Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 301141
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0541 MDT Tuesday, September 30, 2014

This forecast is for Tuesday, September 30, 2014:

If the trigger temperature of 57.0 F/13.9 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Good
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 644 ft/min (3.3 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 14113 ft MSL (7355 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 62.0 F/17.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1115 MDT
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1500 MDT
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 10545 ft MSL (3787 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/01.... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Poor
Wave Soaring Index trend (to 1800 MDT)......... Little change
Height of stable layer (12-18K ft MSL)......... None
Weak PVA/NVA (through 1800 MDT)................ Weak PVA
Potential height of wave....................... 14884 ft MSL (8126 ft AGL)
Wave soaring outlook for Wednesday 10/01....... Poor

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:54:04 / 18:44:44 MDT
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 50 min 39 sec (710 min 39 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:48:55 MDT... 48.07 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 09/30/2014 at 0600 MDT

Freezing level.................. 12368 ft MSL (5610 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 15386 ft MSL (8628 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14808 ft MSL (8051 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... -0.6
K index......................... +13.2

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -60.1 -76.2   270   38   20   3.8   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -54.1 -65.4   270   57   29   3.9   2.1      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -48.3 -54.9   275   58   30   4.0   2.2      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -46.8 -52.2   275   65   33   2.1   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -45.5 -49.9   270   74   38   2.1   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -43.3 -45.9   270   79   41   6.5   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -39.4 -38.9   275   78   40   6.5   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -35.9 -32.6   275   75   39   2.9   1.6   35.0  94.9    14.1      M    M
 29000  -35.0 -31.0   275   71   37   2.9   1.6   32.2  90.0    12.2      M    M
 28000  -34.2 -29.6   275   67   35   2.9   1.6   29.7  85.5    10.3      M    M
 27000  -33.1 -27.6   275   63   33   6.1   3.4   27.5  81.5     8.6      M    M
 26000  -31.3 -24.3   275   58   30   5.9   3.2   25.9  78.7     7.5      M    M
 25000  -29.6 -21.3   275   53   27   5.9   3.2   24.5  76.1     6.4      M    M
 24000  -27.8 -18.0   280   48   24   7.7   4.2   23.3  73.9     5.5      M    M
 23000  -25.2 -13.4   275   43   22   8.5   4.7   22.7  72.9     5.1      M    M
 22000  -22.7  -8.9   270   39   20   8.5   4.7   22.3  72.2     4.7      M    M
 21000  -20.2  -4.4   270   36   18   7.8   4.3   21.9  71.4     4.4      M    M
 20000  -17.8  -0.0   265   33   17   7.9   4.3   21.2  70.1     3.8      M    M
 19500  -16.7   1.9   260   32   16   7.9   4.3   20.9  69.5     3.6      M    M
 19000  -15.5   4.1   260   30   16   8.0   4.4   20.6  69.0     3.3      M    M
 18500  -14.4   6.1   255   29   15   7.0   3.8   20.3  68.5     3.0      M    M
 18000  -13.4   7.9   255   26   13   6.7   3.7   19.7  67.5     2.6      M    M
 17500  -12.4   9.7   250   24   12   6.8   3.7   19.2  66.6     2.1      M    M
 17000  -11.3  11.7   245   21   11   7.6   4.2   18.8  65.8     1.7      M    M
 16500  -10.2  13.6   245   18    9   7.5   4.1   18.4  65.2     1.3      M    M
 16000   -9.1  15.6   245   15    8   7.9   4.3   18.1  64.6     1.0      M    M
 15500   -7.9  17.8   245   13    7   7.9   4.3   17.8  64.0     0.7      M    M
 15000   -6.1  21.0   250   10    5   8.4   4.6   17.4  63.3     0.3      M    M
 14500   -4.9  23.2   270    8    4   8.4   4.6   17.1  62.9     0.1      M    M
 14000   -3.7  25.3   290    7    4   7.9   4.3   16.9  62.4    -0.1    622  3.2
 13500   -2.5  27.5   300    7    4   7.9   4.3   16.6  61.9    -0.4    572  2.9
 13000   -1.3  29.7   310    8    4   8.1   4.4   16.3  61.3    -0.7    523  2.7
 12500   -0.1  31.8   325   11    6   8.1   4.4   16.0  60.9    -1.0    472  2.4
 12000    1.0  33.8   325   15    7   7.0   3.9   15.8  60.4    -1.3    422  2.1
 11750    1.5  34.7   325   16    8   6.4   3.5   15.5  59.9    -1.6    401  2.0
 11500    2.0  35.6   325   18   10   6.5   3.6   15.2  59.4    -1.8    379  1.9
 11250    2.4  36.3   325   20   11   6.7   3.7   15.0  59.0    -2.1    358  1.8
 11000    2.9  37.2   325   23   12   5.6   3.1   14.7  58.5    -2.3    336  1.7
 10750    3.3  37.9   320   24   13   4.7   2.6   14.3  57.8    -2.8    318  1.6
 10500    3.6  38.5   315   26   13   4.9   2.7   14.0  57.1    -3.2    301  1.5
 10250    3.9  39.0   315   27   14   5.0   2.8   13.6  56.4    -3.5    283  1.4
 10000    4.3  39.7   310   28   15   5.2   2.8   13.2  55.8    -3.9    265  1.3
  9750    4.6  40.3   310   27   14   4.6   2.5   12.9  55.1    -4.3    247  1.3
  9500    4.9  40.8   305   26   14   4.3   2.4   12.4  54.4    -4.8    231  1.2
  9250    5.2  41.4   300   25   13   4.5   2.5   12.0  53.7    -5.2    214  1.1
  9000    5.6  42.1   300   24   12   5.2   2.8   11.7  53.0    -5.6    197  1.0
  8750    5.9  42.6   295   23   12   4.8   2.6   11.3  52.4    -6.0    179  0.9
  8500    6.3  43.3   290   21   11   4.5   2.5   10.9  51.6    -6.4    162  0.8
  8250    6.6  43.9   285   19   10   3.7   2.0   10.5  50.9    -6.9    145  0.7
  8000    6.7  44.1   285   16    8   1.2   0.7    9.9  49.9    -7.4    133  0.7
  7750    6.8  44.2   275   14    7   3.0   1.7    9.3  48.8    -8.1    123  0.6
  7500    7.3  45.1   270   10    5   8.8   4.8    9.0  48.3    -8.4    102  0.5
  7250    7.6  45.7   255    8    4  -4.9  -2.7    8.7  47.7    -8.7     84  0.4
  7000    6.1  43.0   255    6    3 -32.8 -18.0    7.1  44.8   -10.4    121  0.6
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           09/30/2014 at 0900 MDT          |       09/30/2014 at 1200 MDT
                                           |
K index... +7.7  LI... +3.2                | K index... +5.3  LI... +3.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.0 -76.0  260  30 16   3.8   2.1 | -60.0 -76.0  250  24 12   2.5   1.3
 45000 -54.3 -65.7  265  44 23   2.7   1.5 | -56.5 -69.7  260  34 18   1.2   0.6
 40000 -50.3 -58.5  275  56 29   2.8   1.5 | -54.7 -66.5  260  52 27   0.8   0.4
 38000 -49.0 -56.2  275  62 32   2.0   1.1 | -52.2 -62.0  260  56 29   4.7   2.6
 36000 -47.8 -54.0  280  68 35   2.0   1.1 | -49.4 -56.9  265  60 31   4.7   2.6
 34000 -45.3 -49.5  280  72 37   7.6   4.2 | -45.7 -50.3  265  62 32   7.8   4.3
 32000 -40.8 -41.4  285  74 38   7.5   4.1 | -41.1 -42.0  265  61 31   7.8   4.3
 30000 -35.7 -32.3  285  75 39   7.4   4.0 | -35.6 -32.1  265  58 30   8.5   4.7
 29000 -33.5 -28.3  285  75 38   7.4   4.0 | -33.0 -27.4  265  56 29   8.5   4.7
 28000 -31.3 -24.3  285  74 38   7.4   4.1 | -30.5 -22.9  265  54 28   8.5   4.7
 27000 -29.1 -20.4  285  73 38   6.9   3.8 | -28.1 -18.6  265  52 27   7.6   4.2
 26000 -27.1 -16.8  285  71 37   6.9   3.8 | -25.8 -14.4  270  51 26   7.6   4.2
 25000 -25.0 -13.0  290  69 36   6.9   3.8 | -23.5 -10.3  270  50 25   7.7   4.2
 24000 -23.0  -9.4  290  66 34   5.1   2.8 | -21.4  -6.5  275  48 25   6.2   3.4
 23000 -21.6  -6.9  285  57 29   4.8   2.6 | -19.4  -2.9  275  45 23   6.3   3.5
 22000 -20.1  -4.2  285  48 25   4.8   2.6 | -17.5   0.5  280  43 22   6.3   3.5
 21000 -18.6  -1.5  280  40 21   6.5   3.6 | -15.7   3.7  280  40 21   6.0   3.3
 20000 -16.7   1.9  275  35 18   6.4   3.5 | -13.8   7.2  275  38 20   6.1   3.3
 19500 -15.7   3.7  265  33 17   6.4   3.5 | -12.9   8.8  275  38 19   6.1   3.3
 19000 -14.8   5.4  260  32 16   6.5   3.6 | -12.0  10.4  270  37 19   6.2   3.4
 18500 -13.9   7.0  255  30 15   4.9   2.7 | -11.2  11.8  270  36 19   3.9   2.1
 18000 -13.3   8.1  250  27 14   4.5   2.5 | -10.7  12.7  260  35 18   3.6   2.0
 17500 -12.7   9.1  245  24 12   4.8   2.6 | -10.2  13.6  255  35 18   3.5   1.9
 17000 -11.8  10.8  245  20 10   6.2   3.4 |  -9.7  14.5  250  33 17   3.3   1.8
 16500 -11.0  12.2  240  16  8   6.1   3.4 |  -9.2  15.4  250  29 15   3.2   1.8
 16000 -10.0  14.0  240  12  6   6.7   3.7 |  -8.7  16.3  250  25 13   4.6   2.5
 15500  -9.1  15.6  235  10  5   6.8   3.7 |  -8.0  17.6  245  22 11   4.7   2.6
 15000  -7.4  18.7  215   6  3   8.8   4.8 |  -6.9  19.6  245  16  8   6.5   3.5
 14500  -6.1  21.0  195   5  3   8.6   4.7 |  -6.0  21.2  235  13  6   6.2   3.4
 14000  -4.9  23.2  175   4  2   8.4   4.6 |  -5.0  23.0  225  10  5   7.1   3.9
 13500  -3.6  25.5  155   4  2   8.4   4.6 |  -3.9  25.0  215   9  4   7.1   3.9
 13000  -2.4  27.7  135   3  2   8.7   4.8 |  -2.9  26.8  205   8  4   7.7   4.2
 12500  -1.1  30.0  110   1  1   8.9   4.9 |  -1.7  28.9  200   7  4   7.7   4.2
 12000   0.0  32.0  035   1  1   1.2   0.7 |  -0.7  30.7  215   5  3   7.6   4.2
 11750  -0.2  31.6  085   1  1  -5.2  -2.9 |  -0.1  31.8  220   4  2   8.3   4.6
 11500  -0.2  31.6  095   1  1  10.2   5.6 |   0.5  32.9  230   4  2   7.6   4.2
 11250   1.2  34.2  340   4  2  21.4  11.7 |   1.1  34.0  240   4  2   9.8   5.4
 11000   2.3  36.1  335   8  4   5.9   3.2 |   1.8  35.2  235   3  2  10.3   5.6
 10750   2.2  36.0  335   8  4  -3.4  -1.9 |   2.5  36.5  245   3  2   8.5   4.6
 10500   2.2  36.0  335   8  4   2.1   1.2 |   3.1  37.6  250   3  2   9.2   5.1
 10250   2.7  36.9  330  10  5  15.0   8.2 |   3.8  38.8  260   3  1   8.1   4.5
 10000   3.9  39.0  325  14  7   9.1   5.0 |   4.3  39.7  265   3  1   8.5   4.6
  9750   3.9  39.0  325  15  7  -0.8  -0.5 |   5.0  41.0  270   3  1  10.2   5.6
  9500   4.0  39.2  325  15  8  -1.3  -0.7 |   5.8  42.4  270   3  1  10.3   5.7
  9250   4.0  39.2  325  15  8  10.5   5.8 |   6.6  43.9  265   3  1  10.1   5.5
  9000   5.3  41.5  315  14  7  14.7   8.1 |   7.3  45.1  265   3  1   9.6   5.3
  8750   5.7  42.3  310  14  7   3.5   1.9 |   8.0  46.4  265   3  1  10.0   5.5
  8500   6.2  43.2  310  14  7  10.3   5.6 |   8.8  47.8  265   3  1  10.2   5.6
  8250   6.6  43.9  305  14  7  -5.5  -3.0 |   9.5  49.1  265   3  1  10.4   5.7
  8000   5.9  42.6  310  14  7  -0.9  -0.5 |  10.4  50.7  265   2  1  11.1   6.1
  7750   6.9  44.4  305  12  6  18.1   9.9 |  11.2  52.2  260   2  1   9.9   5.4
  7500   7.8  46.0  295  10  5  11.2   6.1 |  11.8  53.2  260   2  1   8.5   4.7
  7250   8.4  47.1  290  10  5   1.9   1.1 |  12.5  54.5  260   2  1  11.5   6.3
  7000   8.2  46.8  290  10  5  -3.5  -1.9 |  13.5  56.3  255   2  1  15.7   8.6
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           09/30/2014 at 1500 MDT          |       09/30/2014 at 1800 MDT
                                           |
K index... +15.6  LI... +2.5               | K index... +23.7  LI... -0.5
CAPE... +12.7  CIN... -1.5                 | CAPE... +25.4  CIN... -8.4
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -60.2 -76.4  255  20 10   1.7   0.9 | -59.9 -75.8  260  23 12   1.8   1.0
 45000 -57.5 -71.5  265  30 15   2.0   1.1 | -56.8 -70.2  270  31 16   3.0   1.6
 40000 -54.5 -66.1  265  51 26   1.7   0.9 | -52.4 -62.3  255  52 27   3.0   1.6
 38000 -52.2 -62.0  265  56 29   4.2   2.3 | -50.8 -59.4  255  58 30   2.5   1.3
 36000 -49.7 -57.5  265  59 30   4.2   2.3 | -49.4 -56.9  255  64 33   2.5   1.3
 34000 -46.3 -51.3  265  58 30   7.8   4.3 | -46.5 -51.7  255  66 34   8.0   4.4
 32000 -41.6 -42.9  265  52 27   7.7   4.2 | -41.7 -43.1  250  61 31   8.0   4.4
 30000 -36.1 -33.0  265  48 25   8.7   4.8 | -36.4 -33.5  250  54 28   7.6   4.2
 29000 -33.5 -28.3  260  48 25   8.7   4.8 | -34.1 -29.4  255  50 26   7.6   4.2
 28000 -30.9 -23.6  260  48 25   8.7   4.8 | -31.9 -25.4  260  47 24   7.6   4.2
 27000 -28.3 -18.9  260  47 24   8.0   4.4 | -29.6 -21.3  265  45 23   7.5   4.1
 26000 -25.9 -14.6  265  47 24   8.0   4.4 | -27.4 -17.3  260  46 23   7.5   4.1
 25000 -23.5 -10.3  265  46 24   8.0   4.4 | -25.1 -13.2  255  46 24   7.5   4.1
 24000 -21.2  -6.2  265  45 23   6.6   3.6 | -23.0  -9.4  255  46 24   6.0   3.3
 23000 -19.2  -2.6  265  44 23   6.8   3.7 | -21.2  -6.2  255  44 23   6.1   3.3
 22000 -17.2   1.0  265  42 22   6.8   3.7 | -19.4  -2.9  255  42 21   6.1   3.3
 21000 -15.3   4.5  265  41 21   6.0   3.3 | -17.6   0.3  255  39 20   6.2   3.4
 20000 -13.5   7.7  260  39 20   6.1   3.3 | -15.8   3.6  255  36 19   6.2   3.4
 19500 -12.6   9.3  260  38 20   6.1   3.3 | -14.8   5.4  260  35 18   6.2   3.4
 19000 -11.7  10.9  260  37 19   6.3   3.4 | -13.9   7.0  260  33 17   6.2   3.4
 18500 -10.9  12.4  260  36 19   3.6   2.0 | -13.0   8.6  260  32 16   6.8   3.7
 18000 -10.4  13.3  255  36 19   3.4   1.8 | -12.0  10.4  260  30 16   6.9   3.8
 17500  -9.9  14.2  255  36 18   3.4   1.9 | -11.0  12.2  265  29 15   6.7   3.7
 17000  -9.4  15.1  255  33 17   3.7   2.0 | -10.1  13.8  265  27 14   6.4   3.5
 16500  -9.0  15.8  265  30 16   3.6   2.0 |  -9.2  15.4  270  25 13   6.3   3.4
 16000  -8.3  17.1  270  28 14   5.7   3.1 |  -8.2  17.2  270  23 12   8.0   4.4
 15500  -7.6  18.3  275  25 13   5.7   3.1 |  -7.0  19.4  270  21 11   7.9   4.3
 15000  -6.3  20.7  280  21 11   7.1   3.9 |  -5.9  21.4  265  19 10   8.0   4.4
 14500  -5.3  22.5  285  17  9   6.9   3.8 |  -4.1  24.6  265  15  8   8.0   4.4
 14000  -4.2  24.4  285  14  7   8.2   4.5 |  -2.9  26.8  265  13  7   9.2   5.0
 13500  -3.0  26.6  285  11  5   8.2   4.5 |  -1.5  29.3  265  12  6   9.2   5.1
 13000  -1.8  28.8  280   8  4   8.4   4.6 |  -0.2  31.6  260  11  6   8.4   4.6
 12500  -0.5  31.1  265   6  3   8.6   4.7 |   1.0  33.8  255   9  5   8.1   4.4
 12000   0.8  33.4  255   5  2   8.8   4.8 |   2.2  36.0  245   8  4   7.9   4.3
 11750   1.5  34.7  250   5  2   8.6   4.7 |   2.8  37.0  240   7  4   7.9   4.3
 11500   2.1  35.8  240   4  2   8.2   4.5 |   3.4  38.1  230   7  4   7.9   4.3
 11250   2.8  37.0  230   4  2  10.0   5.5 |   4.0  39.2  225   7  4   7.8   4.3
 11000   3.6  38.5  215   4  2  10.5   5.7 |   4.6  40.3  220   7  4   7.5   4.1
 10750   4.3  39.7  210   4  2   9.0   4.9 |   5.1  41.2  210   7  4   7.4   4.1
 10500   5.0  41.0  205   4  2   9.6   5.3 |   5.7  42.3  205   7  4   7.5   4.1
 10250   5.7  42.3  200   4  2   8.8   4.8 |   6.2  43.2  200   8  4   7.3   4.0
 10000   6.3  43.3  195   5  2   9.2   5.0 |   6.8  44.2  195   9  4   7.0   3.9
  9750   7.0  44.6  190   5  2  10.2   5.6 |   7.3  45.1  190   9  5   7.1   3.9
  9500   7.8  46.0  190   5  3  10.1   5.6 |   7.8  46.0  185  10  5   7.2   4.0
  9250   8.6  47.5  185   5  3  10.0   5.5 |   8.3  46.9  185  10  5   7.0   3.8
  9000   9.3  48.7  185   5  3   9.8   5.4 |   8.8  47.8  180  10  5   6.6   3.6
  8750  10.0  50.0  185   5  3  10.1   5.5 |   9.4  48.9  180  10  5   8.3   4.5
  8500  10.8  51.4  180   5  3  10.5   5.7 |  10.1  50.2  175  10  5   9.7   5.3
  8250  11.6  52.9  180   6  3  10.3   5.7 |  10.8  51.4  170  11  5   9.1   5.0
  8000  12.4  54.3  175   6  3  10.5   5.8 |  11.4  52.5  170  10  5   8.7   4.8
  7750  13.1  55.6  175   6  3   9.7   5.3 |  12.0  53.6  170  10  5   8.4   4.6
  7500  13.8  56.8  175   6  3   7.8   4.3 |  12.7  54.9  170  10  5   9.0   4.9
  7250  14.4  57.9  170   6  3  10.9   6.0 |  13.3  55.9  170   9  5   7.1   3.9
  7000  15.5  59.9  170   6  3  18.1   9.9 |  13.6  56.5  165   9  4   2.4   1.3
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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