Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 191216
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0516 MST Wednesday, November 19, 2014

This forecast is for Wednesday, November 19, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 47.5 F/8.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9521 ft MSL (2763 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 45.0 F/7.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8029 ft MSL (1272 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Thursday 11/20..... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1700 MST)......... Little change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1700 MST)................ Neither
Potential height of wave....................... 38987 ft MSL (32229 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Thursday 11/20........ Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:46:19 / 16:42:28 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 56 min 9 sec (596 min 9 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:44:34 MST... 31.53 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 11/19/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 7227 ft MSL (469 ft AGL)
Additional freezing level....... 9658 ft MSL (2900 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 18611 ft MSL (11853 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15218 ft MSL (8460 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +9.0
K index......................... -3.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.0 -83.2   310   52   27  -0.7  -0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -65.1 -85.2   310   76   39  -0.8  -0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -64.2 -83.6   310   96   50   0.7   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -62.2 -80.0   310   98   51   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -58.2 -72.8   310   93   48   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -54.1 -65.4   310   88   46   7.9   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -49.5 -57.1   310   85   44   7.7   4.2      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -44.1 -47.4   315   82   42   8.4   4.6   25.6  78.1    14.1      M    M
 29000  -41.6 -42.9   315   81   42   8.4   4.6   25.0  77.0    13.8      M    M
 28000  -39.1 -38.4   315   80   41   8.4   4.6   24.5  76.2    13.6      M    M
 27000  -36.6 -33.9   320   79   41   7.9   4.3   24.1  75.5    13.4      M    M
 26000  -34.4 -29.9   320   76   39   7.6   4.2   23.2  73.8    12.8      M    M
 25000  -32.1 -25.8   320   73   38   7.6   4.2   22.4  72.4    12.3      M    M
 24000  -29.8 -21.6   320   70   36   7.4   4.0   21.8  71.2    11.9      M    M
 23000  -27.8 -18.0   315   66   34   6.7   3.7   20.6  69.1    11.1      M    M
 22000  -25.8 -14.4   315   62   32   6.7   3.7   19.5  67.2    10.3      M    M
 21000  -23.8 -10.8   315   58   30   6.3   3.5   18.5  65.4     9.5      M    M
 20000  -22.0  -7.6   315   56   29   6.1   3.4   17.2  63.0     8.5      M    M
 19500  -21.1  -6.0   315   55   28   6.1   3.4   16.6  61.9     8.0      M    M
 19000  -20.1  -4.2   315   54   28   6.2   3.4   16.0  60.8     7.5      M    M
 18500  -19.2  -2.6   315   53   27   6.5   3.6   15.4  59.8     7.1      M    M
 18000  -18.2  -0.8   315   51   26   6.9   3.8   14.9  58.9     6.7      M    M
 17500  -17.1   1.2   310   49   25   6.9   3.8   14.5  58.0     6.3      M    M
 17000  -16.0   3.2   310   48   25   8.5   4.7   14.1  57.4     6.1      M    M
 16500  -14.7   5.5   315   46   24   8.4   4.6   13.9  57.0     5.9      M    M
 16000  -13.5   7.7   315   45   23   7.3   4.0   13.6  56.5     5.7      M    M
 15500  -12.4   9.7   315   42   22   7.0   3.8   13.1  55.7     5.3      M    M
 15000  -11.4  11.5   315   40   21   6.8   3.7   12.7  54.9     4.9      M    M
 14500   -9.9  14.2   320   36   18   6.5   3.6   11.9  53.4     4.2      M    M
 14000   -8.9  16.0   320   33   17   6.8   3.7   11.4  52.5     3.8      M    M
 13500   -7.9  17.8   325   30   15   6.8   3.7   10.9  51.7     3.3      M    M
 13000   -6.9  19.6   325   28   14   7.1   3.9   10.5  50.8     2.9      M    M
 12500   -5.9  21.4   330   27   14   7.7   4.2   10.1  50.1     2.5      M    M
 12000   -5.0  23.0   335   25   13   6.2   3.4    9.4  49.0     1.9      M    M
 11750   -4.4  24.1   335   25   13   9.3   5.1    9.3  48.8     1.8      M    M
 11500   -3.7  25.3   335   26   13   8.7   4.8    9.3  48.7     1.8      M    M
 11250   -3.1  26.4   335   26   13   7.9   4.4    9.2  48.5     1.7      M    M
 11000   -2.5  27.5   335   26   13   7.1   3.9    9.0  48.2     1.5      M    M
 10750   -2.0  28.4   335   26   13   7.6   4.2    8.8  47.8     1.3      M    M
 10500   -1.4  29.5   335   26   14   7.6   4.2    8.6  47.5     1.1      M    M
 10250   -0.9  30.4   330   27   14   7.1   3.9    8.5  47.2     1.0      M    M
 10000   -0.4  31.3   330   26   13   5.2   2.8    8.2  46.7     0.7      M    M
  9750   -0.1  31.8   325   24   12   4.5   2.4    7.8  46.0     0.3      M    M
  9500    0.3  32.5   325   23   12   4.7   2.6    7.4  45.3    -0.1    213  1.1
  9250    0.6  33.1   325   21   11   4.7   2.6    7.0  44.6    -0.5    195  1.0
  9000    1.0  33.8   320   20   10   5.1   2.8    6.6  44.0    -0.9    177  0.9
  8750    1.3  34.3   320   17    9   4.3   2.4    6.3  43.3    -1.2    159  0.8
  8500    1.6  34.9   320   15    8   4.7   2.6    5.8  42.5    -1.7    143  0.7
  8250    1.9  35.4   320   13    7   0.2   0.1    5.4  41.7    -2.1    127  0.6
  8000    1.6  34.9   315   13    7  -5.6  -3.1    4.4  39.8    -3.2    129  0.7
  7750    1.3  34.3   315   13    6   0.0   0.0    3.3  38.0    -4.2    130  0.7
  7500    1.3  34.3   305   11    6  -4.9  -2.7    2.6  36.7    -4.9    122  0.6
  7250    0.2  32.4   295    9    5 -23.4 -12.8    1.1  33.9    -6.5    148  0.8
  7000   -2.0  28.4   295    8    4 -30.6 -16.8   -1.3  29.6    -8.9    205  1.0
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           11/19/2014 at 0800 MST          |       11/19/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +2.7  LI... +4.8                | K index... -0.8  LI... +5.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.1 -83.4  305  42 21  -0.9  -0.5 | -64.6 -84.3  300  47 24  -1.4  -0.8
 45000 -65.4 -85.7  305  75 39  -1.1  -0.6 | -66.8 -88.2  305  75 39  -1.9  -1.0
 40000 -63.9 -83.0  305  86 44   1.1   0.6 | -63.9 -83.0  300  80 41   2.1   1.2
 38000 -61.7 -79.1  305  87 45   6.8   3.7 | -61.3 -78.3  300  79 41   6.6   3.6
 36000 -57.6 -71.7  305  86 44   6.8   3.7 | -57.3 -71.1  305  77 39   6.6   3.6
 34000 -53.5 -64.3  310  85 44   7.3   4.0 | -53.3 -63.9  305  74 38   7.6   4.2
 32000 -48.6 -55.5  305  81 42   7.3   4.0 | -48.1 -54.6  305  72 37   7.6   4.1
 30000 -44.0 -47.2  305  78 40   8.2   4.5 | -43.5 -46.3  305  70 36   8.0   4.4
 29000 -41.6 -42.9  305  77 40   8.2   4.5 | -41.1 -42.0  305  69 35   8.0   4.4
 28000 -39.1 -38.4  310  76 39   8.2   4.5 | -38.7 -37.7  300  68 35   8.1   4.4
 27000 -36.7 -34.1  310  74 38   8.3   4.5 | -36.3 -33.3  300  66 34   8.5   4.6
 26000 -34.2 -29.6  310  72 37   8.3   4.5 | -33.7 -28.7  300  63 32   8.6   4.7
 25000 -31.7 -25.1  310  70 36   8.3   4.5 | -31.1 -24.0  305  60 31   8.6   4.7
 24000 -29.2 -20.6  315  67 35   8.1   4.4 | -28.6 -19.5  305  57 29   8.3   4.5
 23000 -27.0 -16.6  315  66 34   7.5   4.1 | -26.2 -15.2  305  56 29   7.9   4.3
 22000 -24.7 -12.5  315  64 33   7.6   4.2 | -23.9 -11.0  310  55 29   7.9   4.3
 21000 -22.5  -8.5  315  63 32   6.1   3.3 | -21.6  -6.9  310  55 28   6.4   3.5
 20000 -20.9  -5.6  315  59 30   5.5   3.0 | -19.8  -3.6  310  52 27   6.1   3.4
 19500 -20.1  -4.2  315  57 29   5.4   3.0 | -18.9  -2.0  310  51 26   6.1   3.4
 19000 -19.3  -2.7  315  55 28   5.4   3.0 | -18.0  -0.4  310  50 26   6.1   3.4
 18500 -18.5  -1.3  315  53 27   5.2   2.8 | -17.1   1.2  310  49 25   5.3   2.9
 18000 -17.8  -0.0  310  50 26   4.9   2.7 | -16.4   2.5  310  48 25   4.7   2.6
 17500 -17.0   1.4  310  47 24   4.9   2.7 | -15.7   3.7  310  47 24   4.7   2.6
 17000 -16.3   2.7  310  44 23   5.3   2.9 | -14.9   5.2  310  46 23   5.6   3.1
 16500 -15.5   4.1  310  41 21   5.2   2.8 | -14.0   6.8  310  43 22   5.4   3.0
 16000 -14.6   5.7  310  39 20   6.6   3.6 | -12.5   9.5  310  40 20   7.9   4.3
 15500 -13.0   8.6  310  33 17   6.9   3.8 | -11.3  11.7  310  38 19   7.9   4.4
 15000 -11.9  10.6  315  29 15   7.8   4.3 | -10.2  13.6  315  35 18   6.8   3.7
 14500 -10.7  12.7  315  26 14   7.8   4.3 |  -9.1  15.6  315  33 17   7.0   3.8
 14000  -9.6  14.7  320  24 12   7.6   4.1 |  -8.2  17.2  315  31 16   5.5   3.0
 13500  -8.4  16.9  325  25 13   7.5   4.1 |  -7.4  18.7  315  27 14   5.3   2.9
 13000  -7.3  18.9  330  25 13   7.8   4.3 |  -6.5  20.3  315  24 12   6.0   3.3
 12500  -6.1  21.0  330  25 13   8.1   4.4 |  -5.6  21.9  315  22 11   6.6   3.6
 12000  -5.1  22.8  335  24 13   6.4   3.5 |  -4.8  23.4  315  18  9   5.2   2.8
 11750  -4.6  23.7  335  24 12   7.2   4.0 |  -4.3  24.3  315  17  9   6.7   3.7
 11500  -4.1  24.6  330  23 12   7.3   4.0 |  -3.9  25.0  315  16  8   6.6   3.6
 11250  -3.5  25.7  330  22 11   6.1   3.4 |  -3.4  25.9  315  15  8   5.7   3.1
 11000  -3.1  26.4  330  22 11   5.4   2.9 |  -3.0  26.6  315  14  7   5.5   3.0
 10750  -2.7  27.1  330  20 10   5.9   3.3 |  -2.5  27.5  310  13  7   6.3   3.4
 10500  -2.3  27.9  330  18  9   6.1   3.3 |  -2.1  28.2  310  12  6   6.2   3.4
 10250  -1.8  28.8  330  16  8   5.0   2.8 |  -1.6  29.1  305  11  6   5.7   3.1
 10000  -1.5  29.3  330  14  7   3.5   1.9 |  -1.2  29.8  300  10  5   5.0   2.7
  9750  -1.2  29.8  325  12  6   5.5   3.0 |  -0.9  30.4  295   9  5   6.1   3.3
  9500  -0.7  30.7  325   9  5   7.1   3.9 |  -0.4  31.3  290   8  4   7.1   3.9
  9250  -0.3  31.5  320   7  4   6.1   3.4 |   0.1  32.2  280   7  4   6.0   3.3
  9000   0.2  32.4  315   6  3   5.3   2.9 |   0.5  32.9  275   6  3   4.7   2.6
  8750   0.5  32.9  310   4  2   5.9   3.2 |   0.9  33.6  270   5  3   4.6   2.5
  8500   1.0  33.8  300   3  1   6.8   3.7 |   1.1  34.0  265   5  2   4.5   2.5
  8250   1.4  34.5  285   2  1   3.3   1.8 |   1.5  34.7  255   4  2   6.8   3.8
  8000   1.5  34.7  290   3  1  -0.1  -0.1 |   2.1  35.8  250   3  2   8.8   4.8
  7750   1.6  34.9  290   4  2   2.9   1.6 |   2.7  36.9  240   3  1   7.9   4.3
  7500   1.7  35.1  280   5  2  -2.3  -1.2 |   3.3  37.9  220   2  1   7.8   4.3
  7250   1.0  33.8  280   5  3 -13.3  -7.3 |   3.8  38.8  205   2  1   8.3   4.6
  7000  -0.1  31.8  285   5  3 -14.2  -7.8 |   4.4  39.9  200   2  1   8.4   4.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           11/19/2014 at 1400 MST          |       11/19/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -6.9  LI... +5.1                | K index... -6.5  LI... +4.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.1
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.8 -82.8  300  50 26  -0.8  -0.4 | -65.8 -86.4  300  47 24   0.4   0.2
 45000 -65.0 -85.0  300  69 36  -0.9  -0.5 | -65.2 -85.4  300  66 34   0.4   0.2
 40000 -64.1 -83.4  300  73 38   0.6   0.3 | -63.9 -83.0  300  61 32   0.8   0.4
 38000 -61.4 -78.5  300  72 37   7.4   4.0 | -61.3 -78.3  295  60 31   7.1   3.9
 36000 -57.0 -70.6  300  68 35   7.4   4.0 | -57.1 -70.8  295  59 30   7.1   3.9
 34000 -52.6 -62.7  300  65 34   7.8   4.3 | -52.7 -62.9  295  58 30   7.7   4.2
 32000 -47.9 -54.2  300  65 33   7.8   4.3 | -48.1 -54.6  295  58 30   7.7   4.3
 30000 -43.2 -45.8  300  64 33   8.2   4.5 | -43.3 -45.9  295  57 29   8.7   4.8
 29000 -40.7 -41.3  300  64 33   8.2   4.5 | -40.7 -41.3  295  56 29   8.7   4.8
 28000 -38.3 -36.9  300  64 33   8.2   4.5 | -38.1 -36.6  295  54 28   8.7   4.8
 27000 -35.2 -31.4  300  63 32   8.0   4.4 | -34.9 -30.8  295  52 27   7.9   4.3
 26000 -32.9 -27.2  300  60 31   8.0   4.4 | -32.5 -26.5  295  50 26   7.9   4.4
 25000 -30.5 -22.9  300  58 30   8.0   4.4 | -30.2 -22.4  295  47 24   8.0   4.4
 24000 -28.1 -18.6  300  55 28   7.7   4.2 | -27.8 -18.0  295  45 23   7.6   4.2
 23000 -25.9 -14.6  300  54 28   7.6   4.1 | -25.6 -14.1  300  46 24   7.3   4.0
 22000 -23.7 -10.7  305  54 28   7.6   4.2 | -23.5 -10.3  305  47 24   7.3   4.0
 21000 -21.4  -6.5  305  53 27   7.2   4.0 | -21.3  -6.3  305  47 24   7.4   4.0
 20000 -19.3  -2.7  305  51 26   7.2   3.9 | -19.1  -2.4  305  45 23   7.4   4.0
 19500 -18.2  -0.8  305  50 26   7.2   3.9 | -18.0  -0.4  305  44 22   7.4   4.0
 19000 -17.2   1.0  305  49 25   7.2   3.9 | -16.9   1.6  305  42 22   7.4   4.0
 18500 -16.1   3.0  305  48 25   6.8   3.8 | -15.8   3.6  305  41 21   7.4   4.0
 18000 -15.1   4.8  305  47 24   6.7   3.7 | -14.7   5.5  305  40 21   7.4   4.0
 17500 -14.1   6.6  305  47 24   6.6   3.6 | -13.6   7.5  310  39 20   7.4   4.0
 17000 -13.1   8.4  310  46 24   6.2   3.4 | -12.5   9.5  310  39 20   7.2   4.0
 16500 -12.2  10.0  310  45 23   6.3   3.5 | -11.4  11.5  315  38 20   7.3   4.0
 16000 -11.3  11.7  310  43 22   5.9   3.2 | -10.4  13.3  315  38 19   6.5   3.6
 15500 -10.4  13.3  310  41 21   5.9   3.2 |  -9.4  15.1  315  36 19   6.4   3.5
 15000  -9.5  14.9  310  38 20   5.8   3.2 |  -8.4  16.9  315  35 18   6.2   3.4
 14500  -8.6  16.5  315  35 18   5.8   3.2 |  -7.5  18.5  320  33 17   6.1   3.3
 14000  -7.3  18.9  315  31 16   6.1   3.4 |  -6.6  20.1  320  31 16   5.9   3.3
 13500  -6.3  20.7  315  28 15   6.2   3.4 |  -5.3  22.5  320  29 15   5.3   2.9
 13000  -5.4  22.3  315  26 13   6.2   3.4 |  -4.5  23.9  320  27 14   5.3   2.9
 12500  -4.5  23.9  315  23 12   6.3   3.5 |  -3.8  25.2  315  26 13   5.6   3.1
 12000  -3.7  25.3  310  19 10   5.2   2.9 |  -3.2  26.2  315  24 12   3.4   1.9
 11750  -3.2  26.2  310  18  9   6.0   3.3 |  -2.9  26.8  315  23 12   5.2   2.8
 11500  -2.8  27.0  310  17  9   5.6   3.1 |  -2.5  27.5  310  23 12   5.2   2.8
 11250  -2.4  27.7  310  17  9   6.5   3.5 |  -2.2  28.0  310  22 11   3.7   2.0
 11000  -1.9  28.6  310  16  8   5.7   3.1 |  -2.0  28.4  310  21 11   4.5   2.5
 10750  -1.6  29.1  310  15  8   4.4   2.4 |  -1.5  29.3  305  20 10   6.7   3.7
 10500  -1.3  29.7  305  15  8   4.8   2.7 |  -1.1  30.0  305  20 10   6.3   3.4
 10250  -0.9  30.4  305  14  7   4.6   2.5 |  -0.6  30.9  300  19 10   6.2   3.4
 10000  -0.6  30.9  300  14  7   4.7   2.6 |  -0.2  31.6  295  18  9   6.1   3.4
  9750  -0.2  31.6  300  13  6   5.6   3.1 |   0.3  32.5  295  17  9   7.3   4.0
  9500   0.2  32.4  295  11  6   6.1   3.3 |   0.8  33.4  290  16  8   8.2   4.5
  9250   0.6  33.1  290  10  5   5.7   3.1 |   1.3  34.3  290  15  8   7.2   3.9
  9000   0.9  33.6  280   8  4   4.5   2.5 |   1.7  35.1  285  13  7   4.6   2.5
  8750   1.3  34.3  275   6  3   7.3   4.0 |   2.1  35.8  285  11  6   5.1   2.8
  8500   2.0  35.6  265   5  3  10.0   5.5 |   2.5  36.5  280   9  5   7.3   4.0
  8250   2.6  36.7  255   4  2   9.3   5.1 |   3.0  37.4  275   7  4   4.3   2.3
  8000   3.3  37.9  245   4  2   9.6   5.3 |   3.1  37.6  265   6  3   0.1   0.1
  7750   4.0  39.2  240   3  2   9.1   5.0 |   3.1  37.6  245   5  2   3.2   1.7
  7500   4.7  40.5  230   3  2   8.3   4.6 |   3.5  38.3  220   4  2   4.6   2.5
  7250   5.3  41.5  225   3  2   7.7   4.2 |   3.5  38.3  195   4  2  -5.2  -2.9
  7000   5.8  42.4  220   3  2   7.1   3.9 |   2.7  36.9  185   3  2 -16.1  -8.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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