Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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415
UXUS97 KPUB 081054
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0354 MST Thursday, December 8, 2016

This forecast is for Thursday, December 8, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 22.7 F/-5.2 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 9547 ft MSL (2789 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 18.0 F/-8.2 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ 1100 MST
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8464 ft MSL (1706 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Friday 12/09....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:05:36 / 16:36:52 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 9 hr 31 min 16 sec (571 min 16 sec)
Altitude of sun at 11:51:19 MST... 28.30 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 12/08/2016 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. Entire airmass below 32 F / 0 C
Convective condensation level... 19597 ft MSL (12839 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11611 ft MSL (4853 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +19.4
K index......................... -36.6

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -59.2 -74.6   285   69   36   3.2   1.8      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -54.3 -65.7   285   78   40   3.2   1.7      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -53.5 -64.3   280   88   45   0.3   0.2      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -53.5 -64.3   280   91   47  -1.6  -0.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -54.4 -65.9   280   86   44  -1.5  -0.8      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -55.3 -67.5   280   82   42  -1.8  -1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -52.8 -63.0   280   81   42   4.9   2.7      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -49.9 -57.8   280   81   42   6.6   3.6      M     M       M      M    M
 29000  -47.2 -53.0   280   81   41   9.0   5.0   20.4  68.7    21.7      M    M
 28000  -44.5 -48.1   280   80   41   9.0   5.0   20.1  68.2    21.7      M    M
 27000  -41.8 -43.2   280   79   41   9.0   5.0   19.9  67.9    21.9      M    M
 26000  -39.2 -38.6   285   78   40   8.3   4.5   19.5  67.1    21.8      M    M
 25000  -36.7 -34.1   285   77   40   8.2   4.5   18.9  66.0    21.5      M    M
 24000  -34.3 -29.7   285   76   39   8.2   4.5   18.4  65.1    21.4      M    M
 23000  -32.0 -25.6   285   75   39   6.7   3.7   17.6  63.6    21.0      M    M
 22000  -30.0 -22.0   285   74   38   6.7   3.7   16.4  61.6    20.2      M    M
 21000  -28.0 -18.4   285   72   37   6.9   3.8   15.4  59.7    19.6      M    M
 20000  -26.4 -15.5   285   69   36   4.8   2.6   13.8  56.9    18.5      M    M
 19500  -25.7 -14.3   290   67   34   4.8   2.6   13.0  55.3    17.9      M    M
 19000  -24.9 -12.8   290   65   33   4.8   2.6   12.1  53.8    17.3      M    M
 18500  -24.2 -11.6   290   63   32   4.9   2.7   11.3  52.4    16.7      M    M
 18000  -23.5 -10.3   290   60   31   4.0   2.2   10.5  50.8    16.0      M    M
 17500  -22.9  -9.2   290   56   29   3.9   2.1    9.4  49.0    15.2      M    M
 17000  -22.3  -8.1   290   52   27   3.9   2.1    8.5  47.3    14.5      M    M
 16500  -21.7  -7.1   290   48   25   3.7   2.0    7.5  45.4    13.6      M    M
 16000  -20.9  -5.6   290   42   22   3.2   1.7    5.9  42.7    12.4      M    M
 15500  -20.5  -4.9   290   39   20   2.9   1.6    4.8  40.6    11.4      M    M
 15000  -20.0  -4.0   290   36   18   3.0   1.6    3.7  38.6    10.5      M    M
 14500  -19.6  -3.3   285   33   17   3.2   1.7    2.6  36.6     9.5      M    M
 14000  -19.1  -2.4   285   29   15   3.3   1.8    1.5  34.7     8.6      M    M
 13500  -18.6  -1.5   280   26   14   3.5   1.9    0.5  32.9     7.6      M    M
 13000  -18.1  -0.6   280   23   12   3.5   1.9   -0.5  31.1     6.7      M    M
 12500  -17.6   0.3   275   21   11   3.3   1.8   -1.6  29.2     5.8      M    M
 12000  -17.1   1.2   275   19   10   3.4   1.9   -2.6  27.4     4.8      M    M
 11750  -16.9   1.6   270   18    9   3.3   1.8   -3.1  26.5     4.4      M    M
 11500  -16.6   2.1   270   16    8   3.2   1.8   -3.6  25.5     3.9      M    M
 11250  -16.4   2.5   270   15    8   3.3   1.8   -4.1  24.6     3.4      M    M
 11000  -16.2   2.8   270   14    7   3.0   1.7   -4.6  23.7     2.9      M    M
 10750  -16.0   3.2   270   13    7   3.0   1.7   -5.1  22.8     2.4      M    M
 10500  -15.7   3.7   265   11    6   3.3   1.8   -5.6  21.8     1.9      M    M
 10250  -15.5   4.1   265   10    5   3.2   1.8   -6.2  20.9     1.4      M    M
 10000  -15.3   4.5   260    9    4   2.6   1.4   -6.7  20.0     0.9      M    M
  9750  -15.1   4.8   255    8    4   2.4   1.3   -7.2  19.0     0.4      M    M
  9500  -14.9   5.2   250    7    4   3.3   1.8   -7.8  18.0    -0.2    250  1.3
  9250  -14.7   5.5   245    6    3   1.7   0.9   -8.3  17.1    -0.7    236  1.2
  9000  -14.7   5.5   240    6    3  -1.0  -0.6   -9.1  15.7    -1.4    229  1.2
  8750  -14.7   5.5   230    7    4  -0.3  -0.1   -9.9  14.2    -2.2    224  1.1
  8500  -14.7   5.5   225    8    4   0.6   0.3  -10.6  13.0    -2.9    215  1.1
  8250  -14.8   5.4   215    9    4  -3.0  -1.6  -11.4  11.5    -3.7    210  1.1
  8000  -15.2   4.6   210    9    5  -6.5  -3.6  -12.5   9.5    -4.9    214  1.1
  7750  -15.5   4.1   210   10    5  -2.1  -1.1  -13.6   7.4    -6.0    219  1.1
  7500  -15.6   3.9   205   12    6  -3.6  -2.0  -14.4   6.0    -6.8    213  1.1
  7250  -16.2   2.8   205   10    5  -9.6  -5.3  -15.4   4.4    -7.7    223  1.1
  7000  -16.8   1.8   205    8    4  -4.8  -2.6  -16.3   2.7    -8.7    233  1.2
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           12/08/2016 at 0800 MST          |       12/08/2016 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -10.0  LI... +7.6               | K index... -7.8  LI... +6.4
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.2                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -1.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -58.9 -74.0  285  70 36   3.5   1.9 | -60.1 -76.2  285  72 37   4.1   2.3
 45000 -53.7 -64.7  285  79 40   3.4   1.9 | -53.9 -65.0  285  81 41   4.0   2.2
 40000 -52.7 -62.9  285  84 43   0.3   0.2 | -52.4 -62.3  285  79 40   0.6   0.3
 38000 -52.7 -62.9  285  84 43  -1.5  -0.8 | -52.5 -62.5  285  78 40  -2.2  -1.2
 36000 -53.6 -64.5  285  82 42  -1.5  -0.8 | -53.9 -65.0  285  79 41  -2.3  -1.2
 34000 -54.6 -66.3  285  79 41  -2.3  -1.2 | -55.2 -67.4  290  80 41  -3.2  -1.8
 32000 -52.2 -62.0  285  77 40   4.9   2.7 | -52.6 -62.7  295  81 42   5.3   2.9
 30000 -49.2 -56.6  285  76 39   4.9   2.7 | -49.4 -56.9  300  83 43   5.7   3.2
 29000 -47.3 -53.1  285  74 38   7.0   3.8 | -46.3 -51.3  300  81 42   8.6   4.7
 28000 -44.7 -48.5  285  71 37   7.0   3.8 | -43.7 -46.7  300  79 41   8.6   4.7
 27000 -42.6 -44.7  285  69 35   6.9   3.8 | -41.2 -42.2  300  78 40   8.8   4.8
 26000 -40.3 -40.5  285  67 35   8.3   4.5 | -39.1 -38.4  295  74 38   6.1   3.3
 25000 -37.8 -36.0  285  66 34   8.3   4.6 | -37.3 -35.1  295  69 36   6.1   3.3
 24000 -35.3 -31.5  285  66 34   8.3   4.5 | -35.4 -31.7  295  65 33   6.0   3.3
 23000 -33.1 -27.6  290  65 34   7.1   3.9 | -33.3 -27.9  290  62 32   8.1   4.5
 22000 -31.0 -23.8  290  65 33   7.0   3.9 | -30.8 -23.4  290  61 31   8.2   4.5
 21000 -28.9 -20.0  290  65 33   7.2   3.9 | -28.4 -19.1  290  60 31   8.2   4.5
 20000 -27.1 -16.8  290  63 32   5.9   3.2 | -26.6 -15.9  295  58 30   5.5   3.0
 19500 -26.2 -15.2  290  62 32   5.9   3.2 | -25.8 -14.4  295  57 29   5.5   3.0
 19000 -25.3 -13.5  290  60 31   5.9   3.2 | -25.0 -13.0  295  56 29   5.5   3.0
 18500 -24.4 -11.9  290  59 30   6.1   3.4 | -24.1 -11.4  295  55 28   5.5   3.0
 18000 -23.7 -10.7  290  57 29   3.9   2.2 | -23.3  -9.9  295  54 28   5.5   3.0
 17500 -23.1  -9.6  290  54 28   4.0   2.2 | -22.5  -8.5  295  52 27   5.5   3.0
 17000 -22.5  -8.5  290  51 26   4.0   2.2 | -21.7  -7.1  295  51 26   5.2   2.8
 16500 -21.9  -7.4  290  49 25   4.0   2.2 | -21.0  -5.8  295  49 25   5.0   2.7
 16000 -21.3  -6.3  290  46 24   4.6   2.5 | -20.2  -4.4  295  46 24   5.0   2.7
 15500 -20.2  -4.4  290  44 23   7.7   4.3 | -19.5  -3.1  295  45 23   4.9   2.7
 15000 -19.1  -2.4  290  42 22   7.8   4.3 | -18.8  -1.8  295  43 22   4.9   2.7
 14500 -18.2  -0.8  290  40 21   4.5   2.4 | -17.7   0.1  290  41 21   5.0   2.7
 14000 -17.1   1.2  285  37 19   4.2   2.3 | -16.9   1.6  290  40 21   5.5   3.0
 13500 -16.6   2.1  285  33 17   3.3   1.8 | -16.0   3.2  290  37 19   6.2   3.4
 13000 -16.1   3.0  280  29 15   2.9   1.6 | -15.0   5.0  285  35 18   6.2   3.4
 12500 -15.8   3.6  280  25 13   2.0   1.1 | -14.0   6.8  285  31 16   5.9   3.2
 12000 -15.5   4.1  275  21 11   1.7   0.9 | -13.1   8.4  285  26 14   3.1   1.7
 11750 -15.4   4.3  275  19 10   2.0   1.1 | -13.1   8.4  285  25 13   1.4   0.8
 11500 -15.2   4.6  275  18  9   2.6   1.4 | -12.8   9.0  280  22 12   3.9   2.1
 11250 -15.0   5.0  275  16  8   2.7   1.5 | -12.5   9.5  280  20 10   3.6   2.0
 11000 -14.8   5.4  270  14  7   1.7   1.0 | -12.3   9.9  280  18  9   1.4   0.8
 10750 -14.7   5.5  270  13  7   1.7   0.9 | -12.3   9.9  280  17  9   0.5   0.3
 10500 -14.6   5.7  265  12  6   2.8   1.5 | -12.2  10.0  275  15  8   2.1   1.1
 10250 -14.4   6.1  265  10  5   2.3   1.3 | -12.1  10.2  275  13  7   1.4   0.7
 10000 -14.2   6.4  260   9  5   1.2   0.6 | -12.0  10.4  275  12  6  -0.6  -0.3
  9750 -14.2   6.4  255   9  5   0.6   0.3 | -12.1  10.2  270  11  6  -0.9  -0.5
  9500 -14.1   6.6  250   8  4   1.7   0.9 | -12.1  10.2  265  10  5   1.3   0.7
  9250 -14.0   6.8  245   8  4  -0.2  -0.1 | -12.1  10.2  265   9  4  -1.7  -0.9
  9000 -14.2   6.4  240   8  4  -2.9  -1.6 | -12.4   9.7  260   8  4  -4.7  -2.6
  8750 -14.4   6.1  230   8  4  -2.4  -1.3 | -12.8   9.0  250   8  4  -6.8  -3.8
  8500 -14.6   5.7  225   9  4  -2.3  -1.3 | -13.5   7.7  240   8  4  -9.7  -5.3
  8250 -14.8   5.4  220   9  5  -5.2  -2.9 | -14.1   6.6  230   7  4  -5.7  -3.1
  8000 -15.3   4.5  215   9  5  -7.3  -4.0 | -14.4   6.1  215   7  4  -4.5  -2.5
  7750 -15.8   3.6  210  10  5  -5.9  -3.2 | -14.7   5.5  205   7  4  -0.2  -0.1
  7500 -16.2   2.8  200  11  6  -3.7  -2.0 | -14.4   6.1  185   8  4   6.6   3.6
  7250 -16.4   2.5  200  10  5  -2.7  -1.5 | -13.9   7.0  180   8  4   6.2   3.4
  7000 -16.6   2.1  195   8  4  -3.4  -1.9 | -13.5   7.7  180   7  4   7.0   3.8
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           12/08/2016 at 1400 MST          |       12/08/2016 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -1.4  LI... +6.3                | K index... +3.5  LI... +4.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.9                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -59.5 -75.1  285  70 36   4.0   2.2 | -59.4 -74.9  285  63 32   4.0   2.2
 45000 -53.3 -63.9  285  77 40   4.5   2.5 | -53.1 -63.6  285  74 38   4.7   2.6
 40000 -53.8 -64.8  285  74 38  -0.6  -0.3 | -55.0 -67.0  290  70 36  -1.6  -0.9
 38000 -54.1 -65.4  290  73 38  -0.4  -0.2 | -55.6 -68.1  290  70 36  -0.1  -0.0
 36000 -54.3 -65.7  295  75 39  -0.4  -0.2 | -55.7 -68.3  300  76 39  -0.1  -0.0
 34000 -54.5 -66.1  300  77 40  -0.4  -0.2 | -55.7 -68.3  305  83 43   0.8   0.4
 32000 -52.1 -61.8  300  78 40   4.5   2.5 | -52.6 -62.7  310  83 43   5.5   3.0
 30000 -49.0 -56.2  295  77 40   7.1   3.9 | -48.8 -55.8  310  83 42   8.4   4.6
 29000 -46.7 -52.1  295  75 38   7.6   4.2 | -46.3 -51.3  310  81 42   8.3   4.5
 28000 -44.4 -47.9  295  72 37   7.6   4.2 | -43.8 -46.8  310  80 41   8.3   4.5
 27000 -42.2 -44.0  295  69 36   7.5   4.1 | -41.4 -42.5  310  79 41   8.3   4.5
 26000 -39.6 -39.3  295  67 35   9.0   4.9 | -38.9 -38.0  310  77 40   8.3   4.5
 25000 -36.9 -34.4  300  65 34   9.0   4.9 | -36.4 -33.5  310  75 38   8.3   4.5
 24000 -34.2 -29.6  300  63 32   9.1   5.0 | -33.9 -29.0  310  72 37   8.3   4.5
 23000 -31.9 -25.4  300  63 33   7.2   3.9 | -31.5 -24.7  305  70 36   8.2   4.5
 22000 -29.8 -21.6  300  65 34   7.1   3.9 | -29.0 -20.2  305  69 35   8.2   4.5
 21000 -27.6 -17.7  295  67 34   7.2   3.9 | -26.6 -15.9  305  67 35   7.9   4.4
 20000 -25.4 -13.7  295  65 33   7.5   4.1 | -24.5 -12.1  305  64 33   7.1   3.9
 19500 -24.3 -11.7  295  64 33   7.5   4.1 | -23.4 -10.1  305  63 32   7.1   3.9
 19000 -23.2  -9.8  295  62 32   7.5   4.1 | -22.3  -8.1  305  62 32   7.1   3.9
 18500 -22.1  -7.8  295  61 31   7.6   4.1 | -21.3  -6.3  300  60 31   7.2   3.9
 18000 -21.0  -5.8  295  59 31   6.4   3.5 | -20.1  -4.2  300  54 28   8.4   4.6
 17500 -20.1  -4.2  295  58 30   6.6   3.6 | -18.9  -2.0  300  45 23   8.4   4.6
 17000 -19.1  -2.4  295  56 29   6.0   3.3 | -17.7   0.1  295  40 21   7.4   4.1
 16500 -18.2  -0.8  295  54 28   5.8   3.2 | -16.6   2.1  300  45 23   7.2   3.9
 16000 -17.4   0.7  295  52 27   5.5   3.0 | -15.6   3.9  300  50 26   6.2   3.4
 15500 -16.7   1.9  295  51 26   4.7   2.6 | -14.8   5.4  300  51 26   4.8   2.6
 15000 -15.6   3.9  295  48 25   3.9   2.1 | -14.1   6.6  300  51 26   4.6   2.5
 14500 -15.1   4.8  295  46 23   3.4   1.9 | -13.4   7.9  295  50 26   2.9   1.6
 14000 -14.6   5.7  295  43 22   2.7   1.5 | -13.0   8.6  295  49 25   2.2   1.2
 13500 -14.3   6.3  290  40 21   2.0   1.1 | -12.8   9.0  290  44 23   1.6   0.9
 13000 -14.0   6.8  290  37 19   2.6   1.4 | -12.6   9.3  290  39 20   2.0   1.1
 12500 -13.5   7.7  290  32 17   3.8   2.1 | -12.2  10.0  290  34 18   2.9   1.6
 12000 -12.9   8.8  285  28 14   4.6   2.5 | -11.8  10.8  285  29 15   4.0   2.2
 11750 -12.5   9.5  285  25 13   6.7   3.7 | -11.3  11.7  280  26 13   7.0   3.8
 11500 -12.0  10.4  285  23 12   6.8   3.8 | -10.8  12.6  280  24 13   6.8   3.7
 11250 -11.4  11.5  280  20 11   7.8   4.3 | -10.3  13.5  280  22 12   7.6   4.2
 11000 -10.9  12.4  280  18 10   3.9   2.1 |  -9.8  14.4  275  21 11   3.9   2.2
 10750 -10.8  12.6  275  17  9   1.8   1.0 |  -9.6  14.7  275  19 10   3.2   1.8
 10500 -10.5  13.1  275  16  8   4.3   2.4 |  -9.2  15.4  270  17  9   6.4   3.5
 10250 -10.3  13.5  270  14  7   3.4   1.9 |  -8.8  16.2  270  16  8   5.3   2.9
 10000 -10.1  13.8  270  12  6  -0.5  -0.3 |  -8.6  16.5  265  14  7  -0.2  -0.1
  9750 -10.3  13.5  260  11  6  -3.3  -1.8 |  -8.7  16.3  255  14  7  -1.3  -0.7
  9500 -10.5  13.1  255  10  5  -1.6  -0.9 |  -8.6  16.5  255  13  6   3.2   1.7
  9250 -10.7  12.7  250   8  4  -4.4  -2.4 |  -8.5  16.7  250  12  6  -1.4  -0.8
  9000 -11.2  11.8  240   8  4  -9.1  -5.0 |  -8.9  16.0  245  11  6  -7.4  -4.1
  8750 -12.0  10.4  235   8  4 -10.1  -5.5 |  -9.5  14.9  235  11  6 -10.4  -5.7
  8500 -12.7   9.1  225   9  4 -10.3  -5.6 | -10.4  13.3  230  12  6 -12.7  -7.0
  8250 -13.4   7.9  215  10  5  -6.3  -3.5 | -11.4  11.5  220  13  7 -13.0  -7.2
  8000 -13.7   7.3  205   9  5  -3.8  -2.1 | -12.3   9.9  215  12  6 -13.8  -7.5
  7750 -14.0   6.8  195   9  5  -2.8  -1.5 | -13.3   8.1  205  12  6 -10.9  -6.0
  7500 -14.0   6.8  180  10  5   4.3   2.4 | -13.8   7.2  190  12  6  -2.5  -1.4
  7250 -13.5   7.7  175   9  5   8.5   4.7 | -13.8   7.2  185  11  5   2.0   1.1
  7000 -12.9   8.8  175   9  5   6.4   3.5 | -13.7   7.3  180   9  5   0.1   0.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613



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