Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 011040
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0440 MDT Sunday, May 1, 2016

This forecast is for Sunday, May 1, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 35.9 F/2.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10771 ft MSL (4013 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 36.0 F/2.7 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1115 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1800 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ Between 20 mph and 30 mph
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 9367 ft MSL (2610 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Monday 05/02....... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:00:32 / 19:51:19 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 50 min 47 sec (830 min 47 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:56:06 MDT... 66.42 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 05/01/2016 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 14011 ft MSL (7253 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 10431 ft MSL (3673 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +8.8
K index......................... +6.1

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -55.5 -67.9   240   18    9   1.0   0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -54.0 -65.2   245   20   10   0.6   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -55.3 -67.5   260   16    8  -1.0  -0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -55.8 -68.4   290   11    5  -0.4  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -56.1 -69.0   010   17    9  -0.4  -0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -56.1 -69.0   030   35   18   5.3   2.9      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -50.7 -59.3   040   31   16   8.1   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -45.8 -50.4   045   25   13   7.5   4.1   24.2  75.6    16.8      M    M
 29000  -43.6 -46.5   025   15    8   7.5   4.1   23.3  73.9    16.3      M    M
 28000  -41.3 -42.3   340   10    5   7.5   4.1   22.4  72.4    15.8      M    M
 27000  -39.1 -38.4   290   15    8   7.8   4.3   21.7  71.1    15.5      M    M
 26000  -36.6 -33.9   285   17    9   8.4   4.6   21.1  70.0    15.1      M    M
 25000  -34.1 -29.4   285   19   10   8.4   4.6   20.6  69.0    14.9      M    M
 24000  -31.6 -24.9   280   21   11   8.4   4.6   20.2  68.3    14.7      M    M
 23000  -29.1 -20.4   280   21   11   8.2   4.5   19.5  67.2    14.4      M    M
 22000  -26.6 -15.9   280   21   11   8.2   4.5   19.0  66.2    14.1      M    M
 21000  -24.2 -11.6   275   21   11   7.5   4.1   18.5  65.3    13.8      M    M
 20000  -22.2  -8.0   280   18    9   6.8   3.8   17.4  63.3    13.0      M    M
 19500  -21.2  -6.2   280   17    9   6.8   3.8   16.9  62.4    12.7      M    M
 19000  -20.2  -4.4   280   16    8   6.8   3.7   16.4  61.6    12.3      M    M
 18500  -19.1  -2.4   285   14    7   6.5   3.6   16.0  60.8    12.0      M    M
 18000  -18.3  -0.9   290   12    6   5.7   3.1   15.3  59.6    11.4      M    M
 17500  -17.4   0.7   295   11    5   5.7   3.1   14.6  58.3    10.9      M    M
 17000  -16.6   2.1   300    9    5   5.9   3.2   14.0  57.1    10.3      M    M
 16500  -15.7   3.7   305    7    4   5.9   3.2   13.3  55.9     9.8      M    M
 16000  -14.8   5.4   315    6    3   6.9   3.8   12.7  54.8     9.3      M    M
 15500  -13.1   8.4   325    5    3   7.7   4.2   12.2  53.9     8.8      M    M
 15000  -12.0  10.4   340    4    2   6.8   3.7   11.8  53.2     8.5      M    M
 14500  -11.0  12.2   360    5    3   6.7   3.7   11.3  52.3     8.1      M    M
 14000  -10.1  13.8   015    7    3   4.6   2.5   10.7  51.2     7.6      M    M
 13500   -9.6  14.7   015   10    5   3.6   2.0    9.7  49.4     6.7      M    M
 13000   -9.1  15.6   015   14    7   1.9   1.1    8.7  47.6     5.8      M    M
 12500   -9.0  15.8   010   19   10   0.9   0.5    7.2  45.0     4.4      M    M
 12000   -9.0  15.8   010   24   13   0.0   0.0    5.7  42.2     3.0      M    M
 11750   -8.9  16.0   010   26   13   1.4   0.8    5.0  41.0     2.3      M    M
 11500   -8.9  16.0   010   28   14   1.0   0.5    4.3  39.7     1.7      M    M
 11250   -8.8  16.2   010   30   15   1.3   0.7    3.6  38.5     1.0      M    M
 11000   -8.7  16.3   010   31   16   2.4   1.3    3.0  37.4     0.4      M    M
 10750   -8.5  16.7   010   32   16   2.2   1.2    2.4  36.4    -0.2    320  1.6
 10500   -8.4  16.9   010   33   17   1.3   0.7    1.8  35.2    -0.8    309  1.6
 10250   -8.3  17.1   005   34   17   1.6   0.9    1.1  34.1    -1.4    299  1.5
 10000   -8.2  17.2   005   34   18   2.0   1.1    0.5  33.0    -2.1    288  1.5
  9750   -8.0  17.6   005   35   18   4.7   2.6    0.0  32.0    -2.6    274  1.4
  9500   -7.6  18.3   005   35   18   6.3   3.5   -0.3  31.5    -2.9    254  1.3
  9250   -7.1  19.2   360   35   18   6.4   3.5   -0.6  31.0    -3.2    233  1.2
  9000   -6.6  20.1   360   34   18   6.9   3.8   -0.8  30.6    -3.4    211  1.1
  8750   -6.1  21.0   360   34   17   8.1   4.5   -1.0  30.3    -3.6    188  1.0
  8500   -5.4  22.3   360   33   17   9.6   5.2   -1.0  30.2    -3.7    161  0.8
  8250   -4.8  23.4   360   32   17   8.6   4.7   -1.1  30.1    -3.8    133  0.7
  8000   -4.2  24.4   360   30   15   8.0   4.4   -1.2  29.9    -3.9    108  0.5
  7750   -3.6  25.5   360   28   14   8.5   4.7   -1.3  29.7    -4.1     83  0.4
  7500   -3.0  26.6   355   25   13   6.9   3.8   -1.4  29.5    -4.2     58  0.3
  7250   -2.6  27.3   355   22   11   4.3   2.4   -1.4  29.5    -4.2     39  0.2
  7000   -2.3  27.9   355   19   10   5.0   2.8   -1.4  29.6    -4.2     22  0.1
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           05/01/2016 at 0900 MDT          |       05/01/2016 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +6.7  LI... +278.9              | K index... +9.2  LI... +277.6
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.2
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -55.8 -68.4  245  19 10   1.3   0.7 | -55.9 -68.6  250  20 11   0.6   0.3
 45000 -53.9 -65.0  250  18  9   0.8   0.4 | -55.0 -67.0  250  20 10   0.3   0.2
 40000 -54.9 -66.8  245  17  9  -0.7  -0.4 | -55.5 -67.9  235  18  9  -0.3  -0.2
 38000 -55.3 -67.5  250   8  4  -0.5  -0.3 | -55.5 -67.9  215  11  6   0.3   0.2
 36000 -55.6 -68.1  050  14  7  -0.5  -0.3 | -55.3 -67.5  110  12  6   0.3   0.2
 34000 -55.7 -68.3  055  34 17   5.0   2.7 | -54.9 -66.8  090  29 15   5.3   2.9
 32000 -50.6 -59.1  060  25 13   7.6   4.2 | -50.1 -58.2  095  23 12   7.0   3.9
 30000 -46.1 -51.0  060  16  8   7.2   3.9 | -45.9 -50.6  095  16  8   6.6   3.6
 29000 -43.9 -47.0  020   8  4   7.2   4.0 | -44.0 -47.2  085   8  4   6.6   3.6
 28000 -41.8 -43.2  315  10  5   7.3   4.0 | -42.0 -43.6  010   3  2   6.6   3.6
 27000 -39.6 -39.3  290  19 10   7.8   4.3 | -40.0 -40.0  310   9  5   7.5   4.1
 26000 -37.0 -34.6  285  19 10   8.8   4.8 | -37.4 -35.3  295   9  5   8.8   4.8
 25000 -34.4 -29.9  285  19 10   8.8   4.8 | -34.7 -30.5  285  10  5   8.8   4.8
 24000 -31.7 -25.1  285  19 10   8.7   4.8 | -32.1 -25.8  275  11  5   8.7   4.8
 23000 -29.3 -20.7  280  19 10   7.9   4.3 | -29.7 -21.5  270  11  5   8.1   4.5
 22000 -27.0 -16.6  280  18  9   7.9   4.3 | -27.2 -17.0  265  10  5   8.2   4.5
 21000 -24.6 -12.3  280  18  9   7.7   4.2 | -24.8 -12.6  260  10  5   8.0   4.4
 20000 -22.3  -8.1  280  15  8   7.5   4.1 | -22.5  -8.5  255  10  5   7.9   4.3
 19500 -21.2  -6.2  280  13  7   7.5   4.1 | -21.3  -6.3  250  10  5   7.9   4.3
 19000 -20.1  -4.2  280  12  6   7.5   4.1 | -20.1  -4.2  250  10  5   7.9   4.3
 18500 -19.0  -2.2  280  10  5   6.9   3.8 | -18.9  -2.0  245  10  5   7.9   4.3
 18000 -18.1  -0.6  280   8  4   6.0   3.3 | -17.8  -0.0  245  11  6   7.9   4.4
 17500 -17.2   1.0  285   6  3   6.2   3.4 | -16.6   2.1  240  11  6   8.0   4.4
 17000 -16.4   2.5  285   4  2   4.3   2.4 | -15.5   4.1  240  11  6   6.8   3.7
 16500 -15.8   3.6  285   2  1   4.5   2.5 | -14.4   6.1  235  10  5   7.0   3.8
 16000 -15.1   4.8  000   0  0   4.7   2.6 | -13.0   8.6  230   8  4   6.2   3.4
 15500 -14.0   6.8  135   3  2   4.8   2.7 | -12.0  10.4  225   6  3   6.6   3.6
 15000 -13.3   8.1  125   5  2   4.8   2.6 | -11.3  11.7  215   5  2   2.8   1.5
 14500 -12.6   9.3  105   6  3   4.9   2.7 | -10.9  12.4  185   3  2   3.1   1.7
 14000 -12.1  10.2  085   7  4   2.1   1.2 | -10.6  12.9  140   3  2   0.6   0.3
 13500 -11.9  10.6  055  11  6   1.6   0.9 | -10.6  12.9  095   5  3   0.2   0.1
 13000 -11.7  10.9  045  16  8   0.5   0.3 | -10.6  12.9  075   8  4  -0.4  -0.2
 12500 -11.7  10.9  035  19 10  -0.1  -0.1 | -10.7  12.7  055  13  6  -0.7  -0.4
 12000 -11.5  11.3  030  23 12   4.2   2.3 | -10.7  12.7  045  18  9   3.2   1.8
 11750 -11.1  12.0  030  24 12   5.5   3.0 | -10.3  13.5  045  19 10   4.9   2.7
 11500 -10.7  12.7  030  25 13   5.2   2.8 | -10.0  14.0  040  21 11   4.5   2.5
 11250 -10.3  13.5  030  26 13   5.3   2.9 |  -9.7  14.5  040  22 11   4.6   2.5
 11000 -10.0  14.0  030  27 14   5.3   2.9 |  -9.3  15.3  040  23 12   5.1   2.8
 10750  -9.6  14.7  030  27 14   5.2   2.9 |  -8.9  16.0  040  23 12   5.6   3.1
 10500  -9.2  15.4  025  27 14   5.2   2.9 |  -8.5  16.7  035  23 12   5.7   3.2
 10250  -8.8  16.2  025  26 14   5.3   2.9 |  -8.1  17.4  035  23 12   5.5   3.0
 10000  -8.4  16.9  025  26 13   5.6   3.0 |  -7.7  18.1  035  23 12   5.2   2.8
  9750  -8.0  17.6  025  26 13   5.2   2.9 |  -7.3  18.9  035  22 12   5.5   3.0
  9500  -7.6  18.3  025  25 13   4.7   2.6 |  -6.9  19.6  035  22 11   5.7   3.1
  9250  -7.3  18.9  020  25 13   5.9   3.2 |  -6.4  20.5  035  22 11   6.0   3.3
  9000  -6.8  19.8  020  24 12   6.3   3.5 |  -6.0  21.2  030  20 10   5.6   3.1
  8750  -6.3  20.7  015  23 12   7.6   4.2 |  -5.6  21.9  025  19 10   7.7   4.2
  8500  -5.7  21.7  015  22 11   9.7   5.3 |  -4.9  23.2  020  18  9  10.2   5.6
  8250  -5.0  23.0  010  21 11   9.7   5.3 |  -4.2  24.4  015  17  9  10.0   5.5
  8000  -4.2  24.4  010  19 10   9.8   5.4 |  -3.4  25.9  015  16  8   9.8   5.4
  7750  -3.5  25.7  005  18  9  10.0   5.5 |  -2.7  27.1  010  16  8  10.9   6.0
  7500  -2.8  27.0  005  17  9   9.0   4.9 |  -1.9  28.6  010  15  8  10.8   5.9
  7250  -2.2  28.0  005  15  8   7.7   4.2 |  -1.1  30.0  010  14  7   9.5   5.2
  7000  -1.6  29.1  005  14  7   8.7   4.8 |  -0.4  31.3  010  13  7  10.6   5.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           05/01/2016 at 1500 MDT          |       05/01/2016 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +12.7  LI... +278.6             | K index... +17.5  LI... +276.7
CAPE... +3.1  CIN... M                     | CAPE... +51.7  CIN... -1.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -55.8 -68.4  245  21 11   0.4   0.2 | -55.4 -67.7  255  21 11   1.3   0.7
 45000 -55.2 -67.4  245  22 11   0.4   0.2 | -53.5 -64.3  245  22 11   1.1   0.6
 40000 -54.6 -66.3  235  20 10   0.4   0.2 | -53.8 -64.8  240  16  8  -0.2  -0.1
 38000 -54.5 -66.1  220  15  8  -0.3  -0.2 | -54.1 -65.4  235  10  5  -0.7  -0.4
 36000 -54.7 -66.5  165   8  4  -0.3  -0.2 | -54.6 -66.3  100   2  1  -0.7  -0.4
 34000 -54.3 -65.7  105  14  7   6.2   3.4 | -54.7 -66.5  070  12  6   4.7   2.6
 32000 -50.9 -59.6  115   9  5   5.6   3.1 | -51.5 -60.7  050   7  4   5.3   2.9
 30000 -47.3 -53.1  145   5  3   8.0   4.4 | -48.2 -54.8  010   4  2   8.8   4.8
 29000 -44.9 -48.8  160   4  2   7.9   4.3 | -45.6 -50.1  335   3  1   8.4   4.6
 28000 -42.5 -44.5  195   3  2   7.9   4.3 | -43.1 -45.6  275   3  1   8.5   4.6
 27000 -40.2 -40.4  230   3  2   8.5   4.7 | -39.9 -39.8  245   5  3   9.0   5.0
 26000 -37.3 -35.1  230   4  2   9.5   5.2 | -37.1 -34.8  240   5  3   9.5   5.2
 25000 -34.5 -30.1  225   5  3   9.5   5.2 | -34.3 -29.7  230   5  3   9.5   5.2
 24000 -31.6 -24.9  225   7  3   9.3   5.1 | -31.5 -24.7  225   6  3   8.9   4.9
 23000 -29.2 -20.6  230   6  3   8.1   4.4 | -29.1 -20.4  240   4  2   7.9   4.3
 22000 -26.8 -16.2  235   5  2   8.1   4.4 | -26.8 -16.2  280   2  1   7.9   4.3
 21000 -24.3 -11.7  245   3  2   7.7   4.3 | -24.4 -11.9  330   3  1   7.8   4.3
 20000 -22.1  -7.8  275   3  2   7.6   4.1 | -22.1  -7.8  345   4  2   7.7   4.2
 19500 -21.0  -5.8  290   3  2   7.6   4.1 | -21.0  -5.8  350   4  2   7.7   4.2
 19000 -19.9  -3.8  300   4  2   7.5   4.1 | -19.8  -3.6  355   5  2   7.6   4.2
 18500 -18.7  -1.7  310   4  2   7.3   4.0 | -18.7  -1.7  355   5  3   5.7   3.1
 18000 -17.7   0.1  310   5  3   7.0   3.8 | -18.1  -0.6  355   5  3   4.1   2.2
 17500 -16.7   1.9  305   6  3   7.0   3.9 | -17.6   0.3  350   5  2   4.0   2.2
 17000 -15.7   3.7  305   6  3   6.6   3.6 | -17.0   1.4  345   4  2   3.8   2.1
 16500 -14.7   5.5  300   5  3   6.7   3.7 | -16.5   2.3  340   4  2   3.7   2.0
 16000 -13.6   7.5  290   4  2   2.9   1.6 | -15.9   3.4  335   3  2   5.3   2.9
 15500 -13.1   8.4  275   2  1   3.4   1.8 | -15.1   4.8  340   3  2   5.6   3.1
 15000 -12.8   9.0  000   0  0   0.8   0.4 | -14.2   6.4  350   4  2   5.8   3.2
 14500 -12.7   9.1  095   1  1   0.8   0.4 | -13.4   7.9  005   5  3   5.9   3.3
 14000 -12.5   9.5  080   2  1   2.1   1.2 | -12.1  10.2  020   7  4   5.8   3.2
 13500 -12.1  10.2  060   3  1   2.3   1.2 | -11.2  11.8  025   9  5   5.8   3.2
 13000 -11.7  10.9  045   4  2   4.9   2.7 | -10.4  13.3  030  11  6   6.0   3.3
 12500 -10.9  12.4  040   9  5   6.0   3.3 |  -9.5  14.9  035  14  7   6.2   3.4
 12000 -10.1  13.8  035  13  7   5.5   3.0 |  -8.7  16.3  040  15  8   5.9   3.2
 11750  -9.6  14.7  035  14  7   7.6   4.2 |  -8.2  17.2  040  16  8   6.7   3.7
 11500  -9.1  15.6  040  15  8   7.0   3.8 |  -7.7  18.1  040  16  8   6.5   3.6
 11250  -8.5  16.7  040  17  9   7.3   4.0 |  -7.2  19.0  040  17  9   6.4   3.5
 11000  -8.0  17.6  040  18  9   6.7   3.7 |  -6.8  19.8  040  16  8   6.2   3.4
 10750  -7.6  18.3  040  18  9   5.7   3.1 |  -6.3  20.7  035  16  8   6.1   3.3
 10500  -7.2  19.0  040  19 10   5.8   3.2 |  -5.9  21.4  035  16  8   6.1   3.3
 10250  -6.7  19.9  040  19 10   5.4   2.9 |  -5.5  22.1  035  16  8   6.1   3.4
 10000  -6.4  20.5  040  19 10   4.8   2.6 |  -5.0  23.0  030  16  8   6.3   3.5
  9750  -6.0  21.2  035  18  9   5.9   3.2 |  -4.5  23.9  030  16  8   6.8   3.7
  9500  -5.5  22.1  035  18  9   6.6   3.6 |  -4.0  24.8  025  15  8   6.8   3.7
  9250  -5.0  23.0  030  17  9   6.9   3.8 |  -3.5  25.7  025  15  8   8.0   4.4
  9000  -4.5  23.9  025  15  8   6.6   3.6 |  -2.9  26.8  025  14  7   8.8   4.8
  8750  -4.0  24.8  020  14  7   9.0   4.9 |  -2.3  27.9  025  14  7   9.6   5.3
  8500  -3.2  26.2  015  13  6  11.5   6.3 |  -1.5  29.3  020  13  7  10.8   5.9
  8250  -2.5  27.5  010  12  6  10.7   5.9 |  -0.7  30.7  020  13  6  10.5   5.7
  8000  -1.7  28.9  010  11  6  10.6   5.8 |   0.0  32.0  020  12  6  10.3   5.6
  7750  -0.9  30.4  005  11  5  10.8   5.9 |   0.8  33.4  020  12  6  11.2   6.2
  7500  -0.1  31.8  005  10  5  10.4   5.7 |   1.6  34.9  020  11  6   9.7   5.3
  7250   0.6  33.1  010  10  5   9.9   5.4 |   2.2  36.0  020  10  5   7.1   3.9
  7000   1.4  34.5  010   9  5  10.3   5.6 |   2.7  36.9  020  10  5   8.9   4.9
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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