Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 261249
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0549 MST Thursday, February 26, 2015

This forecast is for Thursday, February 26, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 22.8 F/-5.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9137 ft MSL (2379 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 16.0 F/-9.3 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 02/27....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:35:51 / 17:47:11 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 11 min 20 sec (671 min 20 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:11:46 MST... 42.46 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 02/26/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 12176 ft MSL (5418 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 9542 ft MSL (2784 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +14.7
K index......................... +4.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -53.2 -63.8   310   47   24   2.2   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -49.7 -57.5   305   51   26   2.2   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -48.3 -54.9   305   55   28   0.7   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -47.9 -54.2   310   56   29  -1.0  -0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -50.3 -58.5   310   59   30  -4.1  -2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -52.7 -62.9   310   62   32  -4.1  -2.3      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -52.9 -63.2   315   65   34   2.3   1.3      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -51.5 -60.7   320   69   35   2.5   1.3      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -50.1 -58.2   320   69   36   7.3   4.0   18.0  64.3    20.6      M    M
 28000  -47.9 -54.2   320   69   36   7.3   4.0   16.9  62.5    20.1      M    M
 27000  -45.7 -50.3   320   69   36   7.3   4.0   16.0  60.9    19.6      M    M
 26000  -43.6 -46.5   320   69   35   5.5   3.0   15.2  59.3    19.2      M    M
 25000  -42.2 -44.0   320   62   32   4.6   2.5   13.1  55.6    17.7      M    M
 24000  -40.8 -41.4   315   56   29   4.6   2.5   11.2  52.2    16.4      M    M
 23000  -39.5 -39.1   310   50   26   3.9   2.1    9.4  48.9    15.1      M    M
 22000  -38.4 -37.1   305   44   22   3.5   1.9    7.0  44.7    13.3      M    M
 21000  -37.4 -35.3   300   38   19   3.6   2.0    4.9  40.8    11.7      M    M
 20000  -35.9 -32.6   295   34   17   8.1   4.4    3.3  37.9    10.4      M    M
 19500  -34.7 -30.5   295   33   17   7.9   4.3    2.9  37.2    10.1      M    M
 19000  -33.5 -28.3   300   32   16   7.9   4.3    2.6  36.6     9.9      M    M
 18500  -32.3 -26.1   300   31   16   7.9   4.3    2.2  36.0     9.7      M    M
 18000  -31.2 -24.2   305   30   16   8.3   4.5    2.0  35.5     9.5      M    M
 17500  -29.8 -21.6   305   30   15   9.4   5.2    1.9  35.3     9.4      M    M
 17000  -28.4 -19.1   305   30   15   9.4   5.2    1.8  35.2     9.4      M    M
 16500  -27.0 -16.6   305   29   15   9.2   5.0    1.7  35.1     9.4      M    M
 16000  -25.7 -14.3   295   27   14   9.3   5.1    1.6  34.9     9.4      M    M
 15500  -23.8 -10.8   285   26   14   7.1   3.9    1.2  34.2     9.1      M    M
 15000  -22.8  -9.0   275   26   14   7.2   4.0    0.8  33.5     8.7      M    M
 14500  -21.9  -7.4   270   26   13   4.5   2.5    0.2  32.3     8.2      M    M
 14000  -21.2  -6.2   265   24   13   4.7   2.6   -0.6  30.8     7.5      M    M
 13500  -20.4  -4.7   260   23   12   5.4   2.9   -1.4  29.5     6.8      M    M
 13000  -19.6  -3.3   255   20   11   5.1   2.8   -2.1  28.2     6.2      M    M
 12500  -18.7  -1.7   255   18   10   7.0   3.8   -2.7  27.1     5.6      M    M
 12000  -17.7   0.1   255   17    9   5.9   3.2   -3.1  26.3     5.2      M    M
 11750  -17.4   0.7   250   15    8   4.8   2.7   -3.5  25.7     4.9      M    M
 11500  -17.0   1.4   250   14    7   5.4   3.0   -3.9  25.0     4.6      M    M
 11250  -16.6   2.1   250   14    7   5.3   2.9   -4.2  24.4     4.2      M    M
 11000  -16.2   2.8   250   13    7   5.2   2.9   -4.6  23.8     3.9      M    M
 10750  -15.8   3.6   250   12    6   4.0   2.2   -5.0  23.1     3.6      M    M
 10500  -15.6   3.9   255   11    6   3.2   1.8   -5.5  22.2     3.1      M    M
 10250  -15.3   4.5   255   11    5   3.6   2.0   -6.0  21.3     2.6      M    M
 10000  -15.0   5.0   260   10    5   2.9   1.6   -6.4  20.4     2.1      M    M
  9750  -14.9   5.2   265    9    5   1.3   0.7   -7.0  19.3     1.6      M    M
  9500  -14.8   5.4   275    8    4   0.6   0.3   -7.7  18.1     0.9      M    M
  9250  -14.8   5.4   285    7    4   0.6   0.3   -8.4  16.8     0.2      M    M
  9000  -14.7   5.5   300    6    3   1.8   1.0   -9.1  15.6    -0.4    234  1.2
  8750  -14.5   5.9   320    5    3   4.0   2.2   -9.6  14.7    -0.9    220  1.1
  8500  -14.2   6.4   345    4    2   4.3   2.3  -10.0  13.9    -1.4    203  1.0
  8250  -13.8   7.2   010    5    2   6.1   3.3  -10.4  13.2    -1.8    185  0.9
  8000  -13.3   8.1   025    5    3   8.9   4.9  -10.6  13.0    -1.9    161  0.8
  7750  -12.6   9.3   030    5    3   9.0   4.9  -10.6  12.9    -2.0    133  0.7
  7500  -12.0  10.4   035    5    3   7.9   4.3  -10.7  12.7    -2.1    107  0.5
  7250  -11.4  11.5   040    5    3   6.3   3.5  -10.7  12.7    -2.1     84  0.4
  7000  -11.0  12.2   040    5    3   4.9   2.7  -10.5  13.1    -1.9     64  0.3
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           02/26/2015 at 0800 MST          |       02/26/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +0.8  LI... +1.5                | K index... -5.8  LI... +3.1
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -3.4                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -52.4 -62.3  295  43 22   1.6   0.9 | -52.5 -62.5  300  45 23   1.9   1.0
 45000 -49.8 -57.6  305  46 24   1.7   0.9 | -49.5 -57.1  300  48 25   1.9   1.0
 40000 -49.1 -56.4  305  52 27   0.3   0.2 | -48.8 -55.8  300  50 26   0.2   0.1
 38000 -48.9 -56.0  305  55 28  -1.5  -0.8 | -48.7 -55.7  305  50 26  -1.8  -1.0
 36000 -51.7 -61.1  305  58 30  -4.8  -2.6 | -52.2 -62.0  300  52 27  -5.9  -3.3
 34000 -54.5 -66.1  305  61 31  -4.8  -2.6 | -55.7 -68.3  300  54 28  -6.0  -3.3
 32000 -54.8 -66.6  305  65 33   2.8   1.6 | -55.8 -68.4  295  54 28   4.2   2.3
 30000 -52.9 -63.2  310  72 37   2.9   1.6 | -53.0 -63.4  290  54 28   4.2   2.3
 29000 -51.1 -60.0  310  73 38   8.7   4.8 | -51.0 -59.8  290  54 28   8.7   4.8
 28000 -48.4 -55.1  315  73 38   8.9   4.9 | -48.3 -54.9  290  52 27   8.9   4.9
 27000 -45.7 -50.3  315  73 38   8.9   4.9 | -45.7 -50.3  295  52 27   8.9   4.9
 26000 -43.1 -45.6  315  73 38   7.8   4.3 | -43.1 -45.6  300  51 26   7.2   3.9
 25000 -40.8 -41.4  320  72 37   7.5   4.1 | -41.0 -41.8  305  54 28   7.0   3.8
 24000 -38.6 -37.5  320  70 36   7.5   4.1 | -38.9 -38.0  310  57 29   7.0   3.8
 23000 -36.4 -33.5  320  68 35   5.3   2.9 | -36.9 -34.4  315  60 31   5.0   2.7
 22000 -35.0 -31.0  320  65 33   4.5   2.5 | -35.6 -32.1  315  59 30   4.5   2.4
 21000 -33.7 -28.7  320  61 32   4.5   2.5 | -34.3 -29.7  315  58 30   4.5   2.5
 20000 -32.4 -26.3  320  56 29   3.3   1.8 | -32.7 -26.9  320  56 29   6.0   3.3
 19500 -31.9 -25.4  320  52 27   3.4   1.8 | -31.8 -25.2  320  54 28   6.0   3.3
 19000 -31.4 -24.5  320  48 25   3.4   1.8 | -30.9 -23.6  320  52 27   6.0   3.3
 18500 -30.9 -23.6  320  44 23   3.4   1.9 | -30.1 -22.2  320  49 25   6.0   3.3
 18000 -30.4 -22.7  315  40 20   3.7   2.0 | -29.2 -20.6  320  47 24   5.9   3.2
 17500 -29.7 -21.5  315  35 18   5.2   2.9 | -28.3 -18.9  320  44 23   5.7   3.1
 17000 -29.0 -20.2  310  30 15   4.8   2.6 | -27.4 -17.3  320  41 21   5.7   3.1
 16500 -28.0 -18.4  305  27 14   8.7   4.8 | -26.6 -15.9  320  37 19   5.8   3.2
 16000 -26.7 -16.1  305  26 13   8.6   4.7 | -25.7 -14.3  315  33 17   5.8   3.2
 15500 -25.5 -13.9  305  25 13   8.5   4.7 | -24.8 -12.6  315  30 15   6.7   3.7
 15000 -23.6 -10.5  305  24 13   8.5   4.7 | -23.2  -9.8  310  26 13   7.0   3.8
 14500 -22.3  -8.1  305  24 12   9.0   4.9 | -22.2  -8.0  305  24 12   7.7   4.2
 14000 -21.0  -5.8  300  24 12   9.0   4.9 | -21.0  -5.8  305  23 12   7.5   4.1
 13500 -19.7  -3.5  295  23 12   8.1   4.5 | -19.8  -3.6  300  22 11   9.0   4.9
 13000 -18.5  -1.3  285  22 11   8.5   4.7 | -18.5  -1.3  295  21 11   9.1   5.0
 12500 -17.5   0.5  280  22 11   4.6   2.5 | -17.4   0.7  290  20 10   6.6   3.6
 12000 -16.8   1.8  270  20 11   5.0   2.7 | -16.4   2.5  280  19 10   7.8   4.3
 11750 -16.5   2.3  260  21 11   3.2   1.8 | -15.8   3.6  275  20 10   4.8   2.6
 11500 -16.3   2.7  260  20 10   1.4   0.8 | -15.7   3.7  270  19 10   0.9   0.5
 11250 -16.2   2.8  255  19 10   1.9   1.1 | -15.6   3.9  265  18  9   2.2   1.2
 11000 -16.1   3.0  250  18  9   1.3   0.7 | -15.5   4.1  260  18  9   0.3   0.2
 10750 -16.0   3.2  245  18  9   0.6   0.3 | -15.5   4.1  255  18  9  -1.9  -1.0
 10500 -16.0   3.2  240  17  9   0.8   0.4 | -15.7   3.7  245  17  9  -1.8  -1.0
 10250 -15.9   3.4  235  16  8   0.5   0.3 | -15.8   3.6  240  16  8  -2.1  -1.1
 10000 -15.8   3.6  230  15  8   1.4   0.8 | -16.0   3.2  230  15  8  -1.1  -0.6
  9750 -15.7   3.7  230  13  7   1.6   0.9 | -15.9   3.4  220  14  7   3.3   1.8
  9500 -15.6   3.9  220  12  6   0.8   0.5 | -15.5   4.1  210  13  7   5.6   3.1
  9250 -15.6   3.9  215  11  6   0.3   0.2 | -15.2   4.6  200  12  6   4.9   2.7
  9000 -15.5   4.1  205  10  5   2.5   1.4 | -14.8   5.4  185  12  6   5.6   3.1
  8750 -15.2   4.6  195   8  4   5.5   3.0 | -14.3   6.3  180  12  6   8.3   4.6
  8500 -14.8   5.4  180   7  4   5.5   3.0 | -13.6   7.5  175  11  6  10.8   5.9
  8250 -14.4   6.1  165   7  4   6.7   3.7 | -12.8   9.0  165  12  6  11.0   6.1
  8000 -13.8   7.2  155   7  4   9.0   4.9 | -11.9  10.6  160  12  6  11.6   6.4
  7750 -13.1   8.4  150   7  4   9.1   5.0 | -11.1  12.0  160  11  6  10.5   5.8
  7500 -12.5   9.5  145   7  4   7.8   4.3 | -10.4  13.3  155  11  6   8.5   4.7
  7250 -11.9  10.6  145   6  3   6.8   3.7 |  -9.8  14.4  150  10  5   9.5   5.2
  7000 -11.5  11.3  140   6  3   5.5   3.0 |  -9.0  15.8  150  10  5  11.4   6.3
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           02/26/2015 at 1400 MST          |       02/26/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +7.2  LI... +1.9                | K index... +5.3  LI... +1.6
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -53.0 -63.4  290  38 19   2.0   1.1 | -53.0 -63.4  300  40 20   1.8   1.0
 45000 -49.9 -57.8  300  48 25   2.0   1.1 | -50.4 -58.7  300  46 24   1.8   1.0
 40000 -48.7 -55.7  300  50 26   0.6   0.3 | -49.1 -56.4  300  48 25   0.6   0.3
 38000 -48.4 -55.1  300  50 26  -1.4  -0.8 | -48.7 -55.7  300  48 25  -1.4  -0.7
 36000 -51.5 -60.7  295  50 26  -5.3  -2.9 | -51.4 -60.5  295  48 24  -4.5  -2.5
 34000 -54.7 -66.5  295  50 26  -5.4  -2.9 | -54.1 -65.4  295  47 24  -4.5  -2.5
 32000 -55.2 -67.4  295  50 26   2.7   1.5 | -54.5 -66.1  295  47 24   2.2   1.2
 30000 -53.3 -63.9  290  50 26   2.8   1.6 | -53.2 -63.8  295  47 24   2.1   1.2
 29000 -51.7 -61.1  295  51 26   8.0   4.4 | -51.7 -61.1  295  49 25   6.6   3.6
 28000 -49.3 -56.7  295  53 27   8.1   4.5 | -49.6 -57.3  295  51 27   6.8   3.7
 27000 -46.8 -52.2  295  55 28   8.2   4.5 | -47.6 -53.7  290  54 28   6.8   3.7
 26000 -44.4 -47.9  295  56 29   8.1   4.5 | -45.5 -49.9  290  57 29   8.2   4.5
 25000 -41.9 -43.4  295  57 29   8.1   4.5 | -43.0 -45.4  290  56 29   8.5   4.7
 24000 -39.5 -39.1  300  57 30   8.1   4.5 | -40.4 -40.7  290  56 29   8.5   4.7
 23000 -37.2 -35.0  300  58 30   5.3   2.9 | -38.0 -36.4  290  56 29   6.1   3.3
 22000 -35.8 -32.4  300  57 29   4.6   2.5 | -36.4 -33.5  290  52 27   5.5   3.0
 21000 -34.4 -29.9  305  56 29   4.7   2.6 | -34.7 -30.5  290  49 25   5.6   3.1
 20000 -32.9 -27.2  305  54 28   6.4   3.5 | -32.8 -27.0  290  46 24   8.2   4.5
 19500 -31.9 -25.4  305  52 27   6.4   3.5 | -31.6 -24.9  290  44 23   8.2   4.5
 19000 -31.0 -23.8  305  50 26   6.4   3.5 | -30.3 -22.5  290  43 22   8.2   4.5
 18500 -30.0 -22.0  305  48 25   6.4   3.5 | -29.1 -20.4  290  41 21   8.2   4.5
 18000 -29.1 -20.4  305  47 24   6.6   3.6 | -27.9 -18.2  290  40 20   8.2   4.5
 17500 -28.0 -18.4  305  43 22   7.3   4.0 | -26.7 -16.1  290  39 20   8.2   4.5
 17000 -26.9 -16.4  305  40 21   7.3   4.0 | -25.5 -13.9  285  38 20   8.3   4.6
 16500 -25.9 -14.6  300  37 19   6.9   3.8 | -24.3 -11.7  285  37 19   7.5   4.1
 16000 -24.9 -12.8  300  34 18   6.9   3.8 | -23.2  -9.8  280  34 18   7.5   4.1
 15500 -23.8 -10.8  295  31 16   7.1   3.9 | -22.0  -7.6  275  32 16   8.0   4.4
 15000 -22.8  -9.0  295  28 14   7.1   3.9 | -20.8  -5.4  270  30 15   8.1   4.4
 14500 -21.1  -6.0  285  23 12   7.9   4.3 | -19.1  -2.4  265  29 15   6.8   3.8
 14000 -20.0  -4.0  285  22 11   7.8   4.3 | -18.1  -0.6  260  28 14   7.4   4.0
 13500 -18.8  -1.8  280  20 10   8.1   4.4 | -17.3   0.9  255  27 14   2.5   1.4
 13000 -17.6   0.3  275  19 10   8.3   4.5 | -17.0   1.4  250  26 13   2.7   1.5
 12500 -16.6   2.1  270  17  9   5.6   3.0 | -16.8   1.8  245  24 12  -1.6  -0.9
 12000 -15.7   3.7  260  15  8   5.7   3.1 | -17.1   1.2  240  21 11  -3.2  -1.7
 11750 -15.4   4.3  255  14  7   1.8   1.0 | -17.3   0.9  235  18  9  -1.9  -1.0
 11500 -15.5   4.1  245  12  6  -2.2  -1.2 | -17.3   0.9  230  17  9   1.9   1.0
 11250 -15.6   3.9  235  12  6  -0.8  -0.4 | -17.1   1.2  220  17  9   2.6   1.4
 11000 -15.8   3.6  225  11  6  -5.1  -2.8 | -17.0   1.4  215  17  9   0.7   0.4
 10750 -16.2   2.8  215  12  6  -3.3  -1.8 | -17.0   1.4  205  18  9   1.6   0.9
 10500 -16.1   3.0  205  12  6   2.4   1.3 | -16.7   1.9  200  18  9   4.2   2.3
 10250 -16.1   3.0  190  12  6   0.3   0.2 | -16.4   2.5  190  19 10   4.0   2.2
 10000 -16.0   3.2  180  12  6   2.9   1.6 | -16.1   3.0  185  20 10   3.4   1.9
  9750 -15.6   3.9  170  13  7   6.7   3.7 | -15.9   3.4  180  20 10   5.2   2.9
  9500 -15.1   4.8  165  13  7   7.5   4.1 | -15.4   4.3  175  19 10   7.3   4.0
  9250 -14.5   5.9  160  14  7   7.1   3.9 | -14.8   5.4  170  19 10   6.8   3.7
  9000 -14.0   6.8  160  15  8   7.8   4.3 | -14.3   6.3  165  19 10   6.7   3.7
  8750 -13.3   8.1  155  15  8  10.3   5.6 | -13.8   7.2  160  19 10   8.3   4.6
  8500 -12.5   9.5  155  15  8  11.9   6.5 | -13.1   8.4  160  18 10  10.2   5.6
  8250 -11.6  11.1  155  15  8  11.9   6.5 | -12.4   9.7  155  18  9  10.2   5.6
  8000 -10.8  12.6  150  15  8  12.3   6.7 | -11.6  11.1  155  18  9  10.8   5.9
  7750  -9.9  14.2  150  14  7  11.2   6.1 | -10.8  12.6  155  17  9  10.0   5.5
  7500  -9.1  15.6  150  13  7   9.2   5.0 | -10.1  13.8  155  15  8   8.6   4.7
  7250  -8.5  16.7  150  12  6   9.4   5.1 |  -9.5  14.9  155  14  7   7.3   4.0
  7000  -7.7  18.1  150  12  6  10.4   5.7 |  -9.1  15.6  150  13  7   4.8   2.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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