Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 171139
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0539 MDT Thursday, July 17, 2014

This forecast is for Thursday, July 17, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 63.1 F/17.3 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 675 ft/min (3.4 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 12834 ft MSL (6076 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 69.0 F/21.0 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1015 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10875 ft MSL (4117 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 07/18....... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Poor
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak NVA
Potential height of wave....................... 19049 ft MSL (12291 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Friday 07/18.......... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 05:47:28 / 20:23:00 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 14 hr 35 min 32 sec (875 min 32 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:05:08 MDT... 72.13 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 07/17/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 14635 ft MSL (7877 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 12412 ft MSL (5654 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 12322 ft MSL (5564 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.2
K index......................... +25.5

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -63.2 -81.8   325   38   19   1.6   0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -59.5 -75.1   325   50   26   5.2   2.9      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -51.3 -60.3   325   55   28   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -48.4 -55.1   325   51   26   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -45.4 -49.7   325   47   24   5.0   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -41.4 -42.5   325   43   22   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -36.9 -34.4   330   38   20   7.5   4.1      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -32.4 -26.3   335   35   18   7.5   4.1   38.3 101.0    13.7      M    M
 29000  -29.6 -21.3   335   33   17   7.5   4.1   37.3  99.1    13.1      M    M
 28000  -27.4 -17.3   335   31   16   7.5   4.1   36.5  97.8    12.7      M    M
 27000  -25.1 -13.2   335   30   15   7.6   4.2   35.6  96.1    12.1      M    M
 26000  -22.8  -9.0   335   28   15   7.6   4.2   34.8  94.7    11.6      M    M
 25000  -20.5  -4.9   335   27   14   7.8   4.3   34.1  93.5    11.1      M    M
 24000  -18.7  -1.7   335   26   13   5.6   3.1   32.8  91.1    10.2      M    M
 23000  -17.0   1.4   330   25   13   5.7   3.1   31.3  88.4     9.0      M    M
 22000  -15.4   4.3   325   24   13   5.7   3.1   30.0  86.0     7.9      M    M
 21000  -13.7   7.3   320   26   13   6.0   3.3   28.6  83.5     6.7      M    M
 20000  -11.9  10.6   315   29   15   6.0   3.3   27.3  81.1     5.6      M    M
 19500  -11.1  12.0   310   30   15   6.1   3.3   26.7  80.0     5.0      M    M
 19000  -10.2  13.6   310   31   16   7.1   3.9   26.1  79.0     4.5      M    M
 18500   -9.1  15.6   310   31   16   7.7   4.2   25.8  78.4     4.2      M    M
 18000   -8.0  17.6   305   31   16   7.7   4.2   25.4  77.8     3.9      M    M
 17500   -6.8  19.8   305   30   16   7.8   4.3   25.1  77.2     3.5      M    M
 17000   -5.7  21.7   305   29   15   7.8   4.3   24.8  76.6     3.2      M    M
 16500   -4.6  23.7   305   28   14   7.5   4.1   24.4  76.0     2.9      M    M
 16000   -3.5  25.7   305   26   13   7.5   4.1   24.0  75.3     2.5      M    M
 15500   -2.5  27.5   305   24   12   7.8   4.3   23.7  74.6     2.1      M    M
 15000   -1.2  29.8   300   22   11   9.0   4.9   23.5  74.3     1.9      M    M
 14500    0.7  33.3   295   19   10   8.0   4.4   23.3  73.9     1.6      M    M
 14000    1.7  35.1   290   16    8   7.3   4.0   22.9  73.2     1.2      M    M
 13500    2.7  36.9   285   14    7   6.6   3.6   22.5  72.5     0.8      M    M
 13000    3.5  38.3   280   12    6   4.8   2.7   21.8  71.2     0.1      M    M
 12500    4.2  39.6   270    9    5   4.2   2.3   21.0  69.8    -0.7    445  2.3
 12000    4.8  40.6   265    8    4   5.1   2.8   20.1  68.3    -1.5    412  2.1
 11750    5.1  41.2   260    6    3   4.8   2.6   19.8  67.6    -1.9    394  2.0
 11500    5.5  41.9   260    5    3   5.2   2.8   19.4  66.9    -2.3    377  1.9
 11250    5.9  42.6   255    4    2   6.0   3.3   19.1  66.3    -2.6    357  1.8
 11000    6.3  43.3   260    4    2   5.9   3.2   18.8  65.8    -2.9    337  1.7
 10750    6.7  44.1   265    3    1   5.5   3.0   18.5  65.2    -3.3    317  1.6
 10500    7.1  44.8   275    2    1   5.6   3.1   18.1  64.6    -3.6    298  1.5
 10250    7.5  45.5   300    1    1   5.3   2.9   17.8  64.1    -3.9    279  1.4
 10000    7.9  46.2   330    2    1   6.0   3.3   17.5  63.5    -4.3    260  1.3
  9750    8.4  47.1   350    2    1   7.0   3.8   17.2  63.0    -4.5    238  1.2
  9500    8.9  48.0   360    3    1   6.7   3.7   17.0  62.6    -4.8    216  1.1
  9250    9.3  48.7   005    4    2   6.1   3.3   16.8  62.2    -5.1    195  1.0
  9000    9.7  49.5   005    5    2   5.7   3.1   16.5  61.6    -5.4    176  0.9
  8750   10.1  50.2   005    6    3   5.6   3.1   16.2  61.1    -5.8    157  0.8
  8500   10.4  50.7   360    7    3   4.4   2.4   15.8  60.5    -6.2    140  0.7
  8250   10.6  51.1   360    8    4   3.3   1.8   15.3  59.6    -6.7    126  0.6
  8000   10.8  51.4   005    8    4   2.1   1.2   14.8  58.7    -7.3    113  0.6
  7750   11.0  51.8   005    9    5   5.9   3.2   14.3  57.8    -7.8    100  0.5
  7500   11.4  52.5   005    9    5   0.8   0.4   14.0  57.3    -8.2     81  0.4
  7250   11.0  51.8   360    8    4  -8.3  -4.6   13.3  55.9    -8.9     86  0.4
  7000   10.6  51.1   360    6    3  -1.1  -0.6   12.6  54.6    -9.7     91  0.5
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           07/17/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       07/17/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +25.1  LI... -2.1               | K index... +19.2  LI... -1.2
CAPE... +165.4  CIN... -28.2               | CAPE... +251.4  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.8 -82.8  330  30 15   0.7   0.4 | -63.5 -82.3  325  28 14   1.0   0.6
 45000 -61.0 -77.8  325  39 20   4.9   2.7 | -60.7 -77.3  325  38 20   3.8   2.1
 40000 -53.2 -63.8  330  45 23   7.8   4.3 | -54.3 -65.7  325  42 22   8.6   4.7
 38000 -48.6 -55.5  335  45 23   7.8   4.3 | -49.2 -56.6  325  41 21   8.6   4.7
 36000 -43.9 -47.0  335  46 24   7.8   4.3 | -44.0 -47.2  330  40 20   8.6   4.7
 34000 -39.6 -39.3  335  43 22   7.0   3.8 | -39.2 -38.6  335  37 19   7.9   4.3
 32000 -35.4 -31.7  330  38 20   7.0   3.8 | -34.5 -30.1  340  33 17   7.8   4.3
 30000 -30.8 -23.4  330  33 17   6.8   3.7 | -30.2 -22.4  345  28 14   5.8   3.2
 29000 -28.8 -19.8  335  31 16   6.8   3.7 | -28.5 -19.3  345  25 13   5.8   3.2
 28000 -26.8 -16.2  335  29 15   7.1   3.9 | -26.8 -16.2  345  23 12   6.6   3.6
 27000 -24.6 -12.3  335  27 14   7.4   4.1 | -24.5 -12.1  345  21 11   7.5   4.1
 26000 -22.4  -8.3  335  26 13   7.4   4.1 | -22.3  -8.1  340  20 10   7.5   4.1
 25000 -20.2  -4.4  340  24 12   7.5   4.1 | -20.0  -4.0  340  18  9   7.6   4.2
 24000 -18.2  -0.8  340  23 12   6.4   3.5 | -17.9  -0.2  345  16  8   7.1   3.9
 23000 -16.2   2.8  340  22 11   6.4   3.5 | -15.7   3.7  350  13  7   7.1   3.9
 22000 -14.3   6.3  340  21 11   6.5   3.6 | -13.6   7.5  360  11  6   7.1   3.9
 21000 -12.6   9.3  335  21 11   5.8   3.2 | -11.6  11.1  360  12  6   6.9   3.8
 20000 -10.9  12.4  330  21 11   5.9   3.2 |  -9.5  14.9  355  13  7   6.9   3.8
 19500 -10.1  13.8  325  20 11   5.9   3.2 |  -8.5  16.7  355  13  7   7.0   3.8
 19000  -9.2  15.4  325  21 11   6.2   3.4 |  -7.5  18.5  355  14  7   6.3   3.4
 18500  -8.3  17.1  320  22 11   6.3   3.5 |  -6.6  20.1  345  15  8   6.1   3.4
 18000  -7.4  18.7  315  23 12   6.4   3.5 |  -5.8  21.6  340  17  9   6.2   3.4
 17500  -6.5  20.3  315  24 12   6.5   3.6 |  -5.0  23.0  340  18  9   5.4   3.0
 17000  -5.6  21.9  310  25 13   6.5   3.6 |  -4.2  24.4  335  19 10   5.5   3.0
 16500  -4.6  23.7  305  25 13   7.5   4.1 |  -3.5  25.7  330  21 11   5.6   3.1
 16000  -3.5  25.7  305  25 13   7.8   4.3 |  -2.7  27.1  330  22 11   5.7   3.1
 15500  -2.4  27.7  300  24 12   8.1   4.4 |  -1.9  28.6  325  24 12   6.2   3.4
 15000  -0.6  30.9  300  21 11   8.6   4.7 |  -0.4  31.3  325  24 12   7.3   4.0
 14500   0.6  33.1  300  19 10   8.5   4.7 |   0.7  33.3  325  24 12   6.9   3.8
 14000   1.9  35.4  295  17  9   8.4   4.6 |   1.6  34.9  325  21 11   6.5   3.6
 13500   3.1  37.6  295  15  8   7.5   4.1 |   2.5  36.5  330  19 10   5.9   3.3
 13000   3.9  39.0  285  14  7   5.8   3.2 |   3.2  37.8  325  16  8   4.9   2.7
 12500   4.7  40.5  275  12  6   4.9   2.7 |   3.9  39.0  325  13  7   5.5   3.0
 12000   5.2  41.4  275  10  5   3.8   2.1 |   4.6  40.3  320  11  6   4.5   2.5
 11750   5.5  41.9  275   9  5   3.7   2.0 |   4.9  40.8  310  10  5   4.6   2.5
 11500   5.8  42.4  275   9  5   4.0   2.2 |   5.3  41.5  305   9  5   5.0   2.7
 11250   6.1  43.0  275   8  4   4.3   2.4 |   5.6  42.1  305   8  4   5.1   2.8
 11000   6.4  43.5  275   7  4   3.8   2.1 |   5.9  42.6  310   7  3   4.1   2.2
 10750   6.6  43.9  280   6  3   3.4   1.9 |   6.1  43.0  320   5  3   3.4   1.9
 10500   6.9  44.4  285   5  2   3.9   2.1 |   6.3  43.3  330   4  2   4.3   2.4
 10250   7.2  45.0  295   4  2   5.3   2.9 |   6.7  44.1  355   3  2   6.3   3.4
 10000   7.6  45.7  305   3  2   5.5   3.0 |   7.1  44.8  020   3  2   7.8   4.3
  9750   8.0  46.4  320   3  2   4.8   2.6 |   7.7  45.9  035   4  2   8.2   4.5
  9500   8.3  46.9  340   3  2   4.7   2.6 |   8.2  46.8  050   5  3   8.5   4.7
  9250   8.6  47.5  355   4  2   4.5   2.4 |   8.8  47.8  055   5  3   9.1   5.0
  9000   8.9  48.0  005   4  2   4.5   2.5 |   9.5  49.1  055   5  3   9.3   5.1
  8750   9.3  48.7  005   5  3   6.4   3.5 |  10.2  50.4  055   5  3  10.6   5.8
  8500   9.7  49.5  010   6  3   7.8   4.3 |  11.0  51.8  060   5  3  10.9   6.0
  8250  10.3  50.5  010   7  3   7.8   4.3 |  11.8  53.2  060   5  3  10.1   5.5
  8000  10.8  51.4  015   7  3   7.3   4.0 |  12.6  54.7  060   5  3  10.3   5.6
  7750  11.3  52.3  015   7  3   9.4   5.2 |  13.3  55.9  060   5  3  10.0   5.5
  7500  12.1  53.8  020   6  3  11.3   6.2 |  14.0  57.2  060   5  3   9.3   5.1
  7250  12.9  55.2  020   6  3  10.4   5.7 |  14.7  58.5  060   5  3   9.0   5.0
  7000  13.6  56.5  025   6  3  11.3   6.2 |  15.3  59.5  060   5  3   9.2   5.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           07/17/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       07/17/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +12.6  LI... -1.1               | K index... +2.7  LI... -1.6
CAPE... +360.8  CIN... M                   | CAPE... +540.5  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.2 -83.6  315  30 15   0.9   0.5 | -64.7 -84.5  315  30 16   0.7   0.4
 45000 -61.2 -78.2  320  37 19   4.5   2.5 | -61.4 -78.5  315  38 20   5.6   3.0
 40000 -54.0 -65.2  320  37 19   7.6   4.2 | -52.9 -63.2  315  38 20   6.4   3.5
 38000 -49.3 -56.7  325  35 18   7.7   4.2 | -49.1 -56.4  320  33 17   6.4   3.5
 36000 -44.7 -48.5  325  32 17   7.7   4.2 | -45.2 -49.4  320  28 14   6.3   3.4
 34000 -39.8 -39.6  330  30 15   8.2   4.5 | -40.4 -40.7  325  27 14   8.4   4.6
 32000 -34.9 -30.8  330  27 14   8.2   4.5 | -35.4 -31.7  325  26 13   8.4   4.6
 30000 -29.8 -21.6  335  23 12   7.4   4.0 | -29.8 -21.6  330  24 12   8.3   4.5
 29000 -27.6 -17.7  335  21 11   7.4   4.0 | -27.3 -17.1  335  23 12   8.3   4.5
 28000 -25.4 -13.7  340  20 10   6.9   3.8 | -24.9 -12.8  335  21 11   7.1   3.9
 27000 -23.4 -10.1  340  18  9   6.5   3.6 | -22.9  -9.2  335  20 10   6.6   3.6
 26000 -21.5  -6.7  340  17  9   6.5   3.6 | -20.9  -5.6  335  19 10   6.6   3.6
 25000 -19.5  -3.1  335  16  8   6.5   3.6 | -18.9  -2.0  335  17  9   6.6   3.6
 24000 -17.5   0.5  340  14  7   6.9   3.8 | -17.0   1.4  340  16  8   6.3   3.5
 23000 -15.4   4.3  345  12  6   6.9   3.8 | -15.1   4.8  340  14  7   6.3   3.5
 22000 -13.4   7.9  355  10  5   6.9   3.8 | -13.2   8.2  345  12  6   6.6   3.6
 21000 -11.1  12.0  005  10  5   7.8   4.3 | -10.9  12.4  345  11  6   8.1   4.4
 20000  -8.7  16.3  015  11  5   7.8   4.3 |  -8.4  16.9  350  11  6   8.1   4.4
 19500  -7.5  18.5  020  11  6   7.9   4.3 |  -7.2  19.0  355  11  6   8.1   4.5
 19000  -6.4  20.5  020  12  6   6.7   3.7 |  -6.0  21.2  355  11  6   7.4   4.1
 18500  -5.5  22.1  015  13  7   6.4   3.5 |  -4.9  23.2  360  12  6   7.3   4.0
 18000  -4.5  23.9  005  15  8   6.3   3.4 |  -3.8  25.2  005  13  7   7.1   3.9
 17500  -3.8  25.2  360  17  9   4.7   2.6 |  -2.9  26.8  360  14  7   6.2   3.4
 17000  -3.1  26.4  355  19 10   4.9   2.7 |  -2.0  28.4  355  15  8   6.4   3.5
 16500  -2.4  27.7  350  21 11   5.7   3.1 |  -1.1  30.0  355  17  9   5.6   3.1
 16000  -1.6  29.1  345  23 12   6.0   3.3 |  -0.3  31.5  350  18 10   5.6   3.1
 15500  -0.8  30.6  340  25 13   6.3   3.5 |   0.4  32.7  350  20 10   5.5   3.0
 15000   0.4  32.7  340  26 13   6.7   3.7 |   1.5  34.7  350  22 11   5.3   2.9
 14500   1.3  34.3  340  26 14   5.6   3.0 |   2.2  36.0  350  23 12   5.8   3.2
 14000   2.0  35.6  340  24 13   4.9   2.7 |   2.9  37.2  350  23 12   5.9   3.2
 13500   2.6  36.7  345  22 12   4.5   2.5 |   3.7  38.7  355  23 12   4.8   2.6
 13000   3.2  37.8  345  19 10   4.1   2.2 |   4.0  39.2  350  19 10   3.4   1.8
 12500   3.7  38.7  345  15  8   5.5   3.0 |   4.3  39.7  350  14  7   5.1   2.8
 12000   4.5  40.1  350  11  5   5.5   3.0 |   5.3  41.5  345  11  6   7.4   4.0
 11750   4.9  40.8  350   9  5   5.9   3.2 |   5.8  42.4  345   9  5   7.5   4.1
 11500   5.3  41.5  350   7  4   5.7   3.1 |   6.3  43.3  345   8  4   7.5   4.1
 11250   5.7  42.3  355   6  3   6.0   3.3 |   6.8  44.2  345   6  3   6.9   3.8
 11000   6.1  43.0  005   4  2   6.8   3.7 |   7.2  45.0  340   5  2   6.3   3.5
 10750   6.6  43.9  020   3  2   6.9   3.8 |   7.7  45.9  330   3  2   6.1   3.4
 10500   7.0  44.6  045   3  1   7.2   3.9 |   8.1  46.6  310   2  1   6.7   3.7
 10250   7.5  45.5  065   3  1   7.8   4.3 |   8.6  47.5  255   1  1   8.0   4.4
 10000   8.1  46.6  085   2  1   8.6   4.7 |   9.2  48.6  225   2  1   8.8   4.8
  9750   8.7  47.7  105   3  1   9.2   5.0 |   9.8  49.6  205   3  1   9.1   5.0
  9500   9.4  48.9  120   3  2   9.1   5.0 |  10.5  50.9  195   3  2   9.0   4.9
  9250  10.1  50.2  125   4  2   9.1   5.0 |  11.2  52.2  190   4  2   8.8   4.8
  9000  10.7  51.3  130   4  2   9.2   5.1 |  11.8  53.2  185   4  2   9.0   4.9
  8750  11.4  52.5  130   4  2  10.5   5.7 |  12.5  54.5  185   4  2  10.4   5.7
  8500  12.3  54.1  130   4  2  10.9   6.0 |  13.3  55.9  185   5  2  10.9   6.0
  8250  13.0  55.4  135   4  2  10.3   5.6 |  14.1  57.4  180   5  2  10.2   5.6
  8000  13.8  56.8  140   4  2  10.4   5.7 |  14.9  58.8  180   5  3  10.5   5.8
  7750  14.6  58.3  140   5  2  10.3   5.6 |  15.6  60.1  180   5  3   9.8   5.4
  7500  15.3  59.5  140   5  2  10.5   5.8 |  16.3  61.3  175   5  3   9.7   5.3
  7250  16.1  61.0  140   5  2  10.8   6.0 |  17.1  62.8  175   5  3  10.4   5.7
  7000  16.9  62.4  140   5  2  10.6   5.8 |  17.8  64.0  175   5  3   9.8   5.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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