Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 251109
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0508 MDT Monday, August 25, 2014

This forecast is for Monday, August 25, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 72.9 F/22.7 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 328 ft/min (1.7 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 14562 ft MSL (7804 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 76.0 F/24.9 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1130 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8601 ft MSL (1843 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 08/26...... Good

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Good
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14406 ft MSL (7648 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Tuesday 08/26......... Good

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:21:35 / 19:41:06 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 13 hr 19 min 31 sec (799 min 31 sec)
Altitude of sun at 13:00:56 MDT... 61.63 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 08/25/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 15577 ft MSL (8819 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 16610 ft MSL (9852 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 15727 ft MSL (8969 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -2.3
K index......................... +13.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -64.0 -83.2   245   39   20   0.5   0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -61.5 -78.7   250   52   27   4.7   2.6      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -54.3 -65.7   245   54   28   6.9   3.8      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -50.3 -58.5   245   51   26   6.7   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -46.2 -51.2   240   47   24   6.8   3.7      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -41.2 -42.2   240   47   24   7.8   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -36.5 -33.7   235   48   25   7.8   4.3      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -32.5 -26.5   235   46   24   6.4   3.5   37.1  98.7     9.8      M    M
 29000  -30.6 -23.1   240   45   23   6.4   3.5   35.8  96.5     8.9      M    M
 28000  -28.7 -19.7   240   43   22   7.0   3.8   34.7  94.5     8.1      M    M
 27000  -26.4 -15.5   240   41   21   7.8   4.3   33.8  92.9     7.5      M    M
 26000  -24.0 -11.2   240   38   19   7.8   4.3   33.1  91.5     7.0      M    M
 25000  -21.7  -7.1   240   35   18   7.8   4.3   32.5  90.4     6.6      M    M
 24000  -19.3  -2.7   235   34   18   7.9   4.3   31.7  89.1     6.0      M    M
 23000  -16.9   1.6   235   34   17   7.9   4.3   31.1  87.9     5.5      M    M
 22000  -14.5   5.9   230   34   17   7.9   4.3   30.5  86.9     5.1      M    M
 21000  -12.3   9.9   230   33   17   7.3   4.0   29.6  85.3     4.4      M    M
 20000  -10.1  13.8   230   32   16   7.4   4.0   28.8  83.8     3.7      M    M
 19500   -9.1  15.6   225   32   16   7.4   4.0   28.4  83.1     3.4      M    M
 19000   -8.0  17.6   225   31   16   7.6   4.2   28.0  82.5     3.1      M    M
 18500   -6.8  19.8   225   28   15   7.7   4.2   27.7  81.8     2.7      M    M
 18000   -5.7  21.7   225   26   14   7.6   4.2   27.3  81.2     2.4      M    M
 17500   -4.6  23.7   225   23   12   7.1   3.9   26.9  80.4     2.0      M    M
 17000   -3.6  25.5   225   20   10   7.1   3.9   26.5  79.6     1.6      M    M
 16500   -1.9  28.6   225   17    9   8.1   4.4   25.9  78.7     1.1      M    M
 16000   -0.7  30.7   230   17    9   8.1   4.5   25.7  78.2     0.8      M    M
 15500    0.4  32.7   235   18    9   8.0   4.4   25.4  77.7     0.5      M    M
 15000    1.6  34.9   240   19   10   8.0   4.4   25.1  77.2     0.2      M    M
 14500    2.8  37.0   240   20   10   8.1   4.5   24.8  76.7    -0.1    712  3.6
 14000    3.9  39.0   245   22   11   8.2   4.5   24.6  76.2    -0.4    662  3.4
 13500    5.1  41.2   250   24   12   8.5   4.7   24.3  75.8    -0.7    612  3.1
 13000    6.3  43.3   250   24   13   8.7   4.8   24.2  75.5    -0.9    560  2.8
 12500    7.6  45.7   250   25   13   8.1   4.5   24.0  75.2    -1.1    508  2.6
 12000    8.8  47.8   250   24   13   9.5   5.2   23.8  74.9    -1.4    457  2.3
 11750    9.5  49.1   255   24   12   9.2   5.0   23.8  74.8    -1.5    429  2.2
 11500   10.1  50.2   255   24   12   9.5   5.2   23.7  74.7    -1.5    402  2.0
 11250   10.9  51.6   255   24   12   9.6   5.2   23.7  74.7    -1.5    373  1.9
 11000   11.6  52.9   255   23   12   9.3   5.1   23.7  74.7    -1.6    345  1.8
 10750   12.2  54.0   255   23   12   9.3   5.1   23.7  74.6    -1.6    317  1.6
 10500   12.9  55.2   250   23   12   9.0   5.0   23.6  74.5    -1.7    289  1.5
 10250   13.5  56.3   250   22   11   7.8   4.3   23.5  74.4    -1.8    263  1.3
 10000   14.1  57.4   250   21   11   8.4   4.6   23.4  74.1    -2.0    238  1.2
  9750   14.8  58.6   250   20   10   9.7   5.3   23.4  74.0    -2.0    210  1.1
  9500   15.5  59.9   250   18    9   8.6   4.7   23.3  74.0    -2.1    182  0.9
  9250   16.0  60.8   250   17    9   6.8   3.7   23.2  73.7    -2.3    159  0.8
  9000   16.5  61.7   250   15    8   6.0   3.3   22.9  73.2    -2.6    138  0.7
  8750   16.9  62.4   255   14    7   6.9   3.8   22.6  72.7    -2.9    117  0.6
  8500   17.4  63.3   255   12    6   4.5   2.5   22.4  72.3    -3.1     96  0.5
  8250   17.5  63.5   260   11    6   0.9   0.5   21.8  71.2    -3.7     85  0.4
  8000   17.5  63.5   275   10    5  -0.2  -0.1   21.1  70.0    -4.5     77  0.4
  7750   17.5  63.5   285   10    5   2.2   1.2   20.4  68.7    -5.2     70  0.4
  7500   17.4  63.3   295   10    5 -10.9  -6.0   19.6  67.2    -6.1     67  0.3
  7250   15.7  60.3   300    9    5 -25.7 -14.1   17.6  63.8    -8.1    108  0.5
  7000   14.1  57.4   305    8    4 -15.0  -8.2   15.7  60.2   -10.0    150  0.8
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           08/25/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       08/25/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +12.0  LI... -1.1               | K index... +24.2  LI... -3.4
CAPE... +271.7  CIN... -59.1               | CAPE... +755.9  CIN... -8.6
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -63.6 -82.5  240  38 20   1.0   0.5 | -63.5 -82.3  240  39 20   1.0   0.6
 45000 -60.8 -77.4  245  53 27   4.4   2.4 | -60.5 -76.9  240  56 29   4.9   2.7
 40000 -53.9 -65.0  240  51 26   6.7   3.7 | -52.7 -62.9  240  53 27   5.9   3.2
 38000 -50.0 -58.0  240  48 25   6.5   3.6 | -49.1 -56.4  240  50 26   5.9   3.3
 36000 -46.1 -51.0  235  46 24   6.5   3.6 | -45.6 -50.1  240  48 25   5.9   3.2
 34000 -41.6 -42.9  240  45 23   6.8   3.7 | -41.8 -43.2  245  46 24   6.4   3.5
 32000 -37.5 -35.5  240  44 23   6.8   3.7 | -37.9 -36.2  245  44 23   6.5   3.6
 30000 -33.3 -27.9  240  40 21   6.9   3.8 | -33.4 -28.1  245  40 20   8.1   4.4
 29000 -31.3 -24.3  245  37 19   6.9   3.8 | -31.0 -23.8  245  37 19   8.1   4.5
 28000 -29.2 -20.6  245  35 18   7.6   4.2 | -28.0 -18.4  240  34 18   7.1   3.9
 27000 -26.7 -16.1  240  35 18   8.3   4.6 | -26.0 -14.8  235  34 18   6.8   3.8
 26000 -24.2 -11.6  235  35 18   8.3   4.6 | -23.9 -11.0  235  35 18   6.8   3.8
 25000 -21.7  -7.1  235  36 18   8.4   4.6 | -21.9  -7.4  230  35 18   6.9   3.8
 24000 -19.5  -3.1  230  35 18   7.2   4.0 | -19.7  -3.5  230  34 17   7.4   4.0
 23000 -17.3   0.9  225  34 17   7.2   4.0 | -17.4   0.7  230  32 16   7.4   4.1
 22000 -15.1   4.8  220  33 17   7.3   4.0 | -15.2   4.6  230  30 15   7.4   4.0
 21000 -12.9   8.8  220  31 16   7.4   4.1 | -13.0   8.6  230  28 15   7.3   4.0
 20000 -10.7  12.7  220  30 15   7.4   4.1 | -10.9  12.4  230  27 14   7.3   4.0
 19500  -9.6  14.7  220  29 15   7.4   4.1 |  -9.8  14.4  235  26 13   7.3   4.0
 19000  -8.4  16.9  215  28 14   7.9   4.3 |  -8.7  16.3  235  26 13   7.7   4.2
 18500  -7.2  19.0  220  27 14   7.9   4.3 |  -7.6  18.3  235  26 13   7.7   4.2
 18000  -6.1  21.0  220  26 13   7.9   4.3 |  -6.5  20.3  230  26 13   7.9   4.3
 17500  -4.9  23.2  220  25 13   7.9   4.3 |  -5.3  22.5  235  26 14   8.1   4.4
 17000  -3.7  25.3  220  25 13   7.9   4.3 |  -4.2  24.4  235  27 14   8.2   4.5
 16500  -2.0  28.4  220  23 12   7.7   4.2 |  -3.0  26.6  240  26 13   7.9   4.3
 16000  -0.9  30.4  225  22 11   7.8   4.3 |  -2.0  28.4  240  25 13   8.1   4.4
 15500   0.2  32.4  230  21 11   7.2   3.9 |  -0.9  30.4  240  24 12   7.8   4.3
 15000   1.2  34.2  235  20 10   7.3   4.0 |   0.1  32.2  240  22 11   7.8   4.3
 14500   2.3  36.1  240  20 10   7.7   4.2 |   1.2  34.2  240  19 10   8.1   4.4
 14000   3.3  37.9  250  21 11   7.9   4.3 |   3.0  37.4  240  16  8   8.6   4.7
 13500   4.4  39.9  255  22 11   8.2   4.5 |   4.3  39.7  235  14  7   8.5   4.7
 13000   5.6  42.1  255  20 10   8.4   4.6 |   5.5  41.9  230  12  6   8.6   4.7
 12500   6.8  44.2  260  19 10   8.9   4.9 |   6.7  44.1  225  10  5   8.4   4.6
 12000   8.1  46.6  260  19 10   9.2   5.1 |   8.0  46.4  220   9  4   9.3   5.1
 11750   8.8  47.8  260  18  9   9.1   5.0 |   8.7  47.7  220   8  4   9.1   5.0
 11500   9.5  49.1  265  18  9   9.9   5.4 |   9.4  48.9  215   8  4   9.8   5.4
 11250  10.2  50.4  265  18  9   9.7   5.3 |  10.1  50.2  210   7  4   9.7   5.3
 11000  10.9  51.6  265  17  9   8.5   4.6 |  10.8  51.4  205   6  3   8.9   4.9
 10750  11.5  52.7  265  17  9   8.4   4.6 |  11.4  52.5  200   6  3   8.9   4.9
 10500  12.1  53.8  265  16  8   8.9   4.9 |  12.1  53.8  190   5  3   9.6   5.3
 10250  12.8  55.0  265  16  8  10.1   5.5 |  12.9  55.2  185   5  2  10.8   5.9
 10000  13.5  56.3  270  15  8   9.3   5.1 |  13.6  56.5  175   4  2   9.7   5.3
  9750  14.2  57.6  270  15  8   8.6   4.7 |  14.3  57.7  165   4  2   8.9   4.9
  9500  14.8  58.6  270  14  7   8.2   4.5 |  15.0  59.0  155   4  2   9.4   5.2
  9250  15.3  59.5  275  13  7   7.3   4.0 |  15.7  60.3  145   4  2   9.7   5.3
  9000  15.9  60.6  275  12  6   7.2   4.0 |  16.4  61.5  135   3  2   9.7   5.3
  8750  16.4  61.5  275  11  6   8.7   4.8 |  17.1  62.8  115   4  2   9.7   5.3
  8500  17.0  62.6  280  10  5   6.1   3.3 |  17.8  64.0  100   4  2  10.2   5.6
  8250  17.3  63.1  290  10  5   2.9   1.6 |  18.6  65.5  100   4  2  10.7   5.9
  8000  17.5  63.5  295   9  5   3.0   1.6 |  19.4  66.9  095   4  2  10.4   5.7
  7750  17.7  63.9  305  10  5   4.9   2.7 |  20.2  68.4  090   4  2  11.1   6.1
  7500  18.1  64.6  315   9  5   6.5   3.6 |  21.1  70.0  090   5  2  12.3   6.7
  7250  18.5  65.3  315   9  4   5.4   3.0 |  21.9  71.4  085   5  2  12.5   6.9
  7000  18.9  66.0  320   8  4   6.5   3.6 |  22.8  73.0  080   5  2  12.4   6.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           08/25/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       08/25/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +30.5  LI... -2.6               | K index... +27.8  LI... -1.6
CAPE... +449.9  CIN... -5.4                | CAPE... +175.3  CIN... -32.7
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -64.1 -83.4  235  43 22   1.6   0.9 | -64.1 -83.4  240  39 20   1.4   0.7
 45000 -60.5 -76.9  235  58 30   4.7   2.6 | -60.7 -77.3  240  56 29   4.7   2.6
 40000 -53.0 -63.4  245  56 29   6.2   3.4 | -53.0 -63.4  250  54 28   6.1   3.4
 38000 -49.2 -56.6  245  54 28   6.3   3.4 | -49.4 -56.9  250  50 26   6.2   3.4
 36000 -45.5 -49.9  250  52 27   6.2   3.4 | -45.7 -50.3  255  46 24   6.0   3.3
 34000 -41.4 -42.5  250  48 25   7.0   3.8 | -41.3 -42.3  255  42 22   7.5   4.1
 32000 -37.2 -35.0  250  44 23   6.9   3.8 | -36.8 -34.2  250  38 19   7.4   4.1
 30000 -32.5 -26.5  240  38 20   8.2   4.5 | -31.9 -25.4  245  37 19   8.4   4.6
 29000 -30.0 -22.0  235  36 18   8.2   4.5 | -29.4 -20.9  240  38 19   8.4   4.6
 28000 -27.0 -16.6  225  34 17   7.2   4.0 | -26.3 -15.3  235  38 20   7.4   4.1
 27000 -24.9 -12.8  225  35 18   7.0   3.9 | -24.2 -11.6  235  39 20   7.3   4.0
 26000 -22.8  -9.0  230  35 18   7.0   3.9 | -22.0  -7.6  235  39 20   7.3   4.0
 25000 -20.7  -5.3  230  36 19   7.0   3.8 | -19.8  -3.6  235  39 20   7.1   3.9
 24000 -18.7  -1.7  230  33 17   6.6   3.6 | -17.8  -0.0  235  38 20   6.5   3.6
 23000 -16.7   1.9  235  31 16   6.7   3.7 | -15.9   3.4  235  37 19   6.5   3.6
 22000 -14.8   5.4  240  28 14   6.8   3.8 | -13.9   7.0  235  35 18   6.4   3.5
 21000 -12.7   9.1  240  26 13   7.2   3.9 | -12.0  10.4  230  33 17   6.3   3.5
 20000 -10.7  12.7  235  24 12   7.3   4.0 | -10.2  13.6  230  30 16   6.3   3.5
 19500  -9.6  14.7  235  23 12   7.3   4.0 |  -9.3  15.3  225  29 15   6.3   3.5
 19000  -8.6  16.5  235  22 11   7.0   3.8 |  -8.3  17.1  225  29 15   7.1   3.9
 18500  -7.6  18.3  230  22 11   7.0   3.8 |  -7.4  18.7  225  29 15   7.2   3.9
 18000  -6.6  20.1  230  21 11   7.1   3.9 |  -6.4  20.5  225  29 15   7.6   4.2
 17500  -5.5  22.1  225  21 11   7.2   3.9 |  -5.3  22.5  225  28 15   8.1   4.4
 17000  -4.5  23.9  220  20 10   7.1   3.9 |  -4.1  24.6  220  27 14   8.1   4.5
 16500  -3.4  25.9  215  19 10   7.8   4.3 |  -3.0  26.6  220  26 13   8.6   4.7
 16000  -2.3  27.9  210  18  9   7.7   4.2 |  -1.7  28.9  215  25 13   8.6   4.7
 15500  -1.2  29.8  205  18  9   8.4   4.6 |  -0.5  31.1  210  23 12   8.6   4.7
 15000   0.0  32.0  195  17  9   8.6   4.7 |   0.8  33.4  210  22 12   8.6   4.7
 14500   1.3  34.3  185  16  8   8.8   4.8 |   2.0  35.6  205  21 11   8.6   4.7
 14000   3.2  37.8  180  15  8   9.0   4.9 |   3.9  39.0  195  20 11   8.6   4.7
 13500   4.6  40.3  175  15  7   9.4   5.2 |   5.2  41.4  195  20 10   8.0   4.4
 13000   6.0  42.8  170  14  7   9.6   5.3 |   6.3  43.3  190  19 10   7.8   4.3
 12500   7.3  45.1  165  14  7   9.5   5.2 |   7.5  45.5  185  19 10   8.6   4.7
 12000   8.8  47.8  165  13  7   9.8   5.4 |   8.7  47.7  180  17  9   7.7   4.2
 11750   9.5  49.1  160  13  7   9.3   5.1 |   9.3  48.7  180  17  9   7.5   4.1
 11500  10.2  50.4  160  13  7  11.2   6.2 |   9.9  49.8  175  17  9   9.1   5.0
 11250  11.1  52.0  160  13  7  10.9   6.0 |  10.6  51.1  175  16  8   9.3   5.1
 11000  11.8  53.2  160  13  7   8.8   4.8 |  11.2  52.2  175  15  8   7.7   4.2
 10750  12.5  54.5  155  13  7   9.1   5.0 |  11.8  53.2  170  15  8   7.9   4.4
 10500  13.2  55.8  155  13  6   9.7   5.3 |  12.4  54.3  170  14  7   8.2   4.5
 10250  13.9  57.0  155  12  6  10.7   5.9 |  13.0  55.4  165  14  7   8.7   4.8
 10000  14.7  58.5  155  12  6  10.1   5.6 |  13.6  56.5  165  13  7   9.2   5.0
  9750  15.4  59.7  150  12  6   9.7   5.3 |  14.4  57.9  165  13  6   9.7   5.3
  9500  16.2  61.2  150  11  6   9.7   5.3 |  15.1  59.2  160  12  6   9.3   5.1
  9250  16.9  62.4  145  11  6   9.3   5.1 |  15.7  60.3  160  12  6   8.9   4.9
  9000  17.6  63.7  145  11  6   9.6   5.3 |  16.4  61.5  160  11  6   9.2   5.0
  8750  18.3  64.9  145  11  6  10.7   5.9 |  17.1  62.8  160  11  6  10.2   5.6
  8500  19.1  66.4  145  11  6  10.9   6.0 |  17.9  64.2  160  11  5  10.3   5.6
  8250  19.9  67.8  145  11  5  10.5   5.8 |  18.6  65.5  155  10  5   9.9   5.4
  8000  20.7  69.3  140  10  5  10.8   5.9 |  19.3  66.7  155  10  5  10.0   5.5
  7750  21.5  70.7  140  10  5  10.0   5.5 |  20.1  68.2  155  10  5   9.9   5.4
  7500  22.2  72.0  140  10  5  10.8   5.9 |  20.7  69.3  155   9  5   8.2   4.5
  7250  23.1  73.6  135  10  5  12.6   6.9 |  21.2  70.2  150   8  4   6.8   3.7
  7000  24.0  75.2  135   9  5  11.2   6.2 |  21.7  71.1  150   8  4   7.9   4.3
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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