Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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725
UXUS97 KPUB 021213
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0513 MST Tuesday, February 2, 2016

This forecast is for Tuesday, February 2, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 21.2 F/-6.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9123 ft MSL (1952 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 17.0 F/-8.8 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ More than 30 mph
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 02/03.... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:04:35 / 17:19:49 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 15 min 14 sec (615 min 14 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:12:34 MST... 34.29 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 02/02/2016 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 10890 ft MSL (3719 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 10087 ft MSL (2916 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +13.1
K index......................... -2.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -50.0 -58.0   235   42   22   3.0   1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -45.2 -49.4   225   46   24   3.0   1.6      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -43.8 -46.8   230   39   20   0.6   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -43.5 -46.3   235   35   18   0.2   0.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -43.6 -46.5   240   31   16  -0.3  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -43.8 -46.8   240   27   14  -0.3  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -44.4 -47.9   235   21   11  -1.8  -1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -45.5 -49.9   220   14    7  -1.8  -1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -46.0 -50.8   210   11    6  -0.7  -0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 28000  -45.6 -50.1   150   16    8   1.2   0.6   19.6  67.3    21.7      M    M
 27000  -45.3 -49.5   135   25   13   1.2   0.7   16.3  61.3    19.4      M    M
 26000  -44.9 -48.8   125   35   18   1.2   0.6   13.2  55.7    17.1      M    M
 25000  -43.6 -46.5   125   32   17   5.4   3.0   11.1  52.1    15.7      M    M
 24000  -42.0 -43.6   130   26   13   5.4   2.9    9.5  49.1    14.6      M    M
 23000  -40.4 -40.7   135   20   10   5.4   2.9    8.0  46.4    13.5      M    M
 22000  -38.2 -36.8   150   10    5   7.6   4.2    7.0  44.6    12.8      M    M
 21000  -35.9 -32.6   240    5    2   7.6   4.2    6.2  43.2    12.3      M    M
 20000  -33.6 -28.5   285   13    7   7.8   4.3    5.6  42.0    11.9      M    M
 19500  -32.4 -26.3   295   13    7   7.9   4.3    5.2  41.4    11.7      M    M
 19000  -31.3 -24.3   300   13    7   7.9   4.3    4.9  40.8    11.4      M    M
 18500  -30.1 -22.2   310   14    7   7.9   4.4    4.6  40.2    11.2      M    M
 18000  -28.9 -20.0   315   15    8   8.0   4.4    4.3  39.7    11.1      M    M
 17500  -27.7 -17.9   320   16    8   7.0   3.9    4.0  39.1    10.8      M    M
 17000  -26.7 -16.1   330   17    9   6.8   3.7    3.5  38.2    10.4      M    M
 16500  -25.7 -14.3   335   19   10   6.4   3.5    3.0  37.4    10.1      M    M
 16000  -24.8 -12.6   340   20   10   5.6   3.1    2.3  36.1     9.5      M    M
 15500  -24.0 -11.2   350   22   11   5.6   3.1    1.6  34.9     8.9      M    M
 15000  -23.3  -9.9   355   25   13   4.4   2.4    0.8  33.5     8.3      M    M
 14500  -22.6  -8.7   360   28   14   4.5   2.5   -0.0  31.9     7.5      M    M
 14000  -21.9  -7.4   360   30   16   4.6   2.5   -0.9  30.4     6.8      M    M
 13500  -21.2  -6.2   005   33   17   4.6   2.5   -1.7  28.9     6.0      M    M
 13000  -20.5  -4.9   005   35   18   5.1   2.8   -2.5  27.5     5.3      M    M
 12500  -19.8  -3.6   005   37   19   5.3   2.9   -3.3  26.1     4.6      M    M
 12000  -19.1  -2.4   005   38   20   3.4   1.9   -4.1  24.6     3.8      M    M
 11750  -18.9  -2.0   005   38   20   3.5   1.9   -4.6  23.7     3.4      M    M
 11500  -18.6  -1.5   005   38   20   3.0   1.6   -5.1  22.8     2.9      M    M
 11250  -18.4  -1.1   360   38   20   4.9   2.7   -5.6  21.9     2.4      M    M
 11000  -17.9  -0.2   360   38   19   7.5   4.1   -5.9  21.4     2.2      M    M
 10750  -17.3   0.9   360   37   19   6.4   3.5   -6.1  21.1     2.0      M    M
 10500  -16.5   2.3   360   37   19   6.0   3.3   -6.7  19.9     1.3      M    M
 10250  -16.0   3.2   360   37   19   6.5   3.6   -7.0  19.4     1.1      M    M
 10000  -15.6   3.9   005   36   19   6.7   3.7   -7.2  19.0     0.8      M    M
  9750  -15.1   4.8   005   36   19   7.1   3.9   -7.5  18.6     0.6      M    M
  9500  -14.6   5.7   005   36   18   5.9   3.2   -7.7  18.1     0.4      M    M
  9250  -14.2   6.4   360   36   18   5.2   2.8   -8.0  17.5     0.0      M    M
  9000  -13.8   7.2   360   36   19   5.1   2.8   -8.4  16.9    -0.3    141  0.7
  8750  -13.4   7.9   355   36   19   7.1   3.9   -8.7  16.3    -0.6    121  0.6
  8500  -12.7   9.1   355   35   18   9.0   4.9   -8.8  16.2    -0.7     95  0.5
  8250  -12.1  10.2   355   34   17   8.6   4.7   -8.9  16.0    -0.8     68  0.3
  8000  -11.5  11.3   350   33   17   8.5   4.7   -9.0  15.9    -0.9     41  0.2
  7750  -10.8  12.6   350   30   16   8.4   4.6   -9.1  15.7    -1.0     16  0.1
  7500  -10.2  13.6   350   25   13   8.9   4.9   -9.2  15.5    -1.1      M    M
  7250   -9.6  14.7   345   20   10   7.7   4.2   -9.2  15.4    -1.2      M    M
  7000      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           02/02/2016 at 0800 MST          |       02/02/2016 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -0.5  LI... +278.8              | K index... +0.3  LI... +278.8
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... 0.0                    | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -49.4 -56.9  225  37 19   2.4   1.3 | -49.4 -56.9  225  34 18   2.3   1.3
 45000 -45.8 -50.4  225  44 23   2.4   1.3 | -45.9 -50.6  230  42 21   2.3   1.3
 40000 -44.4 -47.9  230  38 20   0.5   0.3 | -45.2 -49.4  230  35 18   0.1   0.0
 38000 -44.1 -47.4  235  36 18   0.0   0.0 | -45.2 -49.4  235  31 16  -0.4  -0.2
 36000 -44.5 -48.1  240  29 15  -0.7  -0.4 | -45.8 -50.4  235  26 13  -1.1  -0.6
 34000 -44.9 -48.8  240  23 12  -0.7  -0.4 | -46.4 -51.5  240  21 11  -1.1  -0.6
 32000 -45.6 -50.1  240  16  8  -1.9  -1.0 | -47.1 -52.8  235  14  7  -1.1  -0.6
 30000 -46.8 -52.2  215   8  4  -1.9  -1.0 | -47.8 -54.0  205   8  4  -1.1  -0.6
 29000 -47.4 -53.3  180   6  3  -0.2  -0.1 | -48.1 -54.6  170   7  4   0.6   0.3
 28000 -46.7 -52.1  135  11  6   2.2   1.2 | -47.4 -53.3  150  10  5   2.4   1.3
 27000 -45.9 -50.6  120  21 11   2.2   1.2 | -46.7 -52.1  140  14  7   2.5   1.3
 26000 -45.3 -49.5  120  30 15   2.4   1.3 | -46.0 -50.8  135  18  9   2.3   1.3
 25000 -43.8 -46.8  120  22 12   5.5   3.0 | -44.2 -47.6  135  12  6   5.9   3.2
 24000 -42.1 -43.8  135  12  6   5.5   3.0 | -42.4 -44.3  150   3  2   5.9   3.2
 23000 -40.5 -40.9  200   6  3   5.7   3.1 | -40.6 -41.1  295   6  3   6.2   3.4
 22000 -38.2 -36.8  260   6  3   8.0   4.4 | -38.3 -36.9  320   8  4   8.1   4.5
 21000 -35.8 -32.4  295  10  5   8.0   4.4 | -35.9 -32.6  340  10  5   8.1   4.5
 20000 -33.5 -28.3  310  15  8   7.6   4.2 | -33.6 -28.5  350  13  7   6.2   3.4
 19500 -32.3 -26.1  315  14  7   7.6   4.2 | -32.7 -26.9  345  13  7   6.0   3.3
 19000 -31.2 -24.2  325  14  7   7.6   4.2 | -31.8 -25.2  340  13  7   6.0   3.3
 18500 -30.1 -22.2  330  14  7   7.6   4.2 | -30.9 -23.6  335  14  7   6.0   3.3
 18000 -28.9 -20.0  335  14  7   7.7   4.2 | -30.0 -22.0  330  14  7   6.0   3.3
 17500 -27.9 -18.2  340  14  7   6.4   3.5 | -29.1 -20.4  330  15  8   5.2   2.8
 17000 -26.9 -16.4  345  15  8   6.1   3.3 | -28.4 -19.1  330  16  8   5.1   2.8
 16500 -26.0 -14.8  350  16  8   4.6   2.5 | -27.6 -17.7  330  16  8   5.5   3.0
 16000 -25.6 -14.1  355  18  9   2.3   1.3 | -26.7 -16.1  330  18  9   5.9   3.2
 15500 -25.3 -13.5  360  20 10   2.5   1.4 | -25.8 -14.4  330  19 10   5.4   3.0
 15000 -24.7 -12.5  005  23 12   4.7   2.6 | -25.2 -13.4  335  21 11   3.4   1.9
 14500 -24.1 -11.4  005  25 13   4.5   2.5 | -24.7 -12.5  340  23 12   3.5   1.9
 14000 -23.4 -10.1  010  28 14   4.9   2.7 | -24.2 -11.6  345  24 13   3.4   1.8
 13500 -22.7  -8.9  010  31 16   4.7   2.6 | -23.7 -10.7  350  26 13   3.2   1.8
 13000 -21.9  -7.4  010  33 17   6.2   3.4 | -23.0  -9.4  350  26 14   6.0   3.3
 12500 -21.0  -5.8  010  34 18   6.0   3.3 | -22.2  -8.0  355  26 13   5.6   3.1
 12000 -20.0  -4.0  010  34 17   6.4   3.5 | -21.1  -6.0  355  25 13   8.6   4.7
 11750 -19.6  -3.3  015  33 17   4.8   2.6 | -20.5  -4.9  360  26 13   6.6   3.6
 11500 -19.3  -2.7  015  32 16   3.4   1.9 | -20.1  -4.2  360  26 13   5.8   3.2
 11250 -19.0  -2.2  015  31 16   5.9   3.2 | -19.6  -3.3  005  26 13   6.8   3.7
 11000 -18.4  -1.1  015  32 16   8.3   4.6 | -19.1  -2.4  005  27 14   7.3   4.0
 10750 -17.8  -0.0  015  32 16   6.8   3.7 | -18.5  -1.3  010  28 14   7.1   3.9
 10500 -17.4   0.7  015  32 16   5.8   3.2 | -18.0  -0.4  015  28 15   7.0   3.9
 10250 -16.5   2.3  015  33 17   5.8   3.2 | -17.5   0.5  015  29 15   6.9   3.8
 10000 -16.1   3.0  010  35 18   6.5   3.6 | -16.5   2.3  015  31 16   6.5   3.5
  9750 -15.5   4.1  010  36 19   7.8   4.3 | -16.0   3.2  015  32 16   6.7   3.7
  9500 -15.0   5.0  005  37 19   7.4   4.1 | -15.5   4.1  010  32 16   7.8   4.3
  9250 -14.5   5.9  005  37 19   6.5   3.6 | -14.9   5.2  005  31 16   7.7   4.2
  9000 -13.9   7.0  360  37 19   7.7   4.2 | -14.3   6.3  360  30 16   8.3   4.6
  8750 -13.4   7.9  360  37 19   7.3   4.0 | -13.6   7.5  360  30 15   9.4   5.2
  8500 -12.9   8.8  355  35 18   6.0   3.3 | -12.9   8.8  360  29 15   9.6   5.3
  8250 -12.4   9.7  355  33 17   6.2   3.4 | -12.2  10.0  355  28 14   9.5   5.2
  8000 -12.0  10.4  350  31 16   6.7   3.7 | -11.5  11.3  355  27 14   9.8   5.4
  7750 -11.4  11.5  345  29 15   8.2   4.5 | -10.7  12.7  355  25 13  12.3   6.8
  7500 -10.8  12.6  345  24 12   8.7   4.8 |  -9.7  14.5  355  22 11  15.5   8.5
  7250 -10.1  13.8  340  19 10   8.5   4.6 |  -8.7  16.3  355  18  9  10.3   5.6
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           02/02/2016 at 1400 MST          |       02/02/2016 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -0.6  LI... +278.2              | K index... -2.7  LI... +277.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.4                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -49.1 -56.4  225  31 16   2.1   1.2 | -49.0 -56.2  230  29 15   2.3   1.2
 45000 -45.9 -50.6  235  35 18   2.1   1.2 | -45.6 -50.1  240  30 16   2.3   1.3
 40000 -45.5 -49.9  235  32 17  -0.1  -0.1 | -46.0 -50.8  250  29 15  -0.8  -0.4
 38000 -45.5 -49.9  235  31 16  -0.6  -0.3 | -46.5 -51.7  255  28 14  -0.7  -0.4
 36000 -46.4 -51.5  240  26 13  -1.6  -0.9 | -47.7 -53.9  255  24 13  -2.0  -1.1
 34000 -47.4 -53.3  240  20 10  -1.6  -0.9 | -48.9 -56.0  260  21 11  -2.0  -1.1
 32000 -48.2 -54.8  240  16  8  -1.2  -0.7 | -50.0 -58.0  265  18  9  -1.5  -0.8
 30000 -48.9 -56.0  235  12  6  -1.2  -0.6 | -50.9 -59.6  275  15  8  -1.5  -0.8
 29000 -49.3 -56.7  230  11  6   0.6   0.3 | -51.3 -60.3  280  13  7   1.1   0.6
 28000 -48.6 -55.5  220   8  4   2.3   1.3 | -50.5 -58.9  280  10  5   2.9   1.6
 27000 -47.9 -54.2  195   7  4   2.3   1.3 | -49.6 -57.3  275   7  4   2.9   1.6
 26000 -47.2 -53.0  165   7  4   2.1   1.2 | -48.7 -55.7  260   4  2   2.5   1.4
 25000 -45.0 -49.0  145   3  1   7.3   4.0 | -46.7 -52.1  270   3  2   8.4   4.6
 24000 -42.8 -45.0  360   3  2   7.3   4.0 | -44.2 -47.6  290   5  2   8.4   4.6
 23000 -40.6 -41.1  350   8  4   7.4   4.1 | -41.0 -41.8  305   7  3   8.3   4.5
 22000 -38.3 -36.9  340  10  5   7.6   4.2 | -38.6 -37.5  300  10  5   8.0   4.4
 21000 -36.1 -33.0  335  11  6   7.7   4.2 | -36.2 -33.2  300  14  7   8.0   4.4
 20000 -33.9 -29.0  330  13  7   5.9   3.2 | -34.1 -29.4  300  18  9   4.4   2.4
 19500 -33.0 -27.4  325  15  8   5.8   3.2 | -33.4 -28.1  305  20 10   4.7   2.6
 19000 -32.1 -25.8  325  17  9   5.8   3.2 | -32.7 -26.9  310  22 11   4.7   2.6
 18500 -31.3 -24.3  320  19 10   5.8   3.2 | -32.0 -25.6  315  24 12   4.7   2.6
 18000 -30.4 -22.7  320  21 11   5.9   3.2 | -31.3 -24.3  315  26 14   4.4   2.4
 17500 -29.6 -21.3  320  22 11   5.1   2.8 | -30.4 -22.7  320  27 14   7.2   3.9
 17000 -28.8 -19.8  325  23 12   5.1   2.8 | -29.4 -20.9  320  27 14   6.9   3.8
 16500 -28.1 -18.6  325  24 12   5.6   3.1 | -28.4 -19.1  325  28 14   7.3   4.0
 16000 -27.2 -17.0  330  25 13   6.0   3.3 | -27.3 -17.1  325  28 14   7.4   4.0
 15500 -26.3 -15.3  330  26 13   6.0   3.3 | -26.1 -15.0  330  28 14   6.6   3.6
 15000 -25.4 -13.7  335  26 14   6.1   3.4 | -25.3 -13.5  335  28 14   5.6   3.1
 14500 -24.5 -12.1  335  27 14   6.0   3.3 | -24.5 -12.1  335  28 14   5.4   3.0
 14000 -23.8 -10.8  335  28 14   4.0   2.2 | -23.7 -10.7  345  28 14   4.8   2.7
 13500 -23.1  -9.6  340  29 15   4.1   2.2 | -23.0  -9.4  350  28 14   4.9   2.7
 13000 -22.4  -8.3  340  30 15   5.3   2.9 | -22.3  -8.1  355  28 14   4.8   2.7
 12500 -21.7  -7.1  340  30 16   5.2   2.9 | -21.6  -6.9  360  28 14   5.0   2.7
 12000 -20.7  -5.3  340  30 15   7.3   4.0 | -20.7  -5.3  005  28 15   5.9   3.2
 11750 -20.2  -4.4  345  30 15   5.5   3.0 | -20.3  -4.5  005  28 15   5.0   2.7
 11500 -19.9  -3.8  345  30 15   5.0   2.7 | -20.0  -4.0  005  28 15   5.1   2.8
 11250 -19.4  -2.9  345  29 15   6.7   3.7 | -19.5  -3.1  005  28 15   6.5   3.5
 11000 -18.9  -2.0  350  28 15   7.7   4.2 | -19.0  -2.2  005  28 15   7.0   3.8
 10750 -18.3  -0.9  355  28 14   6.9   3.8 | -18.5  -1.3  005  28 15   6.4   3.5
 10500 -17.9  -0.2  360  27 14   6.4   3.5 | -18.1  -0.6  005  28 14   6.6   3.6
 10250 -17.4   0.7  360  27 14   7.0   3.8 | -17.6   0.3  005  28 14   7.5   4.1
 10000 -16.8   1.8  005  27 14   7.2   4.0 | -17.0   1.4  005  28 14   7.6   4.2
  9750 -15.8   3.6  010  27 14   7.2   3.9 | -16.4   2.5  005  28 14   7.3   4.0
  9500 -15.3   4.5  010  26 14   7.6   4.2 | -15.4   4.3  005  28 14   7.2   3.9
  9250 -14.7   5.5  005  26 13   7.4   4.1 | -14.9   5.2  360  28 14   7.3   4.0
  9000 -14.1   6.6  360  26 13   8.0   4.4 | -14.3   6.3  360  28 14   6.9   3.8
  8750 -13.5   7.7  360  25 13   9.5   5.2 | -13.8   7.2  355  27 14   7.3   4.0
  8500 -12.8   9.0  360  25 13  10.1   5.5 | -13.3   8.1  350  25 13   8.0   4.4
  8250 -12.0  10.4  355  24 12  10.2   5.6 | -12.7   9.1  345  24 12   7.9   4.3
  8000 -11.3  11.7  355  23 12   9.3   5.1 | -12.1  10.2  345  23 12   7.5   4.1
  7750 -10.6  12.9  355  22 11  11.1   6.1 | -11.6  11.1  340  21 11   7.3   4.0
  7500  -9.6  14.7  355  19 10  16.8   9.2 | -11.0  12.2  340  17  9   8.1   4.4
  7250  -8.5  16.7  355  16  8   5.9   3.2 | -10.4  13.3  335  13  7   6.4   3.5
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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