Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 071028
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0428 MDT Monday, July 7, 2014

This forecast is for Monday, July 7, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 79.1 F/26.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Excellent
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 1669 ft/min (8.5 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 21526 ft MSL (14768 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 88.0 F/31.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 0845 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 15429 ft MSL (8671 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 07/08...... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... No change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14640 ft MSL (7882 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 07/08......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:40:37 / 20:27:18 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 46 min 41 sec (886 min 41 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:03:58 MDT... 73.55 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/07/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 16633 ft MSL (9875 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 17153 ft MSL (10395 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 17893 ft MSL (11135 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -5.2
K index......................... +25.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -65.9 -86.6   010   19   10   0.6   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -62.5 -80.5   360   22   11   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.7 -64.7   330   25   13   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -49.2 -56.6   325   24   13   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -44.7 -48.5   320   24   12   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -40.0 -40.0   315   22   11   7.8   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -34.7 -30.5   315   20   10   8.0   4.4      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -29.9 -21.8   310   15    8   8.1   4.4   39.5 103.0     6.5      M    M
 29000  -27.5 -17.5   305   12    6   8.1   4.4   38.9 102.0     6.1      M    M
 28000  -25.2 -13.4   305   10    5   6.0   3.3   38.2 100.7     5.6      M    M
 27000  -23.4 -10.1   300    8    4   6.3   3.5   36.8  98.2     4.5      M    M
 26000  -21.5  -6.7   295    6    3   6.4   3.5   35.5  95.9     3.5      M    M
 25000  -19.7  -3.5   290    4    2   7.0   3.8   34.4  94.0     2.5      M    M
 24000  -17.4   0.7   290    4    2   7.6   4.1   33.5  92.3     1.8      M    M
 23000  -15.2   4.6   290    5    2   7.6   4.2   32.7  90.9     1.1      M    M
 22000  -13.0   8.6   290    5    3   7.3   4.0   32.1  89.7     0.5      M    M
 21000  -10.9  12.4   295    5    3   7.1   3.9   31.0  87.9    -0.4   1424  7.2
 20000   -8.8  16.2   300    5    3   7.1   3.9   30.1  86.3    -1.3   1332  6.8
 19500   -7.8  18.0   300    6    3   7.3   4.0   29.7  85.5    -1.7   1286  6.5
 19000   -6.6  20.1   290    6    3   8.6   4.7   29.5  85.0    -2.0   1236  6.3
 18500   -5.4  22.3   280    6    3   8.5   4.7   29.2  84.6    -2.2   1183  6.0
 18000   -4.1  24.6   265    6    3   9.0   5.0   29.1  84.3    -2.4   1130  5.7
 17500   -2.7  27.1   250    6    3   9.3   5.1   29.0  84.2    -2.5   1074  5.5
 17000   -1.3  29.7   240    6    3   9.3   5.1   28.9  84.0    -2.5   1017  5.2
 16500    0.1  32.2   240    6    3   9.0   4.9   28.8  83.8    -2.7    962  4.9
 16000    1.4  34.5   245    6    3   9.0   4.9   28.7  83.6    -2.8    907  4.6
 15500    3.4  38.1   250    7    4   9.2   5.0   28.5  83.3    -3.0    825  4.2
 15000    4.7  40.5   255    8    4   9.2   5.0   28.4  83.1    -3.2    771  3.9
 14500    6.0  42.8   255    9    4   9.2   5.0   28.3  83.0    -3.3    716  3.6
 14000    7.4  45.3   255    9    5   9.2   5.1   28.2  82.8    -3.5    662  3.4
 13500    8.7  47.7   255   10    5   8.8   4.8   28.1  82.6    -3.6    607  3.1
 13000    9.9  49.8   250   11    6   8.8   4.8   28.0  82.3    -3.9    555  2.8
 12500   11.2  52.2   250   13    7   8.7   4.7   27.8  82.1    -4.1    502  2.6
 12000   12.4  54.3   245   15    8   8.7   4.7   27.6  81.7    -4.3    450  2.3
 11750   13.1  55.6   245   15    8   8.0   4.4   27.5  81.5    -4.5    424  2.2
 11500   13.7  56.7   240   16    8  10.4   5.7   27.4  81.4    -4.6    398  2.0
 11250   14.5  58.1   240   16    8  10.0   5.5   27.6  81.6    -4.5    367  1.9
 11000   15.1  59.2   240   17    9   7.5   4.1   27.4  81.3    -4.7    342  1.7
 10750   15.7  60.3   235   17    9   8.1   4.4   27.3  81.1    -4.8    317  1.6
 10500   16.2  61.2   235   18    9   8.2   4.5   27.1  80.9    -5.0    292  1.5
 10250   16.8  62.2   235   18    9   8.6   4.7   27.0  80.7    -5.1    266  1.4
 10000   17.4  63.3   230   18    9   8.3   4.5   26.9  80.5    -5.2    241  1.2
  9750   18.0  64.4   230   19   10   8.2   4.5   26.8  80.3    -5.4    216  1.1
  9500   18.6  65.5   225   19   10   7.9   4.3   26.7  80.1    -5.5    190  1.0
  9250   19.2  66.6   225   19   10   7.4   4.0   26.5  79.8    -5.7    167  0.8
  9000   19.7  67.5   220   19   10   7.6   4.2   26.4  79.4    -5.9    143  0.7
  8750   20.3  68.5   220   19   10   9.9   5.4   26.3  79.3    -6.1    117  0.6
  8500   21.0  69.8   220   18    9   6.5   3.6   26.2  79.2    -6.1     88  0.4
  8250   21.3  70.3   220   17    9   2.3   1.3   25.7  78.3    -6.6     72  0.4
  8000   21.6  70.9   225   16    8   3.7   2.0   25.2  77.4    -7.0     56  0.3
  7750   21.9  71.4   230   15    8   2.3   1.2   24.8  76.6    -7.5     40  0.2
  7500   21.5  70.7   230   14    7 -18.6 -10.2   23.7  74.7    -8.5     44  0.2
  7250   19.2  66.6   240   12    6 -35.8 -19.7   21.0  69.9   -11.2    106  0.5
  7000   16.9  62.4   250    9    5 -22.8 -12.5   18.4  65.1   -13.8    167  0.9
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/07/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/07/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +25.0  LI... -2.4               | K index... +30.1  LI... -2.7
CAPE... +486.4  CIN... -43.3               | CAPE... +470.6  CIN... -13.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.5 -87.7  010  12  6   0.7   0.4 | -67.2 -89.0  345  10  5   0.9   0.5
 45000 -62.7 -80.9  360  15  7   6.3   3.5 | -62.8 -81.0  340  10  5   6.9   3.8
 40000 -53.0 -63.4  340  21 11   7.2   4.0 | -52.3 -62.1  345  13  7   7.3   4.0
 38000 -48.6 -55.5  330  22 11   7.2   4.0 | -47.9 -54.2  335  13  7   7.3   4.0
 36000 -44.3 -47.7  320  23 12   7.2   4.0 | -43.6 -46.5  330  14  7   7.3   4.0
 34000 -39.8 -39.6  315  22 11   7.6   4.2 | -39.2 -38.6  320  17  9   7.2   4.0
 32000 -34.6 -30.3  310  21 11   7.8   4.3 | -34.4 -29.9  310  21 11   7.9   4.3
 30000 -30.0 -22.0  305  19 10   7.6   4.2 | -29.5 -21.1  305  21 11   8.1   4.5
 29000 -27.8 -18.0  300  17  9   7.7   4.2 | -27.1 -16.8  305  22 11   8.1   4.5
 28000 -25.6 -14.1  300  16  8   6.3   3.4 | -24.7 -12.5  300  21 11   7.1   3.9
 27000 -23.7 -10.7  295  14  7   6.5   3.6 | -22.6  -8.7  300  20 10   7.2   4.0
 26000 -21.7  -7.1  290  12  6   6.6   3.6 | -20.4  -4.7  300  19 10   7.2   4.0
 25000 -19.8  -3.6  285  11  6   6.9   3.8 | -18.3  -0.9  300  17  9   6.7   3.7
 24000 -17.8  -0.0  290  10  5   7.1   3.9 | -16.4   2.5  305  16  8   6.3   3.4
 23000 -15.7   3.7  295   9  5   7.1   3.9 | -14.6   5.7  305  14  7   6.3   3.5
 22000 -13.6   7.5  300   8  4   7.6   4.2 | -12.8   9.0  310  12  6   6.7   3.7
 21000 -11.3  11.7  300   8  4   7.9   4.4 | -10.7  12.7  310  12  6   7.0   3.8
 20000  -8.9  16.0  305   9  4   8.0   4.4 |  -8.7  16.3  315  12  6   7.0   3.9
 19500  -7.8  18.0  305   9  4   8.1   4.4 |  -7.7  18.1  315  11  6   7.1   3.9
 19000  -6.5  20.3  295   8  4   8.7   4.8 |  -6.6  20.1  320  11  6   7.8   4.3
 18500  -5.2  22.6  290   8  4   8.7   4.8 |  -5.5  22.1  320  10  5   7.7   4.2
 18000  -3.9  25.0  280   8  4   8.8   4.8 |  -4.4  24.1  320  10  5   8.4   4.6
 17500  -2.6  27.3  275   7  4   8.9   4.9 |  -3.1  26.4  315   9  5   8.8   4.8
 17000  -1.3  29.7  270   7  3   8.9   4.9 |  -1.9  28.6  310   9  5   8.9   4.9
 16500   0.1  32.2  270   7  3   9.3   5.1 |  -0.5  31.1  305   9  5   9.6   5.2
 16000   1.4  34.5  275   6  3   9.3   5.1 |   0.9  33.6  300   9  5   9.5   5.2
 15500   3.4  38.1  275   6  3   9.1   5.0 |   3.0  37.4  295   9  5   9.9   5.4
 15000   4.8  40.6  275   6  3   9.1   5.0 |   4.5  40.1  295   9  5   9.9   5.5
 14500   6.1  43.0  275   6  3   9.2   5.1 |   6.0  42.8  295   9  5   9.7   5.3
 14000   7.5  45.5  270   7  3   9.2   5.1 |   7.4  45.3  295   9  4   9.7   5.3
 13500   8.8  47.8  270   7  4   9.1   5.0 |   8.9  48.0  290   8  4  10.0   5.5
 13000  10.2  50.4  270   9  5   9.0   4.9 |  10.3  50.5  285   8  4  10.1   5.6
 12500  11.5  52.7  265  11  5   9.0   4.9 |  11.8  53.2  280   8  4   9.4   5.2
 12000  12.8  55.0  265  12  6   8.8   4.9 |  13.2  55.8  275   7  4   9.7   5.3
 11750  13.4  56.1  265  13  7   8.2   4.5 |  14.0  57.2  275   7  4  10.1   5.6
 11500  14.1  57.4  265  14  7  11.0   6.0 |  14.7  58.5  270   7  4   8.8   4.8
 11250  14.9  58.8  265  15  8  10.5   5.8 |  15.3  59.5  265   7  4   8.9   4.9
 11000  15.5  59.9  265  15  8   7.5   4.1 |  16.0  60.8  265   7  4  10.3   5.6
 10750  16.1  61.0  265  16  8   8.2   4.5 |  16.8  62.2  260   7  3  10.1   5.5
 10500  16.7  62.1  260  17  9   8.5   4.7 |  17.5  63.5  260   7  3   9.4   5.2
 10250  17.4  63.3  260  17  9   9.1   5.0 |  18.2  64.8  255   7  3   8.7   4.8
 10000  18.0  64.4  255  16  8   8.6   4.7 |  18.9  66.0  250   7  3  10.1   5.5
  9750  18.6  65.5  250  16  8   8.4   4.6 |  19.7  67.5  250   6  3  11.1   6.1
  9500  19.2  66.6  250  15  8   8.1   4.4 |  20.5  68.9  245   6  3  10.1   5.6
  9250  19.8  67.6  245  15  8   7.5   4.1 |  21.2  70.2  245   6  3   9.2   5.0
  9000  20.3  68.5  245  15  8   7.8   4.3 |  21.9  71.4  240   6  3   9.6   5.3
  8750  20.9  69.6  245  15  8   7.9   4.3 |  22.6  72.7  240   6  3  10.6   5.8
  8500  21.5  70.7  245  15  8   8.5   4.7 |  23.4  74.1  240   6  3  10.8   5.9
  8250  22.1  71.8  245  14  7   9.1   5.0 |  24.2  75.6  235   6  3  10.6   5.8
  8000  22.8  73.0  240  12  6   8.7   4.8 |  25.0  77.0  235   6  3  10.8   5.9
  7750  23.4  74.1  240  11  5   9.8   5.3 |  25.8  78.4  230   6  3  10.2   5.6
  7500  24.1  75.4  235   9  5   9.6   5.3 |  26.5  79.7  230   6  3  11.3   6.2
  7250  24.7  76.5  235   9  5   8.2   4.5 |  27.4  81.3  225   6  3  13.0   7.1
  7000  25.3  77.5  235   8  4   9.3   5.1 |  28.3  82.9  225   6  3  11.7   6.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           07/07/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/07/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +28.9  LI... -1.8               | K index... +25.8  LI... -1.4
CAPE... +307.5  CIN... -12.9               | CAPE... +224.4  CIN... -23.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -66.8 -88.2  305  12  6   1.0   0.6 | -67.0 -88.6  305  17  9   0.6   0.3
 45000 -62.5 -80.5  310  13  6   6.7   3.6 | -62.8 -81.0  305  20 10   7.0   3.8
 40000 -52.3 -62.1  330  13  7   7.2   4.0 | -52.2 -62.0  320  17  9   7.5   4.1
 38000 -48.0 -54.4  325  13  7   7.2   4.0 | -47.7 -53.9  315  15  8   7.4   4.1
 36000 -43.7 -46.7  320  13  7   7.3   4.0 | -43.2 -45.8  310  14  7   7.5   4.1
 34000 -38.3 -36.9  315  15  8   8.0   4.4 | -38.0 -36.4  305  15  8   7.7   4.2
 32000 -33.5 -28.3  315  18  9   8.5   4.7 | -33.4 -28.1  305  16  8   8.2   4.5
 30000 -29.0 -20.2  315  17  9   7.5   4.1 | -29.0 -20.2  305  15  8   7.4   4.1
 29000 -26.8 -16.2  315  17  9   7.5   4.1 | -26.7 -16.1  305  15  8   7.5   4.1
 28000 -24.6 -12.3  315  16  8   7.1   3.9 | -24.6 -12.3  310  14  7   7.0   3.8
 27000 -22.5  -8.5  315  16  8   7.2   4.0 | -22.5  -8.5  315  14  7   7.1   3.9
 26000 -20.3  -4.5  315  15  8   7.2   4.0 | -20.4  -4.7  320  14  7   7.1   3.9
 25000 -18.2  -0.8  315  14  7   7.1   3.9 | -18.3  -0.9  330  14  7   6.8   3.7
 24000 -16.1   3.0  315  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -16.3   2.7  330  16  8   6.6   3.6
 23000 -14.1   6.6  320  14  7   7.0   3.8 | -14.4   6.1  335  18  9   6.6   3.6
 22000 -12.0  10.4  320  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -12.4   9.7  335  20 10   7.1   3.9
 21000 -10.0  14.0  325  14  7   7.0   3.8 | -10.2  13.6  340  21 11   7.4   4.1
 20000  -7.9  17.8  330  15  8   7.0   3.8 |  -8.0  17.6  345  22 11   7.5   4.1
 19500  -6.9  19.6  335  15  8   7.0   3.8 |  -6.9  19.6  345  22 12   7.6   4.1
 19000  -5.9  21.4  335  15  8   7.5   4.1 |  -5.8  21.6  350  22 11   8.7   4.7
 18500  -4.8  23.4  335  14  7   7.5   4.1 |  -4.5  23.9  350  22 11   8.6   4.7
 18000  -3.7  25.3  340  14  7   8.0   4.4 |  -3.3  26.1  355  21 11   8.7   4.8
 17500  -2.5  27.5  340  13  6   8.3   4.6 |  -2.0  28.4  355  19 10   8.8   4.8
 17000  -1.3  29.7  340  11  6   8.4   4.6 |  -0.7  30.7  355  17  9   8.8   4.8
 16500   0.7  33.3  340  10  5   9.4   5.2 |   0.6  33.1  355  16  8   9.3   5.1
 16000   2.1  35.8  340  10  5   9.5   5.2 |   2.7  36.9  355  15  8   9.3   5.1
 15500   3.5  38.3  340  10  5   9.8   5.4 |   4.1  39.4  355  15  8   9.6   5.3
 15000   5.0  41.0  340   9  5   9.8   5.4 |   5.5  41.9  355  15  7   9.6   5.3
 14500   6.4  43.5  340   9  5   9.8   5.4 |   6.9  44.4  355  14  7   9.4   5.2
 14000   7.9  46.2  340   9  5   9.8   5.4 |   8.4  47.1  355  14  7   9.4   5.2
 13500   9.3  48.7  340   9  4   9.8   5.4 |   9.8  49.6  355  13  7   9.9   5.4
 13000  10.8  51.4  335   8  4   9.9   5.4 |  11.3  52.3  355  13  7  10.2   5.6
 12500  12.2  54.0  335   8  4   9.1   5.0 |  12.6  54.7  355  12  6   8.7   4.8
 12000  13.7  56.7  335   7  4   9.7   5.3 |  14.0  57.2  355  12  6   9.5   5.2
 11750  14.4  57.9  335   7  3   9.8   5.4 |  14.7  58.5  355  11  6   9.7   5.3
 11500  15.1  59.2  330   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  15.5  59.9  355  11  6   9.3   5.1
 11250  15.8  60.4  325   6  3   9.3   5.1 |  16.2  61.2  355  11  6   9.3   5.1
 11000  16.5  61.7  320   5  3   9.1   5.0 |  16.9  62.4  355  11  5   9.6   5.2
 10750  17.2  63.0  315   5  3   9.3   5.1 |  17.6  63.7  355  10  5   9.7   5.3
 10500  17.9  64.2  310   5  2   8.8   4.8 |  18.3  64.9  355  10  5   9.0   4.9
 10250  18.5  65.3  295   4  2   8.2   4.5 |  18.9  66.0  350  10  5   8.2   4.5
 10000  19.1  66.4  285   4  2   9.2   5.1 |  19.6  67.3  350   9  5   9.6   5.3
  9750  19.8  67.6  275   4  2  10.1   5.5 |  20.3  68.5  350   9  5  10.7   5.9
  9500  20.6  69.1  260   4  2   9.2   5.1 |  21.1  70.0  350   9  5   9.5   5.2
  9250  21.2  70.2  250   4  2   8.2   4.5 |  21.7  71.1  345   8  4   7.8   4.3
  9000  21.8  71.2  240   5  3   8.6   4.7 |  22.3  72.1  345   7  4   8.5   4.6
  8750  22.5  72.5  230   5  3   9.8   5.4 |  23.0  73.4  345   7  4  10.6   5.8
  8500  23.2  73.8  220   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  23.8  74.8  340   6  3  10.1   5.6
  8250  23.9  75.0  215   6  3   9.2   5.0 |  24.5  76.1  340   6  3   8.8   4.8
  8000  24.6  76.3  215   6  3   8.8   4.9 |  25.1  77.2  335   5  3   8.4   4.6
  7750  25.2  77.4  210   6  3  10.3   5.6 |  25.7  78.3  330   5  3  10.1   5.6
  7500  26.0  78.8  205   6  3   9.0   4.9 |  26.5  79.7  325   4  2   7.8   4.3
  7250  26.5  79.7  210   6  3   6.0   3.3 |  26.7  80.1  325   4  2   3.6   2.0
  7000  26.9  80.4  210   6  3   8.4   4.6 |  27.0  80.6  320   4  2   7.1   3.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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