Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 241110
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0407 MST Saturday, January 24, 2015

This forecast is for Saturday, January 24, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 47.7 F/8.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 191 ft/min (1.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10391 ft MSL (3633 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 47.0 F/8.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1400 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast thin high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8015 ft MSL (1257 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 01/25....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:11:29 / 17:09:44 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 58 min 16 sec (598 min 16 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:10:59 MST... 31.96 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 01/24/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 7209 ft MSL (451 ft AGL)
Additional freezing level....... 9744 ft MSL (2986 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18854 ft MSL (12096 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15632 ft MSL (8874 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +5.9
K index......................... -16.7

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -59.8 -75.6   335   27   14   3.3   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -54.7 -66.5   325   29   15   0.4   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -57.5 -71.5   015   38   20  -1.9  -1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -57.8 -72.0   020   44   23   1.4   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -56.9 -70.4   025   48   25   1.4   0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -55.7 -68.3   030   51   26   8.7   4.7      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -50.7 -59.3   035   48   25   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -45.3 -49.5   045   45   23   7.5   4.1   24.3  75.7    12.2      M    M
 29000  -43.1 -45.6   040   42   22   7.5   4.1   23.3  74.0    11.6      M    M
 28000  -40.8 -41.4   040   39   20   7.5   4.1   22.5  72.5    11.1      M    M
 27000  -38.6 -37.5   035   36   18   7.2   4.0   21.8  71.2    10.7      M    M
 26000  -36.5 -33.7   030   32   17   7.1   3.9   20.7  69.2     9.9      M    M
 25000  -34.3 -29.7   020   29   15   7.1   3.9   19.7  67.4     9.2      M    M
 24000  -32.2 -26.0   015   27   14   7.4   4.1   18.8  65.8     8.6      M    M
 23000  -29.9 -21.8   010   26   13   8.0   4.4   18.1  64.5     8.1      M    M
 22000  -27.5 -17.5   005   26   13   8.0   4.4   17.4  63.4     7.7      M    M
 21000  -25.0 -13.0   360   25   13   8.6   4.7   16.9  62.4     7.3      M    M
 20000  -22.5  -8.5   355   23   12   8.7   4.7   16.5  61.6     7.0      M    M
 19500  -21.2  -6.2   355   23   12   8.7   4.8   16.3  61.3     6.9      M    M
 19000  -19.9  -3.8   355   22   11   8.7   4.8   16.1  61.0     6.8      M    M
 18500  -18.6  -1.5   350   21   11   7.9   4.3   16.0  60.7     6.6      M    M
 18000  -17.5   0.5   350   20   11   7.6   4.2   15.6  60.0     6.3      M    M
 17500  -16.3   2.7   355   20   10   7.6   4.1   15.2  59.4     6.1      M    M
 17000  -15.2   4.6   355   19   10   7.4   4.0   14.8  58.7     5.8      M    M
 16500  -14.1   6.6   360   18    9   7.4   4.1   14.4  58.0     5.4      M    M
 16000  -13.0   8.6   005   18    9   7.0   3.8   14.0  57.2     5.1      M    M
 15500  -12.0  10.4   005   17    9   7.0   3.8   13.6  56.4     4.7      M    M
 15000  -10.9  12.4   005   16    8   6.8   3.8   13.1  55.6     4.3      M    M
 14500   -9.4  15.1   005   16    8   6.7   3.7   12.4  54.3     3.6      M    M
 14000   -8.4  16.9   005   15    8   7.7   4.2   11.9  53.5     3.3      M    M
 13500   -7.2  19.0   360   15    8   7.8   4.3   11.6  52.9     3.0      M    M
 13000   -6.1  21.0   355   15    8   7.1   3.9   11.3  52.3     2.6      M    M
 12500   -5.0  23.0   350   15    7   7.2   4.0   10.8  51.5     2.2      M    M
 12000   -4.1  24.6   345   15    8   5.6   3.1   10.3  50.5     1.8      M    M
 11750   -3.6  25.5   340   15    8   6.0   3.3   10.0  50.0     1.5      M    M
 11500   -3.2  26.2   335   15    8   6.0   3.3    9.7  49.4     1.2      M    M
 11250   -2.7  27.1   335   16    8   5.6   3.1    9.4  48.9     0.9      M    M
 11000   -2.3  27.9   330   16    8   6.1   3.3    9.1  48.3     0.6      M    M
 10750   -1.9  28.6   330   15    8   6.8   3.8    8.8  47.9     0.3      M    M
 10500   -1.4  29.5   325   15    8   6.8   3.7    8.6  47.4     0.1      M    M
 10250   -0.9  30.4   320   14    7   6.7   3.6    8.4  47.0    -0.2    274  1.4
 10000   -0.5  31.1   320   14    7   6.8   3.7    8.1  46.6    -0.5    252  1.3
  9750    0.1  32.2   320   14    7   7.7   4.2    7.9  46.3    -0.7    229  1.2
  9500    0.7  33.3   320   13    7   8.2   4.5    7.8  46.0    -0.8    204  1.0
  9250    1.2  34.2   320   13    7   7.6   4.2    7.7  45.8    -1.0    180  0.9
  9000    1.8  35.2   320   13    7   7.1   3.9    7.5  45.4    -1.2    156  0.8
  8750    2.3  36.1   320   14    7   6.9   3.8    7.3  45.1    -1.4    133  0.7
  8500    2.8  37.0   320   15    8   5.8   3.2    7.0  44.6    -1.6    112  0.6
  8250    3.0  37.4   320   16    8   0.3   0.2    6.6  43.8    -2.1     96  0.5
  8000    2.8  37.0   315   17    9  -6.5  -3.5    5.5  42.0    -3.1     97  0.5
  7750    2.5  36.5   315   18    9   4.7   2.6    4.6  40.2    -4.1     97  0.5
  7500    2.8  37.0   310   18    9  -9.7  -5.3    4.1  39.5    -4.5     80  0.4
  7250    0.5  32.9   305   16    8 -43.4 -23.8    1.5  34.7    -7.2    141  0.7
  7000   -2.7  27.1   300   13    6 -37.4 -20.5   -2.1  28.3   -10.8    232  1.2
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           01/24/2015 at 0800 MST          |       01/24/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -29.8  LI... +3.3               | K index... -26.1  LI... +4.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.7 -75.5  340  29 15   2.5   1.4 | -59.2 -74.6  350  29 15   2.9   1.6
 45000 -55.9 -68.6  335  31 16  -0.2  -0.1 | -54.9 -66.8  350  32 16   0.3   0.2
 40000 -59.0 -74.2  360  41 21  -2.1  -1.1 | -57.2 -71.0  340  37 19  -1.5  -0.8
 38000 -59.0 -74.2  005  42 21   2.4   1.3 | -57.3 -71.1  345  39 20   1.1   0.6
 36000 -57.6 -71.7  005  37 19   2.4   1.3 | -56.7 -70.1  355  41 21   1.1   0.6
 34000 -55.6 -68.1  360  34 17   8.6   4.7 | -55.5 -67.9  360  43 22   8.2   4.5
 32000 -50.8 -59.4  005  32 17   8.1   4.4 | -50.4 -58.7  360  39 20   7.5   4.1
 30000 -45.2 -49.4  015  32 16   8.8   4.8 | -45.7 -50.3  355  35 18   8.8   4.9
 29000 -42.6 -44.7  020  32 17   8.8   4.8 | -43.0 -45.4  345  31 16   8.9   4.9
 28000 -39.9 -39.8  020  33 17   8.8   4.8 | -40.3 -40.5  335  28 15   8.9   4.9
 27000 -37.3 -35.1  025  34 17   8.2   4.5 | -37.7 -35.9  325  27 14   8.9   4.9
 26000 -34.9 -30.8  025  30 16   8.1   4.5 | -35.0 -31.0  325  25 13   8.9   4.9
 25000 -32.4 -26.3  025  27 14   8.1   4.5 | -32.3 -26.1  320  24 13   8.9   4.9
 24000 -30.0 -22.0  030  23 12   7.6   4.2 | -29.7 -21.5  315  23 12   8.5   4.7
 23000 -27.9 -18.2  025  24 12   7.1   3.9 | -27.2 -17.0  320  24 12   8.3   4.5
 22000 -25.7 -14.3  020  25 13   7.1   3.9 | -24.7 -12.5  320  25 13   8.3   4.6
 21000 -23.6 -10.5  015  25 13   7.2   4.0 | -22.3  -8.1  320  25 13   7.0   3.8
 20000 -21.4  -6.5  005  24 12   7.2   4.0 | -20.2  -4.4  320  24 12   7.0   3.8
 19500 -20.3  -4.5  005  23 12   7.2   4.0 | -19.1  -2.4  325  24 12   7.0   3.8
 19000 -19.3  -2.7  360  23 12   7.3   4.0 | -18.1  -0.6  325  24 12   7.0   3.8
 18500 -18.2  -0.8  355  23 12   7.1   3.9 | -17.0   1.4  325  23 12   7.0   3.9
 18000 -17.1   1.2  350  22 11   7.1   3.9 | -16.0   3.2  325  23 12   7.1   3.9
 17500 -16.0   3.2  350  21 11   7.2   3.9 | -14.9   5.2  325  22 11   7.0   3.8
 17000 -14.9   5.2  345  21 11   7.7   4.2 | -13.9   7.0  325  22 11   6.8   3.7
 16500 -13.8   7.2  345  21 11   7.6   4.2 | -12.9   8.8  325  22 11   6.8   3.7
 16000 -12.6   9.3  340  21 11   7.7   4.2 | -11.8  10.8  325  21 11   6.8   3.7
 15500 -11.5  11.3  340  20 10   7.7   4.2 | -10.3  13.5  325  19 10   6.8   3.7
 15000  -9.8  14.4  340  20 10   7.8   4.3 |  -9.3  15.3  330  18  9   6.9   3.8
 14500  -8.6  16.5  340  19 10   7.8   4.3 |  -8.3  17.1  330  17  9   6.8   3.8
 14000  -7.4  18.7  340  18  9   7.4   4.1 |  -7.2  19.0  330  16  8   7.8   4.3
 13500  -6.3  20.7  340  17  9   7.4   4.1 |  -6.0  21.2  325  16  8   7.8   4.3
 13000  -5.2  22.6  340  17  9   7.9   4.4 |  -4.8  23.4  325  15  8   8.0   4.4
 12500  -4.0  24.8  340  16  8   8.2   4.5 |  -3.6  25.5  325  15  8   8.4   4.6
 12000  -2.9  26.8  340  15  8   7.1   3.9 |  -2.6  27.3  325  14  7   5.7   3.1
 11750  -2.3  27.9  335  15  8   7.8   4.3 |  -2.1  28.2  325  14  7   7.4   4.0
 11500  -1.8  28.8  335  15  8   7.9   4.4 |  -1.6  29.1  320  14  7   7.0   3.8
 11250  -1.2  29.8  335  15  8   6.7   3.7 |  -1.0  30.2  320  14  7   6.8   3.7
 11000  -0.7  30.7  335  15  8   6.4   3.5 |  -0.6  30.9  320  14  7   6.5   3.6
 10750  -0.2  31.6  335  15  8   7.5   4.1 |  -0.1  31.8  320  14  7   6.6   3.6
 10500   0.4  32.7  330  15  8   7.5   4.1 |   0.4  32.7  320  15  8   6.8   3.7
 10250   0.9  33.6  330  15  8   6.3   3.5 |   0.9  33.6  320  15  8   6.1   3.3
 10000   1.3  34.3  330  15  8   4.9   2.7 |   1.3  34.3  325  16  8   5.9   3.3
  9750   1.7  35.1  330  15  8   5.6   3.1 |   1.8  35.2  325  17  9   7.5   4.1
  9500   2.1  35.8  330  15  8   6.2   3.4 |   2.4  36.3  330  18  9   8.1   4.4
  9250   2.5  36.5  325  15  8   5.2   2.9 |   3.0  37.4  330  19 10   7.6   4.2
  9000   2.8  37.0  330  16  8   4.1   2.2 |   3.5  38.3  330  19 10   7.0   3.8
  8750   3.2  37.8  330  17  9   4.9   2.7 |   4.1  39.4  330  20 10   7.9   4.3
  8500   3.5  38.3  330  17  9   4.7   2.6 |   4.7  40.5  330  20 10   8.2   4.5
  8250   3.7  38.7  330  18  9  -0.5  -0.3 |   5.2  41.4  330  20 10   3.2   1.8
  8000   3.4  38.1  325  18  9  -6.0  -3.3 |   5.2  41.4  330  19 10  -1.2  -0.6
  7750   3.1  37.6  325  18  9   2.4   1.3 |   5.2  41.4  325  18  9   3.8   2.1
  7500   3.1  37.6  315  17  9 -12.5  -6.9 |   5.3  41.5  315  16  8  -3.0  -1.6
  7250   0.8  33.4  310  15  8 -42.0 -23.0 |   4.3  39.7  310  14  7 -18.2 -10.0
  7000  -2.4  27.7  305  13  6 -36.2 -19.9 |   2.8  37.0  310  11  6 -16.7  -9.2
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           01/24/2015 at 1400 MST          |       01/24/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -2.5  LI... +4.7                | K index... +10.0  LI... +2.2
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -5.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.3 -74.7  350  23 12   2.8   1.6 | -60.2 -76.4  360  23 12   3.1   1.7
 45000 -55.1 -67.2  350  25 13   0.6   0.3 | -55.5 -67.9  360  20 10   0.6   0.3
 40000 -56.4 -69.5  325  38 19  -0.9  -0.5 | -56.9 -70.4  355  34 18  -0.9  -0.5
 38000 -56.3 -69.3  330  41 21   1.2   0.6 | -57.0 -70.6  360  49 25   0.7   0.4
 36000 -55.6 -68.1  335  41 21   1.2   0.6 | -56.6 -69.9  010  75 38   0.7   0.4
 34000 -54.6 -66.3  345  41 21   6.2   3.4 | -55.0 -67.0  010  99 51   8.5   4.7
 32000 -50.7 -59.3  340  35 18   5.8   3.2 | -49.7 -57.5  010 101 52   8.7   4.8
 30000 -46.5 -51.7  335  32 16   9.8   5.4 | -44.6 -48.3  010  96 49   7.7   4.3
 29000 -43.5 -46.3  340  33 17   9.9   5.4 | -42.3 -44.1  010  84 43   7.7   4.2
 28000 -40.6 -41.1  340  34 17   9.9   5.5 | -40.0 -40.0  005  72 37   7.7   4.2
 27000 -37.6 -35.7  340  35 18   9.3   5.1 | -37.7 -35.9  360  60 31   7.7   4.2
 26000 -34.9 -30.8  335  36 18   9.1   5.0 | -35.3 -31.5  355  55 28   7.8   4.3
 25000 -32.2 -26.0  335  37 19   9.1   5.0 | -33.0 -27.4  350  50 26   7.8   4.3
 24000 -29.5 -21.1  330  38 20   8.7   4.8 | -30.7 -23.3  345  46 24   7.9   4.3
 23000 -27.0 -16.6  325  35 18   8.3   4.6 | -28.3 -18.9  340  46 23   8.1   4.4
 22000 -24.5 -12.1  315  32 17   8.3   4.6 | -25.8 -14.4  340  45 23   8.1   4.5
 21000 -22.1  -7.8  305  31 16   7.1   3.9 | -23.4 -10.1  340  45 23   8.7   4.8
 20000 -20.0  -4.0  310  31 16   6.9   3.8 | -20.8  -5.4  345  46 23   8.7   4.8
 19500 -19.0  -2.2  310  31 16   6.9   3.8 | -19.5  -3.1  345  46 24   8.7   4.8
 19000 -18.0  -0.4  310  31 16   6.9   3.8 | -18.2  -0.8  345  47 24   8.7   4.8
 18500 -17.0   1.4  315  31 16   5.2   2.9 | -16.9   1.6  345  47 24   9.0   4.9
 18000 -16.3   2.7  315  30 15   4.3   2.4 | -15.5   4.1  345  48 25   9.1   5.0
 17500 -15.7   3.7  320  29 15   4.4   2.4 | -14.1   6.6  345  49 25   9.1   5.0
 17000 -14.9   5.2  320  28 14   6.6   3.6 | -12.8   9.0  345  48 24   8.8   4.8
 16500 -13.9   7.0  320  27 14   6.4   3.5 | -11.5  11.3  345  46 24   8.9   4.9
 16000 -12.3   9.9  320  24 12   6.9   3.8 |  -9.7  14.5  345  42 22   7.6   4.1
 15500 -11.3  11.7  320  23 12   6.9   3.8 |  -8.6  16.5  345  39 20   7.7   4.2
 15000 -10.2  13.6  320  21 11   7.4   4.1 |  -7.6  18.3  345  36 18   5.4   3.0
 14500  -9.1  15.6  320  19 10   7.4   4.1 |  -6.8  19.8  340  32 17   5.8   3.2
 14000  -8.0  17.6  320  18  9   7.3   4.0 |  -6.1  21.0  340  29 15   4.1   2.2
 13500  -6.9  19.6  325  16  8   7.3   4.0 |  -5.5  22.1  340  27 14   4.0   2.2
 13000  -5.8  21.6  330  15  8   7.6   4.2 |  -5.0  23.0  340  24 13   4.0   2.2
 12500  -4.6  23.7  335  15  8   8.0   4.4 |  -4.4  24.1  340  23 12   4.5   2.4
 12000  -3.7  25.3  335  15  8   6.0   3.3 |  -4.1  24.6  340  22 12   3.0   1.7
 11750  -3.1  26.4  340  16  8   7.6   4.2 |  -3.6  25.5  340  23 12   6.2   3.4
 11500  -2.6  27.3  340  17  9   7.4   4.1 |  -3.2  26.2  345  23 12   5.3   2.9
 11250  -2.0  28.4  345  17  9   6.6   3.6 |  -2.8  27.0  345  23 12   5.7   3.1
 11000  -1.6  29.1  345  18  9   6.8   3.7 |  -2.3  27.9  345  24 12   7.8   4.3
 10750  -1.0  30.2  345  19 10   7.8   4.3 |  -1.7  28.9  345  24 12   9.1   5.0
 10500  -0.5  31.1  350  20 10   7.8   4.3 |  -1.0  30.2  345  24 13   8.9   4.9
 10250   0.1  32.2  350  21 11   6.9   3.8 |  -0.4  31.3  350  25 13   8.3   4.5
 10000   0.6  33.1  350  22 11   6.4   3.5 |   0.2  32.4  345  25 13   6.9   3.8
  9750   1.1  34.0  350  23 12   8.2   4.5 |   0.7  33.3  345  24 12   7.1   3.9
  9500   1.7  35.1  345  24 12   9.1   5.0 |   1.3  34.3  340  23 12   7.4   4.1
  9250   2.4  36.3  345  25 13   8.3   4.5 |   1.8  35.2  335  22 11   7.5   4.1
  9000   3.0  37.4  345  25 13   7.6   4.2 |   2.4  36.3  330  21 11   8.0   4.4
  8750   3.5  38.3  340  25 13   7.3   4.0 |   3.0  37.4  325  19 10   7.2   4.0
  8500   3.9  39.0  335  23 12   6.9   3.8 |   3.5  38.3  315  18 10   6.6   3.6
  8250   4.4  39.9  330  22 11   6.0   3.3 |   4.0  39.2  310  18  9   6.1   3.3
  8000   4.7  40.5  325  20 11   3.5   1.9 |   4.3  39.7  310  17  9   3.4   1.9
  7750   5.0  41.0  320  19 10   8.9   4.9 |   4.7  40.5  310  16  8   9.8   5.4
  7500   5.6  42.1  320  17  9   3.4   1.9 |   5.4  41.7  310  14  7   3.8   2.1
  7250   5.1  41.2  315  14  7 -14.1  -7.7 |   4.7  40.5  310  12  6 -20.7 -11.4
  7000   3.7  38.7  315  11  6 -15.5  -8.5 |   2.6  36.7  310   9  5 -29.4 -16.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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