Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 161139
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0439 MST Tuesday, December 16, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, December 16, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 48.5 F/9.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 24 ft/min (0.1 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8217 ft MSL (1459 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 36.0 F/2.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast thin middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 7709 ft MSL (951 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 12/17.... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:11:11 / 16:38:20 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 27 min 9 sec (567 min 9 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:54:47 MST... 27.78 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 12/16/2014 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 19165 ft MSL (12407 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 13479 ft MSL (6721 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +12.4
K index......................... -3.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -60.6 -77.1   255   40   21   3.8   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -55.0 -67.0   260   53   27   2.2   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.2 -63.8   275   68   35   1.2   0.6      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -52.8 -63.0   275   77   40   0.4   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -52.5 -62.5   270   87   45   0.4   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -51.8 -61.2   265   94   49   5.9   3.2      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -48.5 -55.3   270   85   44   5.5   3.0      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -45.0 -49.0   270   75   39   7.9   4.3   25.4  77.7    17.7      M    M
 29000  -42.7 -44.9   270   70   36   7.8   4.3   24.5  76.1    17.2      M    M
 28000  -40.3 -40.5   275   64   33   7.8   4.3   23.8  74.8    16.9      M    M
 27000  -37.4 -35.3   275   57   30   7.8   4.3   23.0  73.4    16.5      M    M
 26000  -35.1 -31.2   280   54   28   7.8   4.3   22.2  71.9    16.0      M    M
 25000  -32.8 -27.0   280   50   26   7.8   4.3   21.5  70.6    15.6      M    M
 24000  -30.4 -22.7   280   47   24   7.3   4.0   20.9  69.6    15.3      M    M
 23000  -28.4 -19.1   275   41   21   6.7   3.7   19.7  67.4    14.5      M    M
 22000  -26.4 -15.5   270   36   19   6.7   3.7   18.6  65.5    13.8      M    M
 21000  -24.4 -11.9   270   32   17   7.6   4.2   17.7  63.8    13.1      M    M
 20000  -22.1  -7.8   270   30   16   7.6   4.2   16.9  62.4    12.6      M    M
 19500  -21.0  -5.8   275   30   15   7.6   4.2   16.5  61.7    12.3      M    M
 19000  -19.8  -3.6   275   29   15   7.6   4.2   16.2  61.2    12.1      M    M
 18500  -18.7  -1.7   275   28   14   9.0   4.9   15.9  60.7    11.9      M    M
 18000  -17.2   1.0   280   28   14   9.5   5.2   15.9  60.6    11.9      M    M
 17500  -15.8   3.6   285   27   14   9.3   5.1   15.9  60.5    12.0      M    M
 17000  -14.5   5.9   285   27   14   7.8   4.3   15.6  60.1    11.9      M    M
 16500  -13.4   7.9   290   27   14   7.9   4.3   15.3  59.6    11.6      M    M
 16000  -12.2  10.0   295   27   14   7.8   4.3   15.0  59.0    11.4      M    M
 15500  -11.0  12.2   295   27   14   7.8   4.3   14.7  58.4    11.2      M    M
 15000   -9.9  14.2   295   27   14   7.6   4.2   14.3  57.8    10.9      M    M
 14500   -8.8  16.2   295   26   13   7.4   4.1   14.0  57.1    10.6      M    M
 14000   -7.2  19.0   300   25   13   6.3   3.4   13.3  56.0    10.2      M    M
 13500   -6.2  20.8   295   24   12   6.3   3.4   12.8  55.0     9.7      M    M
 13000   -5.3  22.5   295   22   11   6.1   3.4   12.2  54.0     9.2      M    M
 12500   -4.4  24.1   290   20   10   6.1   3.3   11.6  52.9     8.7      M    M
 12000   -3.5  25.7   285   18    9   5.9   3.3   11.1  51.9     8.2      M    M
 11750   -3.0  26.6   285   17    9   5.5   3.0   10.7  51.3     7.9      M    M
 11500   -2.6  27.3   280   16    8   6.0   3.3   10.4  50.7     7.7      M    M
 11250   -2.2  28.0   280   16    8   4.5   2.5   10.1  50.2     7.4      M    M
 11000   -1.9  28.6   275   15    8   4.3   2.3    9.6  49.3     6.9      M    M
 10750   -1.5  29.3   275   14    7   5.3   2.9    9.3  48.7     6.6      M    M
 10500   -1.2  29.8   270   13    7   5.4   3.0    8.9  48.0     6.3      M    M
 10250   -0.8  30.6   265   12    6   3.8   2.1    8.6  47.4     5.9      M    M
 10000   -0.7  30.7   260   11    6   0.6   0.3    8.0  46.3     5.3      M    M
  9750   -0.6  30.9   255   11    6   1.7   0.9    7.3  45.1     4.7      M    M
  9500   -0.4  31.3   255   11    5   4.1   2.2    6.7  44.1     4.2      M    M
  9250   -0.2  31.6   250   10    5   0.8   0.4    6.2  43.2     3.7      M    M
  9000   -0.3  31.5   240   11    5  -3.7  -2.0    5.3  41.6     2.8      M    M
  8750   -0.6  30.9   235   11    6  -2.3  -1.3    4.3  39.8     1.8      M    M
  8500   -0.7  30.7   230   12    6  -0.3  -0.2    3.5  38.3     1.0      M    M
  8250   -0.9  30.4   225   12    6  -6.0  -3.3    2.6  36.7     0.1      M    M
  8000   -1.6  29.1   220   12    6 -10.5  -5.8    1.2  34.1    -1.4    238  1.2
  7750   -2.3  27.9   215   12    6  -8.1  -4.5   -0.3  31.5    -2.8    252  1.3
  7500   -2.9  26.8   210   12    6  -8.6  -4.7   -1.6  29.1    -4.2    263  1.3
  7250   -3.7  25.3   205   11    6 -10.9  -6.0   -2.8  27.0    -5.4    279  1.4
  7000   -4.5  23.9   205    8    4 -11.0  -6.0   -3.9  25.0    -6.5    297  1.5
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           12/16/2014 at 0800 MST          |       12/16/2014 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... +7.8  LI... +1.9                | K index... +21.7  LI... +0.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.5
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.9 -77.6  250  39 20   2.7   1.5 | -60.3 -76.5  245  39 20   3.2   1.7
 45000 -57.0 -70.6  250  53 27   1.6   0.9 | -55.7 -68.3  245  53 27   0.4   0.2
 40000 -55.4 -67.7  260  66 34   1.0   0.5 | -56.5 -69.7  250  75 39  -0.6  -0.3
 38000 -54.0 -65.2  260  72 37   3.1   1.7 | -55.7 -68.3  250  82 42   3.4   1.9
 36000 -52.2 -62.0  260  78 40   3.1   1.7 | -53.6 -64.5  250  87 45   3.4   1.9
 34000 -50.2 -58.4  260  82 42   4.2   2.3 | -51.0 -59.8  250  89 46   5.0   2.7
 32000 -47.8 -54.0  260  77 40   4.1   2.3 | -48.0 -54.4  250  80 41   5.1   2.8
 30000 -44.9 -48.8  260  71 36   7.5   4.1 | -44.5 -48.1  245  69 35   8.1   4.4
 29000 -42.7 -44.9  260  64 33   7.4   4.1 | -42.0 -43.6  245  59 31   8.2   4.5
 28000 -40.5 -40.9  260  58 30   7.4   4.1 | -39.5 -39.1  245  50 26   8.2   4.5
 27000 -37.6 -35.7  265  51 26   8.5   4.7 | -37.1 -34.8  240  41 21   8.2   4.5
 26000 -35.1 -31.2  265  49 25   8.7   4.7 | -34.6 -30.3  240  40 21   8.2   4.5
 25000 -32.5 -26.5  265  46 24   8.7   4.8 | -32.2 -26.0  245  39 20   8.3   4.5
 24000 -29.9 -21.8  265  44 23   7.7   4.2 | -29.7 -21.5  245  38 20   7.7   4.2
 23000 -27.9 -18.2  265  40 21   6.9   3.8 | -27.7 -17.9  245  35 18   6.6   3.6
 22000 -25.8 -14.4  265  36 18   6.9   3.8 | -25.7 -14.3  245  33 17   6.6   3.6
 21000 -23.7 -10.7  265  32 17   7.4   4.1 | -23.7 -10.7  245  30 15   7.5   4.1
 20000 -21.5  -6.7  265  31 16   7.4   4.1 | -21.5  -6.7  240  30 15   7.7   4.2
 19500 -20.4  -4.7  265  30 15   7.4   4.1 | -20.3  -4.5  240  30 15   7.7   4.2
 19000 -19.3  -2.7  265  29 15   7.4   4.1 | -19.2  -2.6  240  30 15   7.7   4.2
 18500 -18.2  -0.8  265  28 15   7.6   4.2 | -18.1  -0.6  240  30 15   7.4   4.1
 18000 -17.1   1.2  265  28 14   7.7   4.2 | -17.0   1.4  240  29 15   7.2   3.9
 17500 -15.9   3.4  260  27 14   7.7   4.2 | -15.9   3.4  240  28 15   7.2   3.9
 17000 -14.7   5.5  260  26 13   7.9   4.3 | -14.9   5.2  240  27 14   6.5   3.6
 16500 -13.5   7.7  265  24 12   7.9   4.3 | -14.0   6.8  240  27 14   6.6   3.6
 16000 -12.4   9.7  265  23 12   8.0   4.4 | -12.5   9.5  240  25 13   6.9   3.8
 15500 -11.2  11.8  265  21 11   8.0   4.4 | -11.5  11.3  240  25 13   6.9   3.8
 15000 -10.0  14.0  270  20 10   7.9   4.3 | -10.4  13.3  240  24 12   7.3   4.0
 14500  -8.9  16.0  270  19 10   7.9   4.3 |  -9.4  15.1  240  24 12   7.3   4.0
 14000  -7.7  18.1  275  18  9   8.0   4.4 |  -8.3  17.1  240  23 12   7.5   4.1
 13500  -5.9  21.4  275  17  9   8.1   4.5 |  -7.2  19.0  240  23 12   7.5   4.1
 13000  -4.7  23.5  275  17  9   8.2   4.5 |  -6.0  21.2  240  22 12   9.1   5.0
 12500  -3.4  25.9  270  17  9   8.5   4.7 |  -4.6  23.7  240  22 11  10.1   5.5
 12000  -2.3  27.9  270  16  8   6.8   3.7 |  -3.5  25.7  240  22 11   6.8   3.8
 11750  -1.8  28.8  265  16  8   7.4   4.1 |  -2.8  27.0  240  22 11   9.8   5.4
 11500  -1.2  29.8  265  15  8   7.7   4.2 |  -2.1  28.2  245  22 11   9.1   5.0
 11250  -0.7  30.7  265  15  8   5.9   3.2 |  -1.4  29.5  245  21 11   8.9   4.9
 11000  -0.3  31.5  260  15  8   5.0   2.7 |  -0.7  30.7  245  21 11   8.6   4.7
 10750   0.1  32.2  260  14  7   6.0   3.3 |  -0.1  31.8  245  21 11   8.6   4.7
 10500   0.6  33.1  260  14  7   6.3   3.4 |   0.6  33.1  245  20 11   9.1   5.0
 10250   1.0  33.8  255  13  7   4.2   2.3 |   1.2  34.2  250  20 10   7.1   3.9
 10000   1.2  34.2  255  13  7   0.5   0.3 |   1.6  34.9  250  20 10   3.1   1.7
  9750   1.2  34.2  250  13  7   1.4   0.8 |   1.9  35.4  250  19 10   4.3   2.4
  9500   1.4  34.5  250  12  6   4.0   2.2 |   2.3  36.1  250  19 10   7.7   4.2
  9250   1.6  34.9  245  12  6  -0.1  -0.1 |   2.8  37.0  250  18  9   2.5   1.4
  9000   1.3  34.3  240  12  6  -6.3  -3.4 |   2.7  36.9  245  18  9  -4.6  -2.5
  8750   0.9  33.6  235  13  6  -4.3  -2.3 |   2.3  36.1  240  17  9  -7.4  -4.1
  8500   0.7  33.3  230  13  6  -0.8  -0.4 |   1.6  34.9  235  17  9  -8.8  -4.8
  8250   0.5  32.9  225  13  7  -8.1  -4.4 |   1.0  33.8  235  16  8  -8.0  -4.4
  8000  -0.5  31.1  220  13  6 -14.7  -8.1 |   0.4  32.7  225  15  8  -8.9  -4.9
  7750  -1.5  29.3  215  12  6  -9.6  -5.3 |  -0.2  31.6  215  13  7  -5.5  -3.0
  7500  -2.1  28.2  210  13  7  -8.1  -4.4 |  -0.4  31.3  200  12  6   1.3   0.7
  7250  -2.9  26.8  205  11  6 -12.7  -7.0 |  -0.2  31.6  190  11  6   4.3   2.4
  7000  -3.9  25.0  205   8  4 -13.6  -7.5 |   0.2  32.4  190  10  5   5.3   2.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           12/16/2014 at 1400 MST          |       12/16/2014 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +6.1  LI... +2.1                | K index... +13.1  LI... +2.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.5 -75.1  240  42 22   2.9   1.6 | -59.7 -75.5  235  44 23   3.0   1.6
 45000 -55.3 -67.5  240  61 31   0.6   0.4 | -55.0 -67.0  240  66 34   1.2   0.7
 40000 -56.2 -69.2  245  76 39  -0.6  -0.4 | -55.8 -68.4  240  75 39  -0.5  -0.3
 38000 -55.7 -68.3  245  81 42   2.5   1.4 | -55.2 -67.4  240  79 40   2.5   1.3
 36000 -54.2 -65.6  245  86 44   2.5   1.4 | -53.8 -64.8  240  83 43   2.5   1.3
 34000 -52.0 -61.6  245  87 45   5.8   3.2 | -52.2 -62.0  240  86 44   5.1   2.8
 32000 -48.5 -55.3  240  76 39   5.9   3.2 | -48.6 -55.5  240  78 40   5.3   2.9
 30000 -44.5 -48.1  240  65 34   8.6   4.7 | -45.0 -49.0  240  70 36   7.8   4.3
 29000 -41.9 -43.4  240  58 30   8.7   4.8 | -42.7 -44.9  240  64 33   7.8   4.3
 28000 -39.3 -38.7  240  51 26   8.7   4.8 | -40.3 -40.5  240  59 30   7.8   4.3
 27000 -36.7 -34.1  240  44 23   8.4   4.6 | -38.0 -36.4  240  53 27   8.0   4.4
 26000 -34.2 -29.6  240  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -35.6 -32.1  240  51 26   8.2   4.5
 25000 -31.8 -25.2  240  46 23   8.2   4.5 | -33.1 -27.6  240  48 25   8.2   4.5
 24000 -29.3 -20.7  240  46 24   8.0   4.4 | -30.6 -23.1  245  46 24   8.2   4.5
 23000 -27.1 -16.8  240  46 24   7.4   4.0 | -28.3 -18.9  240  44 23   7.7   4.2
 22000 -24.9 -12.8  240  46 24   7.4   4.1 | -26.0 -14.8  240  43 22   7.7   4.2
 21000 -22.7  -8.9  245  45 23   5.9   3.2 | -23.7 -10.7  235  41 21   7.6   4.2
 20000 -21.2  -6.2  240  42 22   5.1   2.8 | -21.5  -6.7  240  39 20   7.6   4.1
 19500 -20.5  -4.9  240  40 21   5.1   2.8 | -20.4  -4.7  240  38 19   7.6   4.1
 19000 -19.7  -3.5  240  38 20   5.1   2.8 | -19.3  -2.7  245  37 19   7.5   4.1
 18500 -18.9  -2.0  240  36 19   5.6   3.1 | -18.1  -0.6  245  36 18   6.8   3.7
 18000 -18.0  -0.4  240  33 17   6.2   3.4 | -17.3   0.9  245  35 18   5.5   3.0
 17500 -17.0   1.4  240  30 16   6.0   3.3 | -16.5   2.3  245  33 17   5.6   3.1
 17000 -15.9   3.4  235  28 14   8.5   4.6 | -15.7   3.7  245  31 16   5.0   2.8
 16500 -14.7   5.5  235  26 14   8.2   4.5 | -14.9   5.2  245  27 14   5.1   2.8
 16000 -12.8   9.0  235  24 13   8.2   4.5 | -14.1   6.6  245  24 12   6.2   3.4
 15500 -11.6  11.1  235  24 12   8.2   4.5 | -12.5   9.5  260  26 13   6.8   3.7
 15000 -10.4  13.3  235  24 13   7.6   4.2 | -11.5  11.3  265  27 14   7.5   4.1
 14500  -9.2  15.4  235  27 14   7.7   4.2 | -10.4  13.3  265  28 14   7.5   4.1
 14000  -8.1  17.4  240  29 15   7.7   4.2 |  -9.2  15.4  265  28 14   7.7   4.2
 13500  -6.9  19.6  240  30 15   7.8   4.3 |  -8.1  17.4  265  26 14   7.8   4.3
 13000  -5.8  21.6  240  31 16   8.2   4.5 |  -6.9  19.6  270  25 13   8.8   4.8
 12500  -4.6  23.7  240  31 16   9.0   4.9 |  -5.6  21.9  270  24 12   9.9   5.4
 12000  -3.6  25.5  245  31 16   5.7   3.1 |  -4.4  24.1  270  23 12   6.8   3.7
 11750  -3.1  26.4  245  31 16   8.3   4.6 |  -3.8  25.2  265  22 12   8.9   4.9
 11500  -2.5  27.5  245  31 16   7.7   4.2 |  -3.2  26.2  265  22 11   8.0   4.4
 11250  -2.0  28.4  240  30 16   7.7   4.2 |  -2.6  27.3  265  21 11   9.4   5.1
 11000  -1.4  29.5  240  30 15   7.6   4.2 |  -1.8  28.8  260  20 10   9.2   5.0
 10750  -0.8  30.6  240  29 15   7.9   4.3 |  -1.2  29.8  260  20 10   7.8   4.3
 10500  -0.3  31.5  240  28 14   7.9   4.4 |  -0.7  30.7  255  20 10   8.3   4.5
 10250   0.3  32.5  240  27 14   7.5   4.1 |  -0.1  31.8  255  19 10   7.7   4.2
 10000   0.7  33.3  240  26 13   5.2   2.8 |   0.4  32.7  250  19 10   5.3   2.9
  9750   1.1  34.0  240  25 13   5.0   2.7 |   0.8  33.4  250  18 10   6.2   3.4
  9500   1.5  34.7  240  24 12   6.9   3.8 |   1.4  34.5  250  18  9   8.8   4.8
  9250   1.9  35.4  240  22 11   4.3   2.4 |   1.9  35.4  250  18  9   6.4   3.5
  9000   2.0  35.6  235  21 11  -1.8  -1.0 |   2.2  36.0  245  17  9   0.9   0.5
  8750   1.8  35.2  235  20 10  -2.8  -1.5 |   2.1  35.8  245  17  9  -1.4  -0.8
  8500   1.7  35.1  230  18  9   0.2   0.1 |   2.1  35.8  240  16  8   1.2   0.7
  8250   1.6  34.9  225  17  9  -4.4  -2.4 |   2.0  35.6  240  16  8  -4.8  -2.6
  8000   1.0  33.8  215  15  8 -11.2  -6.2 |   1.3  34.3  235  14  7 -14.2  -7.8
  7750   0.3  32.5  205  13  7  -4.5  -2.5 |   0.3  32.5  225  13  7  -8.2  -4.5
  7500   0.4  32.7  195  12  6   4.6   2.5 |   0.1  32.2  215  11  6  -1.1  -0.6
  7250   0.8  33.4  185  11  6   5.3   2.9 |  -0.1  31.8  200   9  5  -6.3  -3.4
  7000   1.1  34.0  180  10  5   5.5   3.0 |  -0.9  30.4  195   7  4 -12.7  -7.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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