Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 041323
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0623 MST Thursday, February 4, 2016

This forecast is for Thursday, February 4, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 27.6 F/-2.4 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 354 ft/min (1.8 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 12179 ft MSL (5421 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 30.0 F/-1.6 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1100 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1400 MST
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Overcast thin high
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8281 ft MSL (1523 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 02/05....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:02:43 / 17:22:08 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 19 min 26 sec (619 min 26 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:12:46 MST... 34.88 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 02/04/2016 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 21003 ft MSL (14245 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 14632 ft MSL (7874 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +14.1
K index......................... -19.9

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -53.4 -64.1   290   36   18   0.3   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -52.9 -63.2   305   48   25   0.4   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -59.4 -74.9   325   55   28  -5.1  -2.8      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -62.1 -79.8   335   60   31   2.1   1.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -60.8 -77.4   335   70   36   2.1   1.2      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -59.5 -75.1   340   80   41   1.9   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -54.7 -66.5   335   83   42   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -49.8 -57.6   335   83   43   8.7   4.8      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -47.0 -52.6   335   82   42   9.2   5.0   20.2  68.3    16.4      M    M
 28000  -44.3 -47.7   335   81   42   9.2   5.0   19.9  67.9    16.4      M    M
 27000  -41.5 -42.7   340   80   41   9.2   5.0   19.8  67.6    16.5      M    M
 26000  -38.9 -38.0   340   78   40   8.2   4.5   19.4  66.9    16.4      M    M
 25000  -36.5 -33.7   345   77   40   8.2   4.5   18.7  65.7    16.1      M    M
 24000  -34.0 -29.2   345   76   39   8.1   4.5   18.2  64.8    15.8      M    M
 23000  -31.7 -25.1   345   75   39   7.3   4.0   17.5  63.5    15.4      M    M
 22000  -29.5 -21.1   350   74   38   7.3   4.0   16.5  61.8    14.8      M    M
 21000  -27.3 -17.1   350   72   37   7.5   4.1   15.7  60.3    14.3      M    M
 20000  -25.6 -14.1   350   69   35   4.9   2.7   14.3  57.7    13.2      M    M
 19500  -24.9 -12.8   345   67   34   4.9   2.7   13.4  56.1    12.5      M    M
 19000  -24.2 -11.6   345   65   33   4.9   2.7   12.6  54.7    11.9      M    M
 18500  -23.4 -10.1   340   63   32   5.0   2.7   11.8  53.3    11.3      M    M
 18000  -22.7  -8.9   340   61   31   4.6   2.5   11.0  51.8    10.6      M    M
 17500  -22.0  -7.6   340   57   30   4.5   2.5   10.1  50.2     9.9      M    M
 17000  -21.3  -6.3   335   54   28   4.3   2.4    9.2  48.6     9.2      M    M
 16500  -20.7  -5.3   335   50   26   3.9   2.1    8.3  46.9     8.4      M    M
 16000  -20.2  -4.4   335   46   24   3.9   2.2    7.3  45.1     7.5      M    M
 15500  -19.7  -3.5   335   39   20   1.7   0.9    5.4  41.7     5.9      M    M
 15000  -19.4  -2.9   335   34   18   2.0   1.1    4.1  39.3     4.7      M    M
 14500  -19.1  -2.4   335   30   15   2.7   1.5    2.9  37.2     3.6      M    M
 14000  -18.7  -1.7   330   26   13   3.1   1.7    1.7  35.1     2.6      M    M
 13500  -18.1  -0.6   330   22   11   4.5   2.5    0.8  33.4     1.7      M    M
 13000  -17.4   0.7   325   19   10   4.7   2.6   -0.1  31.9     0.9      M    M
 12500  -16.6   2.1   325   17    9   6.0   3.3   -0.7  30.7     0.3      M    M
 12000  -15.7   3.7   325   16    8   4.9   2.7   -1.3  29.6    -0.3    434  2.2
 11750  -15.3   4.5   325   16    8   6.1   3.4   -1.7  28.9    -0.7    416  2.1
 11500  -14.8   5.4   330   16    8   8.1   4.4   -1.9  28.6    -0.9    391  2.0
 11250  -14.2   6.4   330   16    8   7.5   4.1   -2.1  28.3    -1.0    367  1.9
 11000  -13.6   7.5   335   16    8   7.8   4.3   -2.2  28.0    -1.2    342  1.7
 10750  -13.0   8.6   335   16    8   8.7   4.8   -2.3  27.8    -1.3    317  1.6
 10500  -12.3   9.9   340   17    9   9.2   5.0   -2.4  27.7    -1.4    289  1.5
 10250  -11.7  10.9   340   17    9   9.3   5.1   -2.4  27.6    -1.4    261  1.3
 10000  -11.0  12.2   345   18    9   7.9   4.3   -2.5  27.5    -1.5    234  1.2
  9750  -10.4  13.3   345   19   10   8.2   4.5   -2.7  27.2    -1.7    210  1.1
  9500   -9.7  14.5   340   19   10  10.0   5.5   -2.7  27.1    -1.7    181  0.9
  9250   -9.0  15.8   340   20   10   8.8   4.8   -2.7  27.1    -1.7    153  0.8
  9000   -8.4  16.9   335   20   10   7.5   4.1   -2.9  26.9    -1.9    128  0.6
  8750   -8.0  17.6   330   21   11   4.7   2.6   -3.1  26.4    -2.1    106  0.5
  8500   -7.7  18.1   325   22   11   4.9   2.7   -3.6  25.6    -2.6     90  0.5
  8250   -7.4  18.7   320   23   12  -2.9  -1.6   -4.1  24.7    -3.1     75  0.4
  8000   -8.1  17.4   310   23   12 -11.7  -6.4   -5.5  22.1    -4.5     89  0.5
  7750   -8.9  16.0   305   24   12  -7.4  -4.0   -7.0  19.4    -6.0    103  0.5
  7500   -9.4  15.1   295   21   11 -10.1  -5.5   -8.3  17.1    -7.3    113  0.6
  7250  -10.5  13.1   290   18    9 -18.4 -10.1   -9.8  14.3    -8.9    138  0.7
  7000  -12.0  10.4   290   14    7 -20.5 -11.2  -11.6  11.1   -10.6    176  0.9
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           02/04/2016 at 0800 MST          |       02/04/2016 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -8.1  LI... +281.3              | K index... -4.9  LI... +279.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.9                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -53.9 -65.0  295  38 19   0.4   0.2 | -54.3 -65.7  295  39 20   0.3   0.2
 45000 -53.2 -63.8  305  47 24   0.4   0.2 | -53.9 -65.0  305  43 22   0.3   0.1
 40000 -62.8 -81.0  315  58 30  -7.4  -4.0 | -61.7 -79.1  295  44 22  -5.8  -3.2
 38000 -66.0 -86.8  320  62 32   6.8   3.7 | -63.6 -82.5  295  45 23   4.0   2.2
 36000 -62.7 -80.9  320  63 32   5.5   3.0 | -61.0 -77.8  290  47 24   4.4   2.4
 34000 -59.4 -74.9  325  64 33   5.0   2.8 | -58.4 -73.1  290  50 26   5.7   3.1
 32000 -53.5 -64.3  320  67 34   9.2   5.0 | -53.6 -64.5  290  50 26   8.2   4.5
 30000 -48.0 -54.4  315  69 35   8.1   4.4 | -48.7 -55.7  295  50 26   8.1   4.5
 29000 -45.8 -50.4  320  67 34   7.6   4.2 | -46.3 -51.3  295  50 26   7.9   4.3
 28000 -43.5 -46.3  320  65 33   7.6   4.2 | -44.0 -47.2  295  50 26   7.9   4.3
 27000 -41.2 -42.2  325  63 33   7.6   4.2 | -41.0 -41.8  295  49 25   7.9   4.3
 26000 -38.7 -37.7  325  60 31   8.3   4.6 | -38.5 -37.3  300  46 23   8.5   4.6
 25000 -36.2 -33.2  330  57 29   8.3   4.6 | -36.0 -32.8  300  42 21   8.5   4.6
 24000 -33.7 -28.7  335  54 28   8.3   4.6 | -33.5 -28.3  305  38 19   8.5   4.7
 23000 -31.4 -24.5  335  52 27   7.7   4.2 | -31.0 -23.8  310  35 18   8.0   4.4
 22000 -29.1 -20.4  340  51 27   7.7   4.2 | -28.7 -19.7  310  33 17   8.0   4.4
 21000 -26.8 -16.2  340  51 26   7.7   4.2 | -26.3 -15.3  315  31 16   7.7   4.2
 20000 -24.6 -12.3  340  52 27   7.0   3.8 | -24.1 -11.4  320  31 16   7.1   3.9
 19500 -23.6 -10.5  345  52 27   7.0   3.8 | -23.1  -9.6  325  31 16   7.1   3.9
 19000 -22.6  -8.7  345  53 27   7.0   3.8 | -22.0  -7.6  325  32 16   7.1   3.9
 18500 -21.5  -6.7  345  53 27   7.2   3.9 | -21.0  -5.8  330  32 16   7.1   3.9
 18000 -20.6  -5.1  345  53 27   5.7   3.1 | -19.9  -3.8  335  32 17   6.7   3.7
 17500 -19.7  -3.5  345  54 28   5.7   3.2 | -18.9  -2.0  335  32 17   6.8   3.7
 17000 -18.9  -2.0  345  54 28   5.3   2.9 | -18.0  -0.4  340  32 17   6.6   3.6
 16500 -18.1  -0.6  345  52 27   4.9   2.7 | -17.0   1.4  340  32 17   6.5   3.6
 16000 -17.1   1.2  340  48 25   3.8   2.1 | -16.0   3.2  340  32 17   6.1   3.3
 15500 -16.6   2.1  340  44 23   3.5   1.9 | -15.2   4.6  340  31 16   5.5   3.0
 15000 -16.0   3.2  340  40 21   3.0   1.6 | -14.4   6.1  340  31 16   5.3   2.9
 14500 -15.7   3.7  340  34 18   2.5   1.4 | -13.7   7.3  335  29 15   3.9   2.2
 14000 -15.3   4.5  335  29 15   3.0   1.6 | -12.8   9.0  335  26 14   3.4   1.9
 13500 -14.7   5.5  330  24 12   4.0   2.2 | -12.4   9.7  330  24 12   3.0   1.7
 13000 -14.1   6.6  325  20 10   3.5   1.9 | -11.9  10.6  330  21 11   3.5   1.9
 12500 -13.7   7.3  325  17  9   2.2   1.2 | -11.3  11.7  325  18 10   3.9   2.1
 12000 -13.4   7.9  325  14  7   1.8   1.0 | -10.7  12.7  320  16  8   3.8   2.1
 11750 -13.3   8.1  320  12  6   2.8   1.5 | -10.5  13.1  320  14  7   2.7   1.5
 11500 -13.0   8.6  320  11  6   3.7   2.0 | -10.3  13.5  315  13  6   2.8   1.5
 11250 -12.8   9.0  320  10  5   3.3   1.8 | -10.1  13.8  310  11  6   3.1   1.7
 11000 -12.5   9.5  320   8  4   4.2   2.3 |  -9.9  14.2  305  10  5   0.8   0.4
 10750 -12.1  10.2  325   7  4   5.6   3.1 |  -9.9  14.2  300   9  4  -0.5  -0.3
 10500 -11.7  10.9  330   6  3   5.8   3.2 |  -9.9  14.2  295   7  4   0.6   0.3
 10250 -11.3  11.7  335   6  3   5.8   3.2 |  -9.9  14.2  280   6  3   0.5   0.3
 10000 -10.8  12.6  340   5  3   6.1   3.3 |  -9.8  14.4  265   5  3   1.4   0.8
  9750 -10.3  13.5  350   5  2   8.4   4.6 |  -9.6  14.7  245   4  2   3.2   1.8
  9500  -9.6  14.7  350   5  3  10.0   5.5 |  -9.4  15.1  220   4  2   3.6   2.0
  9250  -8.9  16.0  355   6  3   9.2   5.1 |  -9.1  15.6  190   4  2   4.9   2.7
  9000  -8.2  17.2  355   6  3   8.9   4.9 |  -8.6  16.5  175   4  2   6.9   3.8
  8750  -7.6  18.3  355   6  3   7.4   4.1 |  -8.1  17.4  165   5  3   8.1   4.5
  8500  -7.0  19.4  345   7  3   8.2   4.5 |  -7.4  18.7  160   5  3   9.3   5.1
  8250  -6.6  20.1  340   7  4   0.1   0.1 |  -6.8  19.8  150   5  3   7.7   4.2
  8000  -7.0  19.4  325   9  5  -7.8  -4.3 |  -6.3  20.7  150   4  2   6.7   3.7
  7750  -7.5  18.5  315  11  6  -5.0  -2.7 |  -5.8  21.6  150   3  2   7.0   3.8
  7500  -8.0  17.6  300  12  6 -10.7  -5.9 |  -5.4  22.3  175   3  1   5.6   3.1
  7250  -9.2  15.4  295  12  6 -19.1 -10.5 |  -5.0  23.0  200   2  1   4.1   2.3
  7000 -10.7  12.7  290  11  6 -19.9 -10.9 |  -4.8  23.4  225   2  1   4.5   2.5
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           02/04/2016 at 1400 MST          |       02/04/2016 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -2.2  LI... +277.8              | K index... +13.4  LI... +276.0
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.0
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -54.8 -66.6  285  38 19   0.1   0.0 | -54.8 -66.6  285  37 19   0.0   0.0
 45000 -54.7 -66.5  295  39 20   0.0   0.0 | -54.8 -66.6  285  39 20   0.0   0.0
 40000 -60.3 -76.5  270  43 22  -4.0  -2.2 | -55.5 -67.9  270  50 26  -0.5  -0.3
 38000 -61.8 -79.2  260  47 24   1.7   0.9 | -56.0 -68.8  265  54 28  -1.9  -1.1
 36000 -60.7 -77.3  260  54 28   1.8   1.0 | -57.2 -71.0  255  56 29  -2.0  -1.1
 34000 -59.6 -75.3  260  62 32   3.7   2.0 | -58.4 -73.1  245  59 31  -2.5  -1.4
 32000 -54.6 -66.3  260  55 28   8.5   4.7 | -55.0 -67.0  240  55 29   6.6   3.6
 30000 -49.6 -57.3  260  48 25   8.6   4.7 | -51.1 -60.0  240  51 26   7.2   4.0
 29000 -47.0 -52.6  260  46 24   8.5   4.6 | -48.5 -55.3  240  48 24   9.0   5.0
 28000 -44.5 -48.1  260  44 23   8.5   4.6 | -45.1 -49.2  240  43 22   9.0   5.0
 27000 -41.3 -42.3  260  41 21   8.4   4.6 | -42.4 -44.3  240  40 21   9.2   5.0
 26000 -38.9 -38.0  260  39 20   8.1   4.4 | -39.9 -39.8  240  38 20   7.8   4.3
 25000 -36.5 -33.7  260  37 19   8.1   4.5 | -37.6 -35.7  240  37 19   7.8   4.3
 24000 -34.1 -29.4  265  34 18   8.2   4.5 | -35.3 -31.5  240  35 18   7.8   4.3
 23000 -31.8 -25.2  265  31 16   7.5   4.1 | -33.0 -27.4  240  34 17   7.9   4.3
 22000 -29.5 -21.1  265  28 14   7.6   4.1 | -30.6 -23.1  235  32 16   7.9   4.3
 21000 -27.3 -17.1  265  25 13   7.7   4.2 | -28.2 -18.8  230  30 15   7.8   4.3
 20000 -24.9 -12.8  270  22 11   8.0   4.4 | -26.1 -15.0  230  27 14   7.1   3.9
 19500 -23.7 -10.7  275  20 10   8.0   4.4 | -25.1 -13.2  230  25 13   7.1   3.9
 19000 -22.5  -8.5  275  19 10   8.0   4.4 | -24.0 -11.2  225  24 12   7.1   3.9
 18500 -21.3  -6.3  280  18  9   7.7   4.2 | -23.0  -9.4  225  22 11   7.2   3.9
 18000 -20.3  -4.5  285  16  8   6.7   3.7 | -21.8  -7.2  225  21 11   7.8   4.3
 17500 -19.3  -2.7  295  14  7   6.7   3.7 | -20.7  -5.3  225  20 10   7.8   4.3
 17000 -18.2  -0.8  300  13  7   7.9   4.4 | -19.6  -3.3  225  19 10   7.7   4.2
 16500 -17.0   1.4  305  14  7   8.0   4.4 | -18.4  -1.1  225  17  9   7.6   4.2
 16000 -15.8   3.6  310  14  7   7.2   3.9 | -17.3   0.9  225  16  8   7.2   3.9
 15500 -14.9   5.2  310  14  7   6.5   3.6 | -16.3   2.7  230  14  7   6.5   3.5
 15000 -13.9   7.0  305  14  7   6.2   3.4 | -15.4   4.3  235  13  7   6.4   3.5
 14500 -13.1   8.4  305  13  7   5.0   2.7 | -14.4   6.1  245  13  6   6.4   3.5
 14000 -12.0  10.4  300  13  7   4.6   2.5 | -13.0   8.6  260  14  7   5.3   2.9
 13500 -11.4  11.5  295  13  7   4.3   2.4 | -12.3   9.9  265  14  7   4.5   2.5
 13000 -10.7  12.7  295  13  7   4.0   2.2 | -11.6  11.1  275  14  7   4.3   2.4
 12500 -10.2  13.6  290  12  6   4.1   2.2 | -11.0  12.2  280  14  7   4.4   2.4
 12000  -9.7  14.5  290  11  6   2.7   1.5 | -10.5  13.1  285  15  8   4.9   2.7
 11750  -9.4  15.1  290  11  5   4.1   2.2 | -10.0  14.0  290  14  7   7.7   4.2
 11500  -9.1  15.6  290  10  5   3.7   2.0 |  -9.5  14.9  290  14  7   7.3   4.0
 11250  -8.8  16.2  290   9  5   3.9   2.1 |  -9.0  15.8  290  13  7   8.0   4.4
 11000  -8.6  16.5  285   9  5   2.5   1.4 |  -8.4  16.9  290  13  7   5.3   2.9
 10750  -8.5  16.7  280   9  5   2.1   1.2 |  -8.1  17.4  285  12  6   5.4   3.0
 10500  -8.3  17.1  275   9  4   3.0   1.6 |  -7.6  18.3  280  11  6   8.2   4.5
 10250  -8.1  17.4  270   9  4   2.5   1.4 |  -7.0  19.4  280  10  5   7.3   4.0
 10000  -7.9  17.8  265   9  4   0.9   0.5 |  -6.6  20.1  270  10  5   1.9   1.1
  9750  -7.9  17.8  255   8  4   1.2   0.7 |  -6.6  20.1  260  10  5   0.4   0.2
  9500  -7.7  18.1  245   9  4   2.6   1.4 |  -6.4  20.5  250  10  5   3.8   2.1
  9250  -7.6  18.3  235   9  5   1.8   1.0 |  -6.1  21.0  240  10  5   1.8   1.0
  9000  -7.5  18.5  225  10  5   0.7   0.4 |  -6.1  21.0  230  10  5  -0.4  -0.2
  8750  -7.4  18.7  215  10  5   1.7   0.9 |  -6.1  21.0  215  11  6  -1.7  -0.9
  8500  -7.3  18.9  200  11  6   3.0   1.6 |  -6.3  20.7  210  12  6  -2.4  -1.3
  8250  -7.0  19.4  190  12  6   4.9   2.7 |  -6.4  20.5  200  14  7  -1.3  -0.7
  8000  -6.6  20.1  185  11  6   6.2   3.4 |  -6.5  20.3  195  13  7  -0.5  -0.3
  7750  -6.2  20.8  180  11  6   7.4   4.0 |  -6.5  20.3  190  13  7   0.2   0.1
  7500  -5.5  22.1  175  11  6   8.1   4.5 |  -6.5  20.3  180  13  6   1.6   0.9
  7250  -5.0  23.0  170  10  5   6.1   3.3 |  -6.4  20.5  175  11  6   1.3   0.7
  7000  -4.6  23.7  170   9  5   6.5   3.6 |  -6.3  20.7  175   9  5   1.2   0.7
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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