Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 141011
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0411 MDT Thursday, August 14, 2014

This forecast is for Thursday, August 14, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 75.6 F/24.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 569 ft/min (2.9 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 14965 ft MSL (8207 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 79.0 F/26.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1600 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8739 ft MSL (1981 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 08/15....... Excellent

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Netutral
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 26421 ft MSL (19663 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Friday 08/15.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:11:37 / 19:56:08 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 44 min 31 sec (824 min 31 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:03:32 MDT... 65.24 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/14/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16271 ft MSL (9513 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 14934 ft MSL (8176 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14545 ft MSL (7787 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -1.3
K index......................... +29.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -66.9 -88.4   280   17    9   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -62.1 -79.8   275   28   14   6.1   3.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -51.9 -61.4   255   30   16   8.1   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -47.1 -52.8   255   26   13   8.1   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -42.2 -44.0   250   21   11   8.8   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -36.7 -34.1   250   19   10   9.3   5.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -31.1 -24.0   250   18    9  10.2   5.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -26.5 -15.7   245   17    9   7.6   4.1   44.3 111.8    14.0      M    M
 29000  -23.7 -10.7   240   17    9   7.6   4.2   43.4 110.1    13.5      M    M
 28000  -21.6  -6.9   235   17    9   6.5   3.6   42.5 108.5    12.9      M    M
 27000  -19.7  -3.5   230   15    8   6.6   3.6   41.2 106.2    11.9      M    M
 26000  -17.7   0.1   225   15    7   6.6   3.6   40.1 104.1    11.1      M    M
 25000  -15.8   3.6   225   14    7   6.3   3.4   39.1 102.3    10.4      M    M
 24000  -14.1   6.6   220   13    7   6.0   3.3   37.6  99.6     9.2      M    M
 23000  -12.3   9.9   215   13    7   6.0   3.3   36.2  97.2     8.1      M    M
 22000  -10.6  12.9   215   13    7   6.2   3.4   35.0  95.0     7.1      M    M
 21000   -8.8  16.2   210   14    7   6.3   3.5   33.7  92.7     6.0      M    M
 20000   -7.0  19.4   210   14    7   6.3   3.5   32.5  90.6     5.0      M    M
 19500   -6.1  21.0   205   14    7   6.4   3.5   32.0  89.6     4.5      M    M
 19000   -5.2  22.6   205   14    7   5.7   3.1   31.4  88.5     3.9      M    M
 18500   -4.4  24.1   205   14    7   5.8   3.2   30.7  87.2     3.3      M    M
 18000   -3.5  25.7   205   14    7   6.0   3.3   30.0  86.1     2.7      M    M
 17500   -2.6  27.3   205   14    7   6.2   3.4   29.4  85.0     2.1      M    M
 17000   -1.7  28.9   205   14    7   6.1   3.3   28.8  83.9     1.6      M    M
 16500   -0.7  30.7   205   14    7   7.8   4.3   28.4  83.1     1.2      M    M
 16000    0.4  32.7   205   15    8   7.7   4.2   28.0  82.5     0.8      M    M
 15500    1.5  34.7   200   15    8   7.4   4.1   27.7  81.9     0.5      M    M
 15000    2.6  36.7   200   14    7   7.3   4.0   27.3  81.1     0.1      M    M
 14500    4.2  39.6   200   13    7   8.1   4.4   26.7  80.1    -0.4    712  3.6
 14000    5.4  41.7   200   12    6   8.1   4.4   26.5  79.7    -0.7    662  3.4
 13500    6.6  43.9   195   11    6   8.8   4.8   26.3  79.3    -1.0    612  3.1
 13000    7.9  46.2   195   10    5   9.2   5.1   26.1  79.1    -1.1    557  2.8
 12500    9.2  48.6   195    9    4   8.4   4.6   26.0  78.8    -1.3    505  2.6
 12000   10.5  50.9   195    8    4   9.2   5.1   25.9  78.6    -1.5    451  2.3
 11750   11.2  52.2   200    8    4   9.3   5.1   25.8  78.5    -1.5    423  2.1
 11500   11.8  53.2   200    7    4   8.9   4.9   25.8  78.4    -1.6    395  2.0
 11250   12.5  54.5   205    7    3   8.6   4.7   25.7  78.3    -1.7    370  1.9
 11000   13.1  55.6   205    6    3   8.9   4.9   25.6  78.2    -1.8    342  1.7
 10750   13.8  56.8   210    6    3   8.8   4.9   25.6  78.0    -1.8    315  1.6
 10500   14.4  57.9   215    5    3   8.8   4.8   25.5  77.9    -1.9    288  1.5
 10250   15.1  59.2   225    5    3   8.7   4.8   25.4  77.8    -2.0    261  1.3
 10000   15.7  60.3   235    5    3   8.3   4.6   25.3  77.6    -2.1    235  1.2
  9750   16.3  61.3   250    6    3   8.3   4.5   25.2  77.4    -2.2    209  1.1
  9500   17.0  62.6   260    7    3   7.8   4.3   25.1  77.2    -2.3    183  0.9
  9250   17.5  63.5   265    8    4   6.9   3.8   24.9  76.8    -2.5    160  0.8
  9000   18.0  64.4   270    9    5   6.6   3.6   24.7  76.4    -2.8    138  0.7
  8750   18.4  65.1   275   10    5   7.4   4.0   24.5  76.0    -3.0    116  0.6
  8500   18.9  66.0   280   11    6   4.9   2.7   24.2  75.6    -3.3     95  0.5
  8250   19.1  66.4   280   11    6   1.9   1.0   23.7  74.7    -3.9     83  0.4
  8000   19.1  66.4   275   12    6   1.4   0.7   23.1  73.6    -4.5     74  0.4
  7750   19.2  66.6   275   12    6   3.8   2.1   22.5  72.5    -5.2     65  0.3
  7500   19.1  66.4   275   12    6  -5.0  -2.8   22.0  71.5    -6.0     59  0.3
  7250   18.1  64.6   275   10    5 -15.9  -8.7   20.7  69.2    -7.3     81  0.4
  7000   17.2  63.0   280    8    4  -7.5  -4.1   19.4  66.9    -8.6    103  0.5
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/14/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/14/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +29.0  LI... -1.3               | K index... +26.4  LI... -1.4
CAPE... +58.7  CIN... -76.9                | CAPE... +226.8  CIN... -0.9
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.7 -88.1  285  18  9   2.0   1.1 | -67.0 -88.6  275  16  8   1.8   1.0
 45000 -61.6 -78.9  280  28 14   6.3   3.4 | -61.7 -79.1  275  23 12   6.9   3.8
 40000 -51.4 -60.5  265  30 16   7.8   4.3 | -50.6 -59.1  270  27 14   7.6   4.2
 38000 -46.7 -52.1  255  26 13   7.8   4.3 | -46.1 -51.0  265  25 13   7.6   4.2
 36000 -42.1 -43.8  240  22 11   8.2   4.5 | -41.6 -42.9  255  23 12   8.0   4.4
 34000 -36.9 -34.4  235  20 10   8.7   4.8 | -36.6 -33.9  255  22 12   8.3   4.6
 32000 -31.7 -25.1  230  17  9   9.5   5.2 | -31.6 -24.9  250  22 11   8.7   4.8
 30000 -26.9 -16.4  235  18  9   8.1   4.4 | -26.8 -16.2  245  20 10   7.9   4.3
 29000 -23.9 -11.0  235  18  9   8.1   4.4 | -23.9 -11.0  245  19 10   7.9   4.4
 28000 -21.6  -6.9  235  18  9   6.6   3.6 | -21.7  -7.1  240  18  9   6.9   3.8
 27000 -19.6  -3.3  235  17  9   6.8   3.7 | -19.6  -3.3  240  18  9   7.0   3.8
 26000 -17.6   0.3  240  15  8   6.8   3.7 | -17.6   0.3  235  18  9   7.0   3.8
 25000 -15.7   3.7  240  14  7   6.7   3.7 | -15.5   4.1  230  18  9   6.8   3.7
 24000 -13.7   7.3  235  14  7   6.6   3.6 | -13.6   7.5  230  18  9   6.6   3.6
 23000 -11.8  10.8  230  13  7   6.6   3.6 | -11.7  10.9  230  18  9   6.7   3.7
 22000  -9.9  14.2  225  13  7   6.1   3.3 |  -9.7  14.5  225  18  9   6.4   3.5
 21000  -8.3  17.1  225  13  7   5.6   3.1 |  -7.9  17.8  230  17  9   6.2   3.4
 20000  -6.7  19.9  225  14  7   5.7   3.1 |  -6.1  21.0  230  16  8   6.2   3.4
 19500  -5.9  21.4  225  14  7   5.7   3.1 |  -5.2  22.6  235  16  8   6.2   3.4
 19000  -5.0  23.0  225  14  7   5.7   3.1 |  -4.3  24.3  235  16  8   6.0   3.3
 18500  -4.2  24.4  225  15  7   5.7   3.1 |  -3.4  25.9  240  15  8   6.1   3.3
 18000  -3.4  25.9  220  15  8   5.8   3.2 |  -2.5  27.5  240  15  8   5.9   3.2
 17500  -2.6  27.3  220  15  8   5.8   3.2 |  -1.7  28.9  240  15  8   5.8   3.2
 17000  -1.8  28.8  220  15  8   5.8   3.2 |  -0.8  30.6  245  15  8   5.8   3.2
 16500  -0.9  30.4  215  15  8   6.5   3.6 |  -0.0  32.0  245  14  7   5.6   3.1
 16000   0.0  32.0  215  15  8   6.5   3.5 |   0.8  33.4  245  13  7   5.6   3.1
 15500   1.0  33.8  215  15  8   7.0   3.8 |   1.6  34.9  245  12  6   5.9   3.2
 15000   2.0  35.6  210  14  7   7.3   4.0 |   2.4  36.3  250  11  6   6.0   3.3
 14500   3.7  38.7  205  14  7   8.2   4.5 |   3.7  38.7  250   9  5   7.1   3.9
 14000   4.9  40.8  205  13  7   8.3   4.5 |   4.7  40.5  255   7  4   7.3   4.0
 13500   6.1  43.0  205  12  6   8.8   4.9 |   5.7  42.3  255   5  3   8.9   4.9
 13000   7.5  45.5  205  11  6   9.2   5.0 |   7.1  44.8  250   5  2   9.8   5.4
 12500   8.8  47.8  205  10  5   8.6   4.7 |   8.5  47.3  245   4  2   8.6   4.7
 12000  10.1  50.2  200   9  4   9.1   5.0 |   9.9  49.8  245   4  2  10.1   5.5
 11750  10.8  51.4  200   8  4   8.9   4.9 |  10.6  51.1  245   4  2  10.1   5.5
 11500  11.5  52.7  200   8  4   9.4   5.2 |  11.4  52.5  245   4  2   9.6   5.3
 11250  12.2  54.0  200   7  3   9.5   5.2 |  12.0  53.6  240   4  2   9.5   5.2
 11000  12.9  55.2  200   6  3   9.1   5.0 |  12.7  54.9  240   3  2   9.9   5.4
 10750  13.6  56.5  195   6  3   9.3   5.1 |  13.5  56.3  235   3  2   9.9   5.4
 10500  14.3  57.7  195   6  3   9.0   4.9 |  14.2  57.6  235   3  2   9.5   5.2
 10250  14.9  58.8  195   5  3   8.3   4.6 |  14.9  58.8  230   3  2   8.7   4.8
 10000  15.5  59.9  200   5  3   8.3   4.6 |  15.5  59.9  230   3  2   9.7   5.3
  9750  16.2  61.2  215   5  3   8.7   4.8 |  16.3  61.3  230   3  2  10.8   5.9
  9500  16.8  62.2  230   5  3   7.8   4.3 |  17.1  62.8  230   3  1  10.1   5.5
  9250  17.3  63.1  250   6  3   6.2   3.4 |  17.8  64.0  225   3  1   9.1   5.0
  9000  17.7  63.9  265   8  4   5.6   3.1 |  18.5  65.3  225   3  1   9.4   5.1
  8750  18.0  64.4  275  10  5   4.9   2.7 |  19.2  66.6  220   3  1  11.0   6.0
  8500  18.3  64.9  280  13  7   5.1   2.8 |  20.0  68.0  220   3  1  11.1   6.1
  8250  18.7  65.7  280  13  7   6.2   3.4 |  20.8  69.4  215   3  1  10.4   5.7
  8000  19.1  66.4  280  12  6   5.3   2.9 |  21.6  70.9  215   3  1  10.2   5.6
  7750  19.5  67.1  280  11  6   8.8   4.8 |  22.4  72.3  210   3  1  10.9   6.0
  7500  20.2  68.4  275   9  5   9.3   5.1 |  23.2  73.8  205   3  1  12.1   6.6
  7250  20.7  69.3  275   8  4   5.5   3.0 |  24.1  75.4  205   2  1  12.3   6.7
  7000  21.1  70.0  275   8  4   8.7   4.8 |  25.0  77.0  205   2  1  12.2   6.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/14/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/14/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +32.5  LI... -2.6               | K index... +29.5  LI... -2.0
CAPE... +349.9  CIN... -2.7                | CAPE... +273.7  CIN... -22.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -67.0 -88.6  280  14  7   1.1   0.6 | -67.3 -89.1  265  13  7   0.6   0.3
 45000 -61.8 -79.2  275  22 12   7.1   3.9 | -62.5 -80.5  255  19 10   7.2   3.9
 40000 -50.8 -59.4  275  29 15   8.5   4.7 | -51.2 -60.2  260  15  8   9.2   5.1
 38000 -45.7 -50.3  275  27 14   8.5   4.7 | -45.7 -50.3  265  15  8   9.2   5.1
 36000 -40.6 -41.1  275  26 13   8.4   4.6 | -40.1 -40.2  265  15  8   8.8   4.8
 34000 -35.6 -32.1  265  25 13   8.3   4.6 | -35.0 -31.0  270  15  8   8.5   4.6
 32000 -30.6 -23.1  255  24 12   9.4   5.1 | -30.0 -22.0  270  14  7   9.6   5.3
 30000 -25.5 -13.9  250  20 10   7.6   4.2 | -24.8 -12.6  275  13  7   7.7   4.2
 29000 -23.3  -9.9  245  18  9   7.6   4.2 | -22.5  -8.5  280  12  6   7.8   4.3
 28000 -21.1  -6.0  245  17  9   6.7   3.7 | -20.3  -4.5  280  11  6   6.9   3.8
 27000 -19.1  -2.4  245  17  9   6.8   3.7 | -18.2  -0.8  285  11  6   7.0   3.9
 26000 -17.1   1.2  240  17  9   6.9   3.8 | -16.2   2.8  285  10  5   7.1   3.9
 25000 -15.1   4.8  240  17  9   6.5   3.6 | -14.1   6.6  285  10  5   6.6   3.6
 24000 -13.4   7.9  240  17  9   6.1   3.3 | -12.3   9.9  285   9  5   6.1   3.3
 23000 -11.6  11.1  245  17  9   6.1   3.4 | -10.6  12.9  290   8  4   6.1   3.4
 22000  -9.8  14.4  245  17  9   6.0   3.3 |  -8.8  16.2  290   7  4   5.8   3.2
 21000  -8.1  17.4  245  16  8   6.0   3.3 |  -7.3  18.9  295   6  3   5.4   3.0
 20000  -6.4  20.5  250  14  7   6.0   3.3 |  -5.7  21.7  300   5  3   5.4   3.0
 19500  -5.5  22.1  250  13  7   6.0   3.3 |  -4.9  23.2  305   5  2   5.5   3.0
 19000  -4.7  23.5  250  12  6   5.8   3.2 |  -4.2  24.4  310   4  2   4.9   2.7
 18500  -3.9  25.0  250  11  6   5.8   3.2 |  -3.5  25.7  315   4  2   4.9   2.7
 18000  -3.0  26.6  255  10  5   5.9   3.2 |  -2.8  27.0  320   4  2   4.9   2.7
 17500  -2.2  28.0  255   8  4   6.0   3.3 |  -2.1  28.2  325   3  2   5.0   2.7
 17000  -1.3  29.7  255   7  3   6.0   3.3 |  -1.4  29.5  335   3  2   5.0   2.8
 16500  -0.4  31.3  255   5  3   6.5   3.6 |  -0.7  30.7  340   3  2   4.5   2.5
 16000   0.5  32.9  255   4  2   6.5   3.6 |  -0.1  31.8  350   3  2   4.6   2.5
 15500   1.4  34.5  245   3  1   6.6   3.6 |   0.6  33.1  355   4  2   6.3   3.4
 15000   2.4  36.3  235   2  1   6.7   3.7 |   2.3  36.1  355   4  2   7.8   4.3
 14500   3.9  39.0  195   1  1   8.4   4.6 |   3.4  38.1  355   4  2   7.3   4.0
 14000   5.1  41.2  180   2  1   8.7   4.8 |   4.4  39.9  360   5  2   7.2   4.0
 13500   6.4  43.5  165   2  1   9.4   5.1 |   5.4  41.7  360   5  3   6.9   3.8
 13000   7.8  46.0  165   2  1  10.0   5.5 |   6.3  43.3  355   6  3   6.5   3.6
 12500   9.2  48.6  165   3  1   8.3   4.6 |   7.3  45.1  355   8  4   5.4   2.9
 12000  10.6  51.1  160   3  2   9.9   5.4 |   8.1  46.6  350   9  4   6.7   3.7
 11750  11.3  52.3  160   3  2   9.6   5.3 |   8.5  47.3  350   9  5   6.2   3.4
 11500  12.0  53.6  160   4  2  10.1   5.5 |   9.0  48.2  350  10  5   6.9   3.8
 11250  12.7  54.9  160   4  2  10.0   5.5 |   9.5  49.1  350  11  6   6.9   3.8
 11000  13.5  56.3  160   4  2   9.5   5.2 |   9.9  49.8  345  13  6   6.0   3.3
 10750  14.2  57.6  160   4  2   9.7   5.3 |  10.4  50.7  345  14  7   6.1   3.3
 10500  14.9  58.8  160   4  2   9.5   5.2 |  10.8  51.4  340  15  8   5.9   3.3
 10250  15.6  60.1  160   4  2   9.3   5.1 |  11.2  52.2  340  16  8   5.6   3.1
 10000  16.3  61.3  160   4  2  10.0   5.5 |  11.6  52.9  340  18  9   5.7   3.1
  9750  17.1  62.8  160   4  2  10.6   5.8 |  12.0  53.6  340  19 10   6.1   3.4
  9500  17.9  64.2  160   4  2  10.3   5.6 |  12.5  54.5  335  20 10   5.5   3.0
  9250  18.6  65.5  160   4  2   9.6   5.3 |  12.8  55.0  335  21 11   4.5   2.5
  9000  19.3  66.7  160   5  2   9.6   5.3 |  13.1  55.6  335  23 12   4.5   2.5
  8750  20.0  68.0  160   5  2  10.4   5.7 |  13.5  56.3  330  24 12   5.9   3.2
  8500  20.8  69.4  160   5  2  10.4   5.7 |  13.9  57.0  330  24 13   6.7   3.7
  8250  21.6  70.9  160   5  2  10.1   5.6 |  14.3  57.7  330  24 12   6.9   3.8
  8000  22.3  72.1  160   5  2  10.2   5.6 |  14.7  58.5  335  23 12   6.5   3.6
  7750  23.1  73.6  160   5  2   9.8   5.4 |  15.2  59.4  335  22 11   8.3   4.6
  7500  23.8  74.8  160   5  3  10.2   5.6 |  15.8  60.4  335  20 10   7.9   4.3
  7250  24.6  76.3  155   5  2  11.3   6.2 |  16.2  61.2  340  18  9   5.1   2.8
  7000  25.4  77.7  155   4  2  10.9   6.0 |  16.6  61.9  340  15  8   7.4   4.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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