8.2   4.5
 11500 -13.9   7.0  345  39 20   8.8   4.8 | -13.8   7.2  340  35 18   8.6   4.7
 11250 -13.2   8.2  345  38 20   8.7   4.8 | -13.2   8.2  340  35 18   8.6   4.7
 11000 -12.6   9.3  345  38 20   8.4   4.6 | -12.6   9.3  340  34 18   8.2   4.5
 10750 -12.0  10.4  340  38 20   8.7   4.8 | -12.0  10.4  340  34 17   9.0   4.9
 10500 -11.3  11.7  340  38 20   9.2   5.1 | -11.2  11.8  340  34 17  10.0   5.5
 10250 -10.6  12.9  340  38 19   9.2   5.0 | -10.5  13.1  340  34 17   9.5   5.2
 10000 -10.0  14.0  340  38 19   7.0   3.8 |  -9.9  14.2  340  33 17   7.2   3.9
  9750  -9.5  14.9  340  36 18   6.8   3.7 |  -9.4  15.1  340  32 17   7.2   3.9
  9500  -8.9  16.0  335  34 17   8.8   4.8 |  -8.7  16.3  335  30 16   9.0   5.0
  9250  -8.3  17.1  335  31 16   7.4   4.0 |  -8.1  17.4  335  28 15   7.8   4.3
  9000  -7.8  18.0  335  29 15   6.3   3.5 |  -7.6  18.3  330  26 13   6.6   3.6
  8750  -7.4  18.7  330  26 14   3.4   1.9 |  -7.1  19.2  325  23 12   6.3   3.4
  8500  -7.3  18.9  325  24 13   1.3   0.7 |  -6.7  19.9  320  20 11   6.4   3.5
  8250  -7.3  18.9  320  23 12  -2.1  -1.2 |  -6.3  20.7  315  18  9   5.8   3.2
  8000  -7.7  18.1  315  22 11  -6.7  -3.7 |  -5.9  21.4  315  15  8   4.7   2.6
  7750  -8.1  17.4  310  21 11  -2.0  -1.1 |  -5.5  22.1  310  13  7   6.5   3.6
  7500  -8.2  17.2  305  18 10  -4.3  -2.4 |  -5.0  23.0  305  11  6   6.8   3.7
  7250  -8.9  16.0  300  15  8 -14.4  -7.9 |  -4.6  23.7  305   9  5   4.4   2.4
  7000 -10.1  13.8  295  12  6 -15.3  -8.4 |  -4.4  24.1  305   8  4   4.8   2.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/17/2014 at 1400 MST          |       11/17/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -7.8  LI... +4.0                | K index... -6.3  LI... +4.3
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.0                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.2 -72.8  295  45 23  -0.9  -0.5 | -58.3 -72.9  305  42 22  -0.8  -0.4
 45000 -59.5 -75.1  315  63 32  -0.9  -0.5 | -59.5 -75.1  315  54 28  -0.8  -0.4
 40000 -58.7 -73.7  315  69 36   0.8   0.4 | -58.3 -72.9  315  64 33   1.1   0.6
 38000 -58.2 -72.8  315  71 37   1.9   1.0 | -57.6 -71.7  315  66 34   0.8   0.5
 36000 -57.1 -70.8  315  75 39   1.8   1.0 | -57.1 -70.8  315  68 35   0.9   0.5
 34000 -56.1 -69.0  315  79 41   1.7   1.0 | -56.6 -69.9  320  69 35   0.8   0.4
 32000 -53.5 -64.3  315  80 41   5.1   2.8 | -53.9 -65.0  320  69 35   5.6   3.0
 30000 -50.4 -58.7  320  79 41   5.0   2.8 | -50.6 -59.1  320  69 35   5.4   3.0
 29000 -48.1 -54.6  320  77 40   6.5   3.6 | -48.1 -54.6  325  68 35   6.9   3.8
 28000 -46.1 -51.0  320  76 39   6.5   3.6 | -46.0 -50.8  325  68 35   6.9   3.8
 27000 -44.2 -47.6  325  74 38   6.6   3.6 | -44.0 -47.2  325  68 35   6.9   3.8
 26000 -42.1 -43.8  325  72 37   7.1   3.9 | -41.9 -43.4  325  67 34   6.8   3.8
 25000 -40.0 -40.0  325  71 37   7.2   3.9 | -39.9 -39.8  325  66 34   6.8   3.7
 24000 -37.8 -36.0  330  70 36   7.1   3.9 | -37.8 -36.0  330  65 33   6.8   3.8
 23000 -35.8 -32.4  330  68 35   6.3   3.5 | -35.8 -32.4  330  63 33   6.8   3.7
 22000 -33.9 -29.0  330  66 34   6.3   3.5 | -33.7 -28.7  330  62 32   6.8   3.8
 21000 -32.0 -25.6  330  64 33   6.3   3.5 | -31.7 -25.1  330  61 31   6.9   3.8
 20000 -30.1 -22.2  330  61 31   6.2   3.4 | -29.7 -21.5  330  59 30   6.3   3.5
 19500 -29.2 -20.6  330  59 30   6.2   3.4 | -28.8 -19.8  330  57 30   6.3   3.5
 19000 -28.3 -18.9  330  57 29   6.2   3.4 | -27.9 -18.2  330  56 29   6.3   3.5
 18500 -27.4 -17.3  330  55 28   6.2   3.4 | -26.9 -16.4  330  55 28   6.3   3.5
 18000 -26.4 -15.5  330  54 28   6.6   3.6 | -26.0 -14.8  330  53 27   6.4   3.5
 17500 -25.4 -13.7  330  52 27   6.6   3.6 | -25.0 -13.0  330  52 27   6.4   3.5
 17000 -24.5 -12.1  330  50 26   6.4   3.5 | -24.1 -11.4  330  50 26   6.2   3.4
 16500 -23.5 -10.3  330  48 25   6.1   3.4 | -23.2  -9.8  335  49 25   6.0   3.3
 16000 -22.6  -8.7  330  47 24   6.0   3.3 | -22.3  -8.1  335  48 24   6.1   3.3
 15500 -21.8  -7.2  330  45 23   5.6   3.1 | -21.3  -6.3  335  46 24   6.4   3.5
 15000 -20.9  -5.6  330  44 23   5.5   3.0 | -20.4  -4.7  335  45 23   6.4   3.5
 14500 -19.5  -3.1  330  42 21   6.6   3.6 | -18.8  -1.8  335  44 22   7.2   3.9
 14000 -18.5  -1.3  330  40 21   7.1   3.9 | -17.8  -0.0  335  43 22   7.6   4.2
 13500 -17.4   0.7  330  39 20   7.9   4.3 | -16.5   2.3  335  41 21   8.2   4.5
 13000 -16.2   2.8  330  38 20   8.1   4.4 | -15.3   4.5  335  39 20   8.3   4.6
 12500 -14.9   5.2  330  36 19   8.7   4.8 | -14.0   6.8  330  35 18   8.6   4.7
 12000 -13.8   7.2  325  34 18   6.9   3.8 | -12.9   8.8  325  32 16   6.5   3.5
 11750 -13.2   8.2  320  32 16   7.9   4.3 | -12.4   9.7  325  30 15   7.6   4.2
 11500 -12.6   9.3  320  29 15   8.3   4.5 | -11.8  10.8  320  28 14   7.9   4.3
 11250 -12.0  10.4  315  27 14   8.2   4.5 | -11.2  11.8  315  26 13   7.7   4.2
 11000 -11.4  11.5  315  25 13   8.2   4.5 | -10.7  12.7  310  24 12   8.2   4.5
 10750 -10.8  12.6  315  23 12   8.8   4.8 | -10.0  14.0  315  23 12   8.7   4.8
 10500 -10.1  13.8  310  21 11   9.3   5.1 |  -9.4  15.1  310  21 11   8.7   4.7
 10250  -9.5  14.9  305  19 10   9.0   4.9 |  -8.8  16.2  310  19 10   8.6   4.7
 10000  -8.9  16.0  300  17  9   6.2   3.4 |  -8.2  17.2  310  18  9   7.0   3.8
  9750  -8.5  16.7  295  15  8   7.2   4.0 |  -7.7  18.1  310  16  8   8.1   4.4
  9500  -7.8  18.0  295  13  7  10.3   5.7 |  -7.0  19.4  310  15  8  10.5   5.8
  9250  -7.1  19.2  290  12  6   8.3   4.6 |  -6.3  20.7  310  13  7   8.5   4.6
  9000  -6.6  20.1  285  10  5   5.5   3.0 |  -5.8  21.6  315  12  6   4.9   2.7
  8750  -6.2  20.8  275   9  5   6.3   3.5 |  -5.4  22.3  315  10  5   5.8   3.2
  8500  -5.6  21.9  270   8  4   8.4   4.6 |  -4.9  23.2  315   9  5   9.2   5.1
  8250  -5.1  22.8  260   7  3   6.8   3.7 |  -4.3  24.3  320   8  4   4.1   2.2
  8000  -4.7  23.5  250   6  3   5.2   2.8 |  -4.3  24.3  320   6  3  -2.0  -1.1
  7750  -4.3  24.3  235   5  2   7.1   3.9 |  -4.4  24.1  320   5  3   4.4   2.4
  7500  -3.7  25.3  215   4  2   7.4   4.1 |  -4.0  24.8  315   3  2   1.6   0.9
  7250  -3.3  26.1  205   4  2   5.0   2.7 |  -4.5  23.9  310   2  1 -13.3  -7.3
  7000  -3.0  26.6  205   3  2   4.7   2.6 |  -5.7  21.7  320   2  1 -16.6  -9.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.