Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 211319
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0719 MDT Sunday, August 21, 2016

This forecast is for Sunday, August 21, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 69.0 F/20.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 940 ft/min (4.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 17947 ft MSL (11189 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 78.0 F/26.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1045 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1600 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast thin high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 13101 ft MSL (6343 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 08/22....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:18:26 / 19:46:04 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 27 min 37 sec (807 min 37 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:01:52 MDT... 62.81 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/21/2016 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14999 ft MSL (8241 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 13839 ft MSL (7081 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14575 ft MSL (7818 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -5.4
K index......................... +21.2

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.9 -79.4   280   35   18   0.8   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -60.4 -76.7   280   39   20   1.7   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -57.6 -71.7   280   28   14   6.5   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -53.6 -64.5   280   28   14   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -49.7 -57.5   275   28   14   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -44.8 -48.6   275   26   14   8.8   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -38.8 -37.8   280   24   12   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -33.6 -28.5   295   21   11   8.6   4.7   35.8  96.5     8.0      M    M
 29000  -31.1 -24.0   305   20   10   8.6   4.7   35.4  95.8     7.8      M    M
 28000  -28.5 -19.3   315   19   10   8.3   4.5   35.2  95.3     7.6      M    M
 27000  -26.1 -15.0   315   19   10   7.9   4.3   34.3  93.8     7.0      M    M
 26000  -23.8 -10.8   320   18    9   7.9   4.3   33.6  92.5     6.5      M    M
 25000  -21.4  -6.5   325   18    9   8.0   4.4   33.0  91.4     6.1      M    M
 24000  -19.2  -2.6   325   17    9   7.2   4.0   32.1  89.8     5.4      M    M
 23000  -17.1   1.2   325   16    8   7.2   4.0   31.2  88.1     4.6      M    M
 22000  -14.9   5.2   325   15    8   7.3   4.0   30.4  86.6     4.0      M    M
 21000  -12.9   8.8   325   14    7   6.8   3.7   29.3  84.7     3.1      M    M
 20000  -10.9  12.4   320   13    6   6.8   3.7   28.3  82.9     2.2      M    M
 19500   -9.9  14.2   320   12    6   6.9   3.8   27.8  82.0     1.7      M    M
 19000   -8.9  16.0   320   11    6   6.3   3.4   27.3  81.2     1.3      M    M
 18500   -8.0  17.6   320   11    6   6.2   3.4   26.7  80.0     0.7      M    M
 18000   -7.1  19.2   320   10    5   6.2   3.4   26.1  79.0     0.2      M    M
 17500   -6.2  20.8   325   10    5   6.3   3.5   25.5  77.9    -0.4   1010  5.1
 17000   -5.3  22.5   325    9    5   6.2   3.4   24.9  76.9    -0.9    967  4.9
 16500   -4.2  24.4   325    9    5   8.4   4.6   24.5  76.1    -1.3    921  4.7
 16000   -3.0  26.6   325    9    5   8.7   4.8   24.3  75.7    -1.5    868  4.4
 15500   -1.0  30.2   320    9    4   9.2   5.1   24.1  75.3    -1.8    787  4.0
 15000    0.3  32.5   320    8    4   9.3   5.1   24.0  75.2    -2.0    733  3.7
 14500    1.6  34.9   315    8    4   8.5   4.7   23.9  75.0    -2.1    679  3.5
 14000    2.7  36.9   315    8    4   8.4   4.6   23.6  74.5    -2.5    630  3.2
 13500    3.9  39.0   310    8    4   8.4   4.6   23.4  74.2    -2.8    581  3.0
 13000    5.1  41.2   295    8    4   8.3   4.6   23.2  73.7    -3.1    531  2.7
 12500    6.2  43.2   280    8    4   8.2   4.5   23.0  73.4    -3.4    481  2.4
 12000    7.4  45.3   270    8    4   7.7   4.2   22.7  72.8    -3.7    431  2.2
 11750    8.0  46.4   270    8    4   7.9   4.3   22.5  72.5    -3.9    407  2.1
 11500    8.5  47.3   265    8    4   7.5   4.1   22.4  72.3    -4.1    382  1.9
 11250    9.0  48.2   265    9    4   6.6   3.6   22.2  71.9    -4.3    360  1.8
 11000    9.5  49.1   260    9    5   6.3   3.4   21.9  71.4    -4.6    339  1.7
 10750    9.9  49.8   260    9    5   6.4   3.5   21.6  70.9    -4.9    318  1.6
 10500   10.4  50.7   255    9    5   6.0   3.3   21.4  70.5    -5.2    297  1.5
 10250   10.8  51.4   250   10    5   5.3   2.9   21.1  69.9    -5.5    278  1.4
 10000   11.1  52.0   250   10    5   4.6   2.5   20.7  69.2    -5.9    261  1.3
  9750   11.4  52.5   245   10    5   4.5   2.5   20.3  68.5    -6.4    244  1.2
  9500   11.7  53.1   245   10    5   3.6   2.0   19.9  67.7    -6.9    229  1.2
  9250   11.8  53.2   240   11    5   1.9   1.0   19.3  66.8    -7.5    217  1.1
  9000   11.9  53.4   235   11    6   1.5   0.8   18.7  65.6    -8.1    208  1.1
  8750   12.0  53.6   230   11    6   3.0   1.7   18.1  64.6    -8.8    197  1.0
  8500   12.2  54.0   225   12    6   1.7   0.9   17.6  63.7    -9.4    185  0.9
  8250   12.1  53.8   220   12    6  -0.7  -0.4   16.8  62.3   -10.2    179  0.9
  8000   12.0  53.6   215   12    6  -1.0  -0.5   16.1  60.9   -11.0    174  0.9
  7750   12.0  53.6   210   12    6   0.9   0.5   15.3  59.5   -11.8    168  0.9
  7500   11.9  53.4   205   12    6  -4.0  -2.2   14.6  58.3   -12.5    162  0.8
  7250   11.3  52.3   205   10    5 -10.8  -5.9   13.6  56.5   -13.5    174  0.9
  7000   10.7  51.3   205    7    4  -5.5  -3.0   12.6  54.7   -14.6    186  0.9
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/21/2016 at 0900 MDT          |       08/21/2016 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +18.5  LI... +271.6             | K index... +15.1  LI... +270.1
CAPE... +471.4  CIN... -119.5              | CAPE... +1165.0  CIN... -16.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -61.9 -79.4  275  29 15   1.0   0.5 | -62.2 -80.0  265  33 17   0.6   0.3
 45000 -60.2 -76.4  275  30 16   1.6   0.9 | -60.9 -77.6  260  33 17   1.9   1.1
 40000 -57.4 -71.3  285  21 11   6.7   3.7 | -57.2 -71.0  260  17  9   7.1   3.9
 38000 -53.4 -64.1  290  20 10   6.6   3.6 | -53.1 -63.6  265  16  8   6.9   3.8
 36000 -49.5 -57.1  290  20 10   6.7   3.6 | -48.9 -56.0  270  14  7   6.9   3.8
 34000 -44.0 -47.2  290  19 10   8.6   4.7 | -44.1 -47.4  270  13  7   8.4   4.6
 32000 -38.8 -37.8  290  17  9   8.6   4.7 | -39.0 -38.2  275  13  7   8.4   4.6
 30000 -33.5 -28.3  300  17  9   8.8   4.8 | -33.7 -28.7  285  12  6   9.0   4.9
 29000 -30.9 -23.6  305  17  9   8.8   4.8 | -31.0 -23.8  290  12  6   9.0   4.9
 28000 -28.2 -18.8  310  17  9   8.3   4.5 | -28.4 -19.1  300  12  6   8.7   4.8
 27000 -25.9 -14.6  320  17  9   7.7   4.2 | -25.4 -13.7  315  12  6   7.8   4.3
 26000 -23.6 -10.5  325  17  9   7.7   4.2 | -23.1  -9.6  325  13  7   7.8   4.3
 25000 -21.3  -6.3  330  18  9   7.7   4.2 | -20.7  -5.3  335  14  7   7.8   4.3
 24000 -19.0  -2.2  330  17  9   7.5   4.1 | -18.4  -1.1  335  14  7   7.7   4.2
 23000 -16.8   1.8  335  16  8   7.6   4.2 | -16.2   2.8  340  13  7   7.7   4.2
 22000 -14.5   5.9  335  15  8   7.5   4.1 | -13.9   7.0  345  13  7   7.5   4.1
 21000 -12.5   9.5  335  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -11.8  10.8  340  13  7   7.0   3.8
 20000 -10.4  13.3  330  13  7   6.9   3.8 |  -9.7  14.5  340  13  6   7.0   3.8
 19500  -9.4  15.1  325  12  6   6.9   3.8 |  -8.7  16.3  340  12  6   7.0   3.8
 19000  -8.4  16.9  320  12  6   6.9   3.8 |  -7.7  18.1  335  12  6   7.2   4.0
 18500  -7.4  18.7  315  11  6   6.9   3.8 |  -6.6  20.1  330  12  6   7.2   4.0
 18000  -6.4  20.5  310  11  5   6.7   3.7 |  -5.5  22.1  325  12  6   7.2   3.9
 17500  -5.5  22.1  305  10  5   5.7   3.1 |  -4.5  23.9  325  12  6   7.1   3.9
 17000  -4.7  23.5  300   9  5   5.6   3.1 |  -3.5  25.7  320  12  6   7.1   3.9
 16500  -3.7  25.3  295   9  5   7.2   4.0 |  -2.4  27.7  320  12  6   7.1   3.9
 16000  -2.1  28.2  290   8  4   7.2   4.0 |  -1.4  29.5  315  12  6   7.1   3.9
 15500  -1.0  30.2  290   7  4   8.7   4.8 |  -0.3  31.5  310  12  6   7.2   3.9
 15000   0.3  32.5  290   6  3   8.6   4.7 |   0.7  33.3  310  11  6   7.3   4.0
 14500   1.5  34.7  295   5  2   8.4   4.6 |   1.8  35.2  310  10  5   7.4   4.1
 14000   2.7  36.9  295   4  2   8.5   4.6 |   2.9  37.2  315   9  5   7.8   4.3
 13500   3.9  39.0  295   4  2   8.7   4.8 |   4.6  40.3  320   8  4   7.7   4.2
 13000   5.1  41.2  290   4  2   8.8   4.8 |   5.7  42.3  325   7  4   7.8   4.3
 12500   6.4  43.5  280   4  2   8.1   4.4 |   6.8  44.2  325   6  3   8.9   4.9
 12000   7.6  45.7  270   4  2   8.9   4.9 |   8.0  46.4  330   6  3   7.8   4.3
 11750   8.2  46.8  265   4  2   8.7   4.8 |   8.5  47.3  330   5  3   8.0   4.4
 11500   8.8  47.8  265   5  2   8.6   4.7 |   9.0  48.2  335   5  3   8.7   4.8
 11250   9.4  48.9  260   5  3   7.9   4.3 |   9.7  49.5  335   5  3   8.8   4.9
 11000   9.9  49.8  255   5  3   7.4   4.0 |  10.2  50.4  335   5  2   8.1   4.4
 10750  10.5  50.9  255   6  3   7.4   4.0 |  10.8  51.4  335   4  2   8.3   4.6
 10500  11.0  51.8  255   6  3   7.2   4.0 |  11.3  52.3  335   4  2   8.1   4.4
 10250  11.5  52.7  250   7  3   7.2   4.0 |  11.9  53.4  330   4  2   7.6   4.1
 10000  12.0  53.6  250   7  4   6.5   3.5 |  12.4  54.3  325   3  2   8.7   4.8
  9750  12.4  54.3  250   8  4   6.0   3.3 |  13.1  55.6  320   3  1  10.3   5.6
  9500  12.8  55.0  250   8  4   5.1   2.8 |  13.8  56.8  310   2  1   8.4   4.6
  9250  13.1  55.6  245   9  4   3.5   1.9 |  14.2  57.6  275   1  1   6.2   3.4
  9000  13.3  55.9  245   9  5   3.4   1.9 |  14.6  58.3  220   1  1   7.0   3.9
  8750  13.5  56.3  240   9  5   4.8   2.6 |  15.2  59.4  200   2  1  10.1   5.5
  8500  13.8  56.8  240  10  5   3.7   2.0 |  16.0  60.8  185   2  1  11.1   6.1
  8250  14.0  57.2  235  10  5   2.1   1.1 |  16.8  62.2  180   3  1  10.3   5.6
  8000  14.1  57.4  225   9  5   1.7   0.9 |  17.5  63.5  175   3  2  10.7   5.8
  7750  14.2  57.6  220   9  5   4.4   2.4 |  18.3  64.9  170   4  2   9.9   5.5
  7500  14.6  58.3  210   8  4   8.1   4.5 |  19.0  66.2  170   4  2  11.3   6.2
  7250  15.2  59.4  205   8  4   7.8   4.3 |  19.9  67.8  165   4  2  13.4   7.3
  7000  15.8  60.4  205   8  4   8.3   4.5 |  20.9  69.6  165   4  2  11.8   6.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/21/2016 at 1500 MDT          |       08/21/2016 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +17.3  LI... +269.6             | K index... +21.2  LI... +269.7
CAPE... +1422.6  CIN... -7.5               | CAPE... +1311.2  CIN... -27.8
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.2 -80.0  265  36 19   0.3   0.2 | -62.1 -79.8  270  36 19   0.9   0.5
 45000 -61.2 -78.2  265  42 22   1.7   0.9 | -60.6 -77.1  265  43 22   1.2   0.6
 40000 -57.8 -72.0  245  39 20   8.2   4.5 | -57.9 -72.2  245  54 28   9.1   5.0
 38000 -53.0 -63.4  245  35 18   8.0   4.4 | -52.6 -62.7  245  48 25   8.8   4.8
 36000 -48.2 -54.8  250  32 16   8.0   4.4 | -47.3 -53.1  245  43 22   8.9   4.9
 34000 -43.3 -45.9  255  25 13   8.1   4.4 | -42.6 -44.7  250  33 17   7.7   4.2
 32000 -38.5 -37.3  265  19 10   8.0   4.4 | -37.9 -36.2  265  22 11   7.7   4.2
 30000 -33.5 -28.3  280  14  7   8.5   4.7 | -33.3 -27.9  280  12  6   7.8   4.3
 29000 -30.9 -23.6  290  12  6   8.5   4.7 | -30.9 -23.6  295   8  4   7.8   4.3
 28000 -27.8 -18.0  305  10  5   7.9   4.3 | -28.0 -18.4  345   5  3   7.8   4.3
 27000 -25.4 -13.7  320   9  5   7.8   4.3 | -25.6 -14.1  005   5  3   7.8   4.3
 26000 -23.1  -9.6  330  10  5   7.8   4.3 | -23.3  -9.9  015   6  3   7.8   4.3
 25000 -20.8  -5.4  345  10  5   7.8   4.3 | -21.0  -5.8  025   7  4   7.8   4.3
 24000 -18.5  -1.3  350  10  5   7.8   4.3 | -18.6  -1.5  025   8  4   7.9   4.3
 23000 -16.2   2.8  350  11  5   7.8   4.3 | -16.3   2.7  025   8  4   7.9   4.3
 22000 -13.9   7.0  355  11  6   7.6   4.2 | -14.0   6.8  025   8  4   7.8   4.3
 21000 -11.7  10.9  355  12  6   7.3   4.0 | -11.7  10.9  015   9  5   7.4   4.1
 20000  -9.5  14.9  350  12  6   7.4   4.0 |  -9.5  14.9  010  11  6   7.5   4.1
 19500  -8.4  16.9  350  13  7   7.4   4.1 |  -8.4  16.9  005  12  6   7.5   4.1
 19000  -7.4  18.7  350  13  7   7.1   3.9 |  -7.3  18.9  360  13  7   7.5   4.1
 18500  -6.3  20.7  345  14  7   7.2   3.9 |  -6.2  20.8  360  15  8   7.5   4.1
 18000  -5.3  22.5  340  14  7   7.2   4.0 |  -5.1  22.8  355  16  8   7.7   4.2
 17500  -4.2  24.4  340  15  8   7.3   4.0 |  -4.0  24.8  355  17  9   8.1   4.5
 17000  -3.1  26.4  340  16  8   7.2   4.0 |  -2.8  27.0  355  18  9   8.2   4.5
 16500  -2.0  28.4  335  16  8   7.9   4.3 |  -1.6  29.1  355  18  9   8.0   4.4
 16000  -0.9  30.4  335  17  9   7.9   4.3 |  -0.5  31.1  355  18  9   8.1   4.4
 15500   0.2  32.4  335  17  9   7.3   4.0 |   0.7  33.3  355  18  9   7.5   4.1
 15000   1.2  34.2  340  16  8   7.1   3.9 |   1.6  34.9  360  15  8   7.2   4.0
 14500   2.2  36.0  340  14  7   7.3   4.0 |   2.6  36.7  010  12  6   7.4   4.0
 14000   3.7  38.7  350  10  5   7.6   4.2 |   4.1  39.4  025   9  5   7.6   4.2
 13500   4.7  40.5  360   8  4   8.2   4.5 |   5.1  41.2  045   7  4   8.2   4.5
 13000   5.9  42.6  010   7  4   8.5   4.7 |   6.3  43.3  060   7  4   8.5   4.7
 12500   7.1  44.8  015   6  3   8.5   4.7 |   7.5  45.5  075   7  3   8.5   4.6
 12000   8.4  47.1  020   6  3   8.6   4.7 |   8.7  47.7  090   7  3   8.3   4.5
 11750   9.0  48.2  025   5  3   8.9   4.9 |   9.3  48.7  100   7  4   8.4   4.6
 11500   9.6  49.3  030   5  2   8.0   4.4 |   9.9  49.8  110   7  4   8.1   4.4
 11250  10.1  50.2  040   4  2   8.1   4.4 |  10.5  50.9  115   7  4   7.8   4.3
 11000  10.7  51.3  055   4  2   9.0   5.0 |  11.1  52.0  125   7  4   7.9   4.3
 10750  11.3  52.3  075   3  2   9.1   5.0 |  11.7  53.1  130   8  4   8.0   4.4
 10500  11.9  53.4  090   3  2   8.4   4.6 |  12.3  54.1  140   8  4   7.6   4.2
 10250  12.4  54.3  105   3  2   6.9   3.8 |  12.8  55.0  145   8  4   6.7   3.7
 10000  13.0  55.4  120   4  2   9.1   5.0 |  13.3  55.9  150   9  4   7.5   4.1
  9750  13.8  56.8  130   4  2  11.4   6.3 |  13.8  56.8  155   9  5   8.4   4.6
  9500  14.6  58.3  135   5  2  10.1   5.5 |  14.4  57.9  160  10  5   8.2   4.5
  9250  15.3  59.5  135   5  3   8.9   4.9 |  14.9  58.8  160  10  5   8.2   4.5
  9000  15.9  60.6  140   5  3   9.3   5.1 |  15.5  59.9  160  10  5   8.6   4.7
  8750  16.6  61.9  140   5  3  11.2   6.1 |  16.2  61.2  165  11  5  10.2   5.6
  8500  17.4  63.3  140   6  3  11.1   6.1 |  17.0  62.6  165  11  6  10.4   5.7
  8250  18.2  64.8  145   6  3  10.2   5.6 |  17.7  63.9  165  11  6   9.8   5.4
  8000  19.0  66.2  145   6  3  10.1   5.6 |  18.4  65.1  165  11  6   9.7   5.3
  7750  19.7  67.5  150   6  3  10.8   5.9 |  19.1  66.4  165  11  6  10.1   5.5
  7500  20.6  69.1  145   6  3  12.3   6.8 |  19.9  67.8  165  11  6   9.0   5.0
  7250  21.5  70.7  145   6  3  12.8   7.0 |  20.5  68.9  165  11  6   7.6   4.2
  7000  22.4  72.3  145   6  3  12.5   6.9 |  21.0  69.8  165  10  5   8.7   4.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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