Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 221137
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0437 MST Sunday, February 22, 2015

This forecast is for Sunday, February 22, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 17.5 F/-8.1 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9750 ft MSL (2992 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 13.0 F/-11.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. None
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 02/23....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:41:21 / 17:42:50 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 1 min 29 sec (661 min 29 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:12:22 MST... 40.98 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 02/22/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 16609 ft MSL (9851 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 9532 ft MSL (2774 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +20.7
K index......................... -4.4

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -55.8 -68.4   290   44   23   0.8   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -54.5 -66.1   280   53   27   0.8   0.4      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -56.3 -69.3   270   85   44  -1.5  -0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -56.9 -70.4   265   98   51   2.3   1.3      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -55.7 -68.3   265  108   55   2.0   1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -54.5 -66.1   265  117   60   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -50.7 -59.3   265  117   60   6.5   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -46.8 -52.2   265  114   59   6.5   3.5      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -45.1 -49.2   265  110   57   5.7   3.1   23.2  73.8    26.0      M    M
 28000  -43.3 -45.9   265  105   54   5.7   3.1   21.6  70.9    25.1      M    M
 27000  -41.6 -42.9   265  100   52   5.8   3.2   20.2  68.3    24.2      M    M
 26000  -39.6 -39.3   260   95   49   8.0   4.4   19.1  66.3    23.6      M    M
 25000  -37.2 -35.0   260   88   46   8.0   4.4   18.3  65.0    23.3      M    M
 24000  -34.8 -30.6   260   82   42   8.0   4.4   17.7  63.9    23.1      M    M
 23000  -32.7 -26.9   260   75   39   5.2   2.9   16.8  62.2    22.6      M    M
 22000  -31.1 -24.0   260   67   34   5.4   2.9   15.1  59.3    21.5      M    M
 21000  -29.5 -21.1   260   59   30   5.4   2.9   13.6  56.6    20.5      M    M
 20000  -27.8 -18.0   260   52   27   6.2   3.4   12.3  54.1    19.5      M    M
 19500  -26.8 -16.2   255   50   26   6.2   3.4   11.6  52.9    19.1      M    M
 19000  -25.9 -14.6   255   48   25   6.3   3.4   11.0  51.9    18.7      M    M
 18500  -25.0 -13.0   255   46   23   6.3   3.4   10.5  50.8    18.3      M    M
 18000  -24.1 -11.4   255   43   22   4.9   2.7    9.9  49.8    17.9      M    M
 17500  -23.5 -10.3   260   41   21   4.2   2.3    8.9  48.0    17.1      M    M
 17000  -22.8  -9.0   260   39   20   4.5   2.5    8.0  46.3    16.4      M    M
 16500  -21.9  -7.4   260   37   19   6.9   3.8    7.3  45.2    15.9      M    M
 16000  -20.9  -5.6   260   36   18   6.6   3.6    6.8  44.3    15.5      M    M
 15500  -19.1  -2.4   255   32   17   8.8   4.8    6.4  43.5    15.2      M    M
 15000  -17.8  -0.0   250   30   16   8.3   4.5    6.3  43.3    15.2      M    M
 14500  -16.9   1.6   240   29   15   5.4   3.0    5.7  42.3    14.7      M    M
 14000  -16.1   3.0   235   28   14   5.5   3.0    5.1  41.1    14.2      M    M
 13500  -16.0   3.2   230   26   14  -4.2  -2.3    3.5  38.3    12.8      M    M
 13000  -16.5   2.3   225   25   13  -3.2  -1.8    1.4  34.5    11.0      M    M
 12500  -17.3   0.9   215   23   12  -7.3  -4.0   -1.0  30.2     8.8      M    M
 12000  -18.3  -0.9   210   20   10  -8.1  -4.5   -3.6  25.5     6.3      M    M
 11750  -18.9  -2.0   200   18    9  -4.4  -2.4   -5.0  23.0     5.1      M    M
 11500  -18.9  -2.0   200   16    8   0.2   0.1   -5.9  21.5     4.3      M    M
 11250  -19.0  -2.2   195   15    8  -1.7  -0.9   -6.7  20.0     3.5      M    M
 11000  -19.1  -2.4   190   13    7   1.5   0.9   -7.5  18.5     2.7      M    M
 10750  -18.8  -1.8   190   11    6   3.2   1.8   -8.0  17.6     2.3      M    M
 10500  -18.7  -1.7   190    8    4   1.5   0.8   -8.6  16.5     1.7      M    M
 10250  -18.5  -1.3   185    5    3   2.1   1.2   -9.2  15.4     1.1      M    M
 10000  -18.4  -1.1   170    2    1   1.5   0.8   -9.8  14.3     0.5      M    M
  9750  -18.2  -0.8   095    2    1   2.5   1.4  -10.5  13.2    -0.1    273  1.4
  9500  -18.0  -0.4   080    4    2   4.0   2.2  -11.0  12.3    -0.6    258  1.3
  9250  -17.7   0.1   070    5    3   4.4   2.4  -11.4  11.5    -1.0    241  1.2
  9000  -17.3   0.9   070    6    3   5.9   3.2  -11.7  10.9    -1.4    222  1.1
  8750  -16.8   1.8   070    6    3   7.7   4.2  -12.0  10.5    -1.6    200  1.0
  8500  -16.2   2.8   070    6    3   9.0   5.0  -12.1  10.3    -1.7    174  0.9
  8250  -15.5   4.1   065    6    3   9.6   5.3  -12.1  10.2    -1.7    146  0.7
  8000  -14.8   5.4   065    6    3  10.0   5.5  -12.1  10.2    -1.8    116  0.6
  7750  -14.0   6.8   065    6    3   9.3   5.1  -12.1  10.2    -1.8     87  0.4
  7500  -13.4   7.9   065    6    3   7.6   4.2  -12.2  10.1    -1.9     61  0.3
  7250  -12.9   8.8   065    6    3   6.6   3.6  -12.1  10.3    -1.8     38  0.2
  7000  -12.4   9.7   070    6    3   6.8   3.7  -11.8  10.7    -1.6     16  0.1
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           02/22/2015 at 0800 MST          |       02/22/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -5.8  LI... +5.5                | K index... -7.4  LI... +7.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -55.4 -67.7  285  38 19   0.7   0.4 | -56.2 -69.2  270  37 19   1.7   0.9
 45000 -54.3 -65.7  275  53 27   0.7   0.4 | -53.6 -64.5  270  49 25   1.7   0.9
 40000 -56.0 -68.8  270  78 40  -1.3  -0.7 | -55.1 -67.2  270  72 37  -1.3  -0.7
 38000 -56.5 -69.7  270  89 46   2.0   1.1 | -55.5 -67.9  270  81 42   1.2   0.6
 36000 -55.5 -67.9  265 100 52   1.6   0.9 | -54.8 -66.6  265  94 49   1.2   0.7
 34000 -54.4 -65.9  265 113 58   2.0   1.1 | -54.1 -65.4  265 107 55   0.6   0.3
 32000 -50.9 -59.6  265 111 57   6.3   3.4 | -50.9 -59.6  265 106 55   5.9   3.3
 30000 -47.1 -52.8  265 107 55   6.4   3.5 | -47.4 -53.3  265 103 53   6.0   3.3
 29000 -45.2 -49.4  265 103 53   6.4   3.5 | -45.5 -49.9  265  99 51   6.3   3.5
 28000 -43.3 -45.9  260  98 51   6.4   3.5 | -43.1 -45.6  265  94 48   6.3   3.5
 27000 -41.4 -42.5  260  94 48   6.4   3.5 | -41.2 -42.2  265  89 46   6.3   3.5
 26000 -39.3 -38.7  260  88 45   7.7   4.2 | -39.0 -38.2  260  83 43   8.1   4.5
 25000 -37.0 -34.6  260  82 42   7.7   4.2 | -36.6 -33.9  260  77 39   8.2   4.5
 24000 -34.6 -30.3  260  75 39   7.7   4.2 | -34.2 -29.6  260  70 36   8.1   4.5
 23000 -32.5 -26.5  255  68 35   5.8   3.2 | -32.0 -25.6  260  63 32   6.4   3.5
 22000 -30.8 -23.4  250  61 31   5.9   3.3 | -30.1 -22.2  255  56 29   6.4   3.5
 21000 -29.0 -20.2  245  54 28   5.9   3.3 | -28.2 -18.8  255  49 25   6.3   3.5
 20000 -27.2 -17.0  245  48 25   6.0   3.3 | -26.1 -15.0  250  46 24   7.1   3.9
 19500 -26.3 -15.3  250  46 23   6.0   3.3 | -25.1 -13.2  250  46 24   7.1   3.9
 19000 -25.4 -13.7  250  43 22   6.0   3.3 | -24.0 -11.2  245  46 24   7.2   3.9
 18500 -24.5 -12.1  255  40 21   6.0   3.3 | -23.0  -9.4  245  46 23   7.2   3.9
 18000 -23.6 -10.5  255  37 19   5.2   2.8 | -21.9  -7.4  245  45 23   6.7   3.7
 17500 -22.9  -9.2  255  32 17   4.7   2.6 | -20.9  -5.6  245  43 22   6.6   3.6
 17000 -22.3  -8.1  255  27 14   5.0   2.7 | -20.0  -4.0  240  42 22   6.2   3.4
 16500 -20.9  -5.6  255  24 12   6.3   3.5 | -19.1  -2.4  240  39 20   5.5   3.0
 16000 -20.0  -4.0  255  22 11   6.7   3.7 | -18.3  -0.9  240  35 18   5.8   3.2
 15500 -18.9  -2.0  260  22 11   7.2   3.9 | -17.7   0.1  240  31 16   2.0   1.1
 15000 -17.8  -0.0  265  23 12   7.0   3.8 | -17.4   0.7  240  26 13   2.4   1.3
 14500 -16.9   1.6  260  22 11   5.8   3.2 | -17.0   1.4  240  21 11   2.3   1.3
 14000 -16.0   3.2  255  21 11   5.7   3.1 | -16.5   2.3  240  15  8   1.9   1.0
 13500 -15.8   3.6  245  20 10  -2.0  -1.1 | -16.6   2.1  235  14  7  -2.3  -1.3
 13000 -16.0   3.2  235  19 10  -1.2  -0.6 | -16.9   1.6  225  14  7  -2.2  -1.2
 12500 -16.9   1.6  225  18  9  -9.5  -5.2 | -17.8  -0.0  220  14  7  -9.0  -4.9
 12000 -18.1  -0.6  220  17  9 -10.1  -5.6 | -19.0  -2.2  215  13  7  -9.7  -5.3
 11750 -18.9  -2.0  210  16  8  -8.5  -4.7 | -19.7  -3.5  210  14  7  -8.5  -4.7
 11500 -19.3  -2.7  210  15  8  -5.1  -2.8 | -20.2  -4.4  205  13  7  -5.3  -2.9
 11250 -19.8  -3.6  205  13  7  -7.4  -4.1 | -20.7  -5.3  200  12  6  -7.9  -4.3
 11000 -20.2  -4.4  205  12  6  -1.4  -0.8 | -21.1  -6.0  195  11  5  -0.8  -0.4
 10750 -20.0  -4.0  200  10  5   3.9   2.2 | -20.8  -5.4  185  11  5   6.3   3.5
 10500 -19.8  -3.6  195   8  4   2.3   1.3 | -20.4  -4.7  175  11  6   4.7   2.6
 10250 -19.6  -3.3  185   7  4   2.4   1.3 | -20.0  -4.0  170  11  6   5.0   2.8
 10000 -19.5  -3.1  170   6  3   3.7   2.0 | -19.7  -3.5  160  12  6   5.7   3.1
  9750 -19.1  -2.4  150   6  3   6.4   3.5 | -19.2  -2.6  160  13  6   8.4   4.6
  9500 -18.6  -1.5  140   7  4   7.1   3.9 | -18.5  -1.3  160  13  7  10.1   5.5
  9250 -18.0  -0.4  135   8  4   7.7   4.2 | -17.7   0.1  155  14  7   9.9   5.4
  9000 -17.4   0.7  130   8  4   8.7   4.8 | -17.0   1.4  155  14  7   9.1   5.0
  8750 -16.7   1.9  130   8  4   9.6   5.3 | -16.3   2.7  155  15  8   9.7   5.3
  8500 -16.0   3.2  130   8  4  10.4   5.7 | -15.6   3.9  155  15  8  11.0   6.0
  8250 -15.2   4.6  125   8  4  10.0   5.5 | -14.8   5.4  155  15  8  10.9   6.0
  8000 -14.5   5.9  125   8  4   9.4   5.2 | -14.0   6.8  155  14  7  11.0   6.1
  7750 -13.8   7.2  125   8  4   9.6   5.2 | -13.2   8.2  155  14  7  10.0   5.5
  7500 -13.1   8.4  125   7  4   8.3   4.6 | -12.5   9.5  155  14  7   8.5   4.7
  7250 -12.6   9.3  125   7  4   7.0   3.9 | -11.9  10.6  155  13  7   8.6   4.7
  7000 -12.0  10.4  120   7  4   7.4   4.0 | -11.2  11.8  155  12  6   8.6   4.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           02/22/2015 at 1400 MST          |       02/22/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -5.9  LI... +7.8                | K index... -8.0  LI... +7.6
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -56.7 -70.1  275  45 23   2.2   1.2 | -56.4 -69.5  275  41 21   1.5   0.8
 45000 -53.2 -63.8  265  52 27   2.5   1.4 | -54.0 -65.2  270  49 25   1.7   1.0
 40000 -55.4 -67.7  265  69 36  -1.7  -0.9 | -56.2 -69.2  265  72 37  -1.7  -0.9
 38000 -56.0 -68.8  265  78 40   1.5   0.8 | -56.6 -69.9  265  83 43   2.3   1.3
 36000 -55.0 -67.0  265  93 48   1.5   0.8 | -55.1 -67.2  265  96 50   2.4   1.3
 34000 -54.1 -65.4  265 108 56   1.2   0.7 | -53.6 -64.5  265 110 57   2.8   1.5
 32000 -50.5 -58.9  265 106 55   6.6   3.6 | -49.5 -57.1  265 108 56   7.2   4.0
 30000 -46.0 -50.8  265 101 52   6.4   3.5 | -44.7 -48.5  265 103 53   6.3   3.5
 29000 -44.2 -47.6  265  96 49   6.1   3.3 | -42.9 -45.2  265  97 50   5.9   3.2
 28000 -42.3 -44.1  260  90 47   6.1   3.4 | -41.2 -42.2  260  91 47   5.9   3.2
 27000 -40.5 -40.9  260  85 44   6.0   3.3 | -39.4 -38.9  260  85 44   5.8   3.2
 26000 -38.2 -36.8  260  79 41   8.6   4.7 | -37.2 -35.0  260  78 40   8.0   4.4
 25000 -35.7 -32.3  260  73 38   8.6   4.7 | -34.8 -30.6  260  70 36   8.0   4.4
 24000 -33.1 -27.6  260  67 35   8.6   4.7 | -32.4 -26.3  260  63 32   8.1   4.4
 23000 -30.7 -23.3  260  62 32   7.6   4.2 | -30.0 -22.0  260  57 29   8.0   4.4
 22000 -28.4 -19.1  260  58 30   7.6   4.2 | -27.6 -17.7  260  54 28   8.0   4.4
 21000 -26.2 -15.2  260  54 28   7.8   4.3 | -25.3 -13.5  265  51 26   8.3   4.6
 20000 -24.3 -11.7  260  53 27   5.6   3.1 | -23.5 -10.3  265  52 27   5.2   2.8
 19500 -23.5 -10.3  260  54 28   5.6   3.1 | -22.7  -8.9  265  53 27   5.2   2.8
 19000 -22.7  -8.9  260  54 28   5.6   3.1 | -21.9  -7.4  265  55 28   5.2   2.8
 18500 -21.8  -7.2  260  54 28   5.6   3.1 | -21.2  -6.2  265  56 29   5.2   2.8
 18000 -21.0  -5.8  260  55 28   6.0   3.3 | -20.4  -4.7  265  57 30   5.3   2.9
 17500 -20.1  -4.2  255  56 29   6.1   3.3 | -19.6  -3.3  265  58 30   5.4   3.0
 17000 -19.2  -2.6  255  57 29   6.0   3.3 | -18.8  -1.8  265  58 30   5.9   3.2
 16500 -18.3  -0.9  250  57 29   5.8   3.2 | -17.8  -0.0  260  56 29   7.1   3.9
 16000 -17.5   0.5  245  57 29   5.7   3.1 | -16.8   1.8  260  55 28   7.3   4.0
 15500 -16.6   2.1  245  55 29   6.3   3.5 | -15.8   3.6  255  53 27   5.1   2.8
 15000 -15.2   4.6  240  51 26   4.9   2.7 | -14.7   5.5  245  52 27   4.3   2.3
 14500 -15.0   5.0  235  46 24   0.2   0.1 | -14.4   6.1  245  49 25   0.5   0.3
 14000 -14.9   5.2  235  41 21   0.2   0.1 | -14.4   6.1  240  46 24   0.4   0.2
 13500 -15.3   4.5  235  34 17  -5.6  -3.1 | -14.9   5.2  235  40 21  -6.6  -3.6
 13000 -16.1   3.0  230  25 13  -5.2  -2.8 | -15.8   3.6  235  32 17  -6.0  -3.3
 12500 -16.9   1.6  230  20 11  -6.2  -3.4 | -16.8   1.8  235  25 13  -8.3  -4.5
 12000 -17.8  -0.0  220  18  9  -5.9  -3.3 | -18.0  -0.4  230  19 10  -8.8  -4.8
 11750 -18.2  -0.8  215  16  8  -5.4  -3.0 | -18.6  -1.5  235  13  7  -6.7  -3.7
 11500 -18.6  -1.5  210  15  8  -4.8  -2.6 | -18.9  -2.0  225  12  6  -4.0  -2.2
 11250 -19.0  -2.2  210  13  7  -6.0  -3.3 | -19.3  -2.7  215  11  6  -5.2  -2.8
 11000 -19.4  -2.9  205  12  6  -1.8  -1.0 | -19.6  -3.3  200  10  5  -3.2  -1.8
 10750 -19.3  -2.7  195  11  6   0.8   0.4 | -19.7  -3.5  190  10  5  -0.1  -0.1
 10500 -19.4  -2.9  185  11  6  -1.1  -0.6 | -19.7  -3.5  180  11  6   0.7   0.4
 10250 -19.4  -2.9  175  12  6  -1.6  -0.9 | -19.7  -3.5  170  12  6  -0.5  -0.3
 10000 -19.5  -3.1  165  12  6   2.3   1.2 | -19.6  -3.3  165  13  7   3.7   2.0
  9750 -19.0  -2.2  165  13  7   8.5   4.7 | -19.1  -2.4  165  14  7   7.5   4.1
  9500 -18.4  -1.1  165  14  7   9.4   5.2 | -18.7  -1.7  160  15  8   5.7   3.1
  9250 -17.7   0.1  160  15  8   9.6   5.3 | -18.2  -0.8  160  16  8   6.6   3.6
  9000 -17.0   1.4  160  15  8   9.6   5.3 | -17.7   0.1  160  17  9   8.6   4.7
  8750 -16.2   2.8  160  16  8  10.2   5.6 | -17.0   1.4  160  17  9  10.5   5.8
  8500 -15.4   4.3  160  16  8  11.2   6.1 | -16.1   3.0  160  17  9  12.0   6.6
  8250 -14.6   5.7  160  16  8  10.9   6.0 | -15.2   4.6  160  17  9  11.4   6.3
  8000 -13.8   7.2  160  16  8  10.8   5.9 | -14.5   5.9  165  17  9  10.3   5.7
  7750 -13.0   8.6  160  15  8   9.8   5.4 | -13.7   7.3  165  16  8  10.6   5.8
  7500 -12.4   9.7  160  15  8   8.7   4.8 | -13.0   8.6  165  15  8   8.7   4.8
  7250 -11.7  10.9  160  14  7   9.2   5.1 | -12.4   9.7  165  14  7   6.6   3.6
  7000 -11.0  12.2  160  13  7   9.3   5.1 | -11.9  10.6  165  13  7   6.9   3.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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