Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 061049
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0349 MST Saturday, February 6, 2016

This forecast is for Saturday, February 6, 2016:

If the trigger temperature of 44.6 F/7.0 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Fair
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 310 ft/min (1.6 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 10562 ft MSL (3804 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 44.0 F/7.1 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... 1415 MST
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... None
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8296 ft MSL (1538 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Sunday 02/07....... Poor

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 07:00:43 / 17:24:27 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 10 hr 23 min 44 sec (623 min 44 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:12:56 MST... 35.48 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 02/06/2016 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 8084 ft MSL (1326 ft AGL)
Additional freezing level....... 8617 ft MSL (1859 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 21319 ft MSL (14561 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 16333 ft MSL (9576 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +9.9
K index......................... -16.0

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -57.6 -71.7   305   27   14  -0.8  -0.5      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.9 -74.0   315   38   20  -0.5  -0.3      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -65.1 -85.2   335   46   24  -4.3  -2.4      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -64.7 -84.5   340   48   25   7.1   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -60.5 -76.9   340   47   24   7.0   3.9      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -55.5 -67.9   340   46   24   8.4   4.6      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -50.5 -58.9   345   45   23   8.4   4.6      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -45.3 -49.5   350   44   23   8.9   4.9   24.2  75.6    13.4      M    M
 29000  -42.7 -44.9   350   42   22   8.9   4.9   23.8  74.8    13.3      M    M
 28000  -40.0 -40.0   355   41   21   8.9   4.9   23.5  74.3    13.2      M    M
 27000  -37.3 -35.1   355   39   20   8.1   4.4   23.3  73.9    13.2      M    M
 26000  -35.0 -31.0   355   37   19   7.9   4.4   22.5  72.4    12.7      M    M
 25000  -32.6 -26.7   355   36   18   7.9   4.4   21.8  71.3    12.3      M    M
 24000  -30.2 -22.4   355   34   17   7.8   4.3   21.3  70.3    12.0      M    M
 23000  -27.9 -18.2   350   33   17   7.7   4.2   20.4  68.8    11.5      M    M
 22000  -25.6 -14.1   350   32   17   7.7   4.2   19.7  67.5    11.0      M    M
 21000  -23.2  -9.8   345   32   17   8.1   4.5   19.1  66.4    10.6      M    M
 20000  -20.8  -5.4   345   33   17   8.1   4.5   18.5  65.2    10.2      M    M
 19500  -19.6  -3.3   345   34   18   8.1   4.5   18.2  64.8    10.0      M    M
 19000  -18.3  -0.9   345   35   18   8.1   4.5   17.9  64.3     9.8      M    M
 18500  -17.1   1.2   345   35   18   8.0   4.4   17.7  63.9     9.7      M    M
 18000  -15.9   3.4   345   33   17   8.0   4.4   17.4  63.3     9.4      M    M
 17500  -14.7   5.5   345   31   16   8.1   4.4   17.1  62.8     9.2      M    M
 17000  -13.5   7.7   345   30   15   8.3   4.5   16.8  62.3     9.1      M    M
 16500  -12.2  10.0   340   29   15   8.3   4.6   16.6  61.9     8.9      M    M
 16000  -10.4  13.3   345   28   15   7.9   4.3   16.2  61.1     8.6      M    M
 15500   -9.3  15.3   345   28   14   7.7   4.2   15.9  60.6     8.3      M    M
 15000   -8.3  17.1   345   27   14   5.3   2.9   15.3  59.5     7.8      M    M
 14500   -7.5  18.5   345   26   13   5.6   3.1   14.6  58.3     7.2      M    M
 14000   -6.8  19.8   340   25   13   4.2   2.3   13.8  56.8     6.5      M    M
 13500   -6.1  21.0   340   24   12   4.4   2.4   12.9  55.3     5.7      M    M
 13000   -5.6  21.9   335   23   12   3.4   1.9   12.0  53.6     4.9      M    M
 12500   -5.1  22.8   330   21   11   3.4   1.9   11.0  51.8     3.9      M    M
 12000   -4.6  23.7   320   18    9   2.4   1.3    9.9  49.9     3.0      M    M
 11750   -4.5  23.9   320   17    9   1.8   1.0    9.3  48.8     2.4      M    M
 11500   -4.3  24.3   315   16    8   1.9   1.0    8.7  47.6     1.8      M    M
 11250   -4.2  24.4   315   15    8   2.2   1.2    8.1  46.6     1.2      M    M
 11000   -4.0  24.8   310   14    7   3.6   2.0    7.5  45.6     0.7      M    M
 10750   -3.7  25.3   305   13    7   4.3   2.4    7.1  44.8     0.2      M    M
 10500   -3.4  25.9   300   12    6   4.1   2.2    6.7  44.0    -0.2    302  1.5
 10250   -3.1  26.4   295   11    6   4.5   2.5    6.2  43.2    -0.6    286  1.5
 10000   -2.7  27.1   295   10    5   5.3   2.9    5.9  42.6    -1.0    267  1.4
  9750   -2.3  27.9   295    9    5   6.3   3.5    5.6  42.0    -1.3    247  1.3
  9500   -1.8  28.8   295    8    4   6.9   3.8    5.3  41.6    -1.5    224  1.1
  9250   -1.2  29.8   295    8    4   6.9   3.8    5.1  41.2    -1.7    202  1.0
  9000   -0.7  30.7   295    7    4   6.8   3.7    4.9  40.8    -2.0    179  0.9
  8750   -0.2  31.6   300    7    4   7.4   4.1    4.7  40.4    -2.2    156  0.8
  8500    0.3  32.5   310    7    4   4.2   2.3    4.4  40.0    -2.4    134  0.7
  8250    0.3  32.5   315    8    4  -3.7  -2.0    3.7  38.6    -3.2    127  0.6
  8000   -0.2  31.6   315    9    5  -5.6  -3.0    2.5  36.5    -4.3    132  0.7
  7750   -0.6  30.9   315   11    6  -7.4  -4.0    1.4  34.5    -5.5    137  0.7
  7500   -1.8  28.8   300   12    6 -28.1 -15.4   -0.5  31.1    -7.4    166  0.8
  7250   -4.7  23.5   300   12    6 -43.3 -23.8   -3.8  25.2   -10.7    246  1.2
  7000   -7.6  18.3   295   11    6 -32.0 -17.6   -7.0  19.4   -13.9    326  1.7
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           02/06/2016 at 0800 MST          |       02/06/2016 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -9.6  LI... +277.0              | K index... -8.2  LI... +277.6
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -57.5 -71.5  305  31 16  -0.4  -0.2 | -56.9 -70.4  295  29 15  -0.7  -0.4
 45000 -58.2 -72.8  305  43 22   0.0   0.0 | -58.0 -72.4  300  40 21  -0.3  -0.2
 40000 -64.8 -84.6  315  45 23  -4.4  -2.4 | -64.2 -83.6  290  45 23  -4.1  -2.3
 38000 -64.1 -83.4  315  45 23   6.6   3.6 | -63.5 -82.3  290  46 24   6.3   3.5
 36000 -60.1 -76.2  315  45 23   6.7   3.7 | -59.6 -75.3  295  46 24   6.4   3.5
 34000 -55.9 -68.6  315  45 23   8.2   4.5 | -55.6 -68.1  295  45 23   8.4   4.6
 32000 -51.0 -59.8  315  40 21   8.2   4.5 | -50.5 -58.9  295  42 22   8.4   4.6
 30000 -46.0 -50.8  315  36 18   9.1   5.0 | -45.5 -49.9  290  39 20   8.7   4.8
 29000 -43.2 -45.8  315  34 17   9.2   5.0 | -42.2 -44.0  290  37 19   8.7   4.8
 28000 -39.8 -39.6  315  32 16   9.2   5.0 | -39.6 -39.3  290  35 18   8.7   4.8
 27000 -37.1 -34.8  315  30 15   8.3   4.6 | -37.0 -34.6  290  33 17   8.1   4.4
 26000 -34.6 -30.3  315  28 15   8.4   4.6 | -34.6 -30.3  290  32 16   8.2   4.5
 25000 -32.0 -25.6  320  27 14   8.4   4.6 | -32.1 -25.8  290  31 16   8.2   4.5
 24000 -29.5 -21.1  320  25 13   8.1   4.4 | -29.7 -21.5  290  30 15   8.1   4.4
 23000 -27.2 -17.0  320  25 13   8.0   4.4 | -27.3 -17.1  290  28 15   8.0   4.4
 22000 -24.8 -12.6  320  25 13   8.0   4.4 | -24.9 -12.8  290  27 14   8.0   4.4
 21000 -22.4  -8.3  320  25 13   7.4   4.1 | -22.5  -8.5  290  25 13   7.9   4.3
 20000 -20.2  -4.4  325  24 12   7.5   4.1 | -20.1  -4.2  290  24 12   7.9   4.3
 19500 -19.1  -2.4  325  23 12   7.5   4.1 | -19.0  -2.2  295  23 12   7.9   4.3
 19000 -18.0  -0.4  325  23 12   7.5   4.1 | -17.8  -0.0  295  23 12   7.8   4.3
 18500 -16.8   1.8  325  22 12   7.6   4.2 | -16.6   2.1  295  22 11   8.3   4.6
 18000 -15.7   3.7  325  22 11   7.6   4.2 | -15.3   4.5  295  21 11   8.3   4.6
 17500 -14.6   5.7  325  21 11   8.0   4.4 | -14.1   6.6  295  20 10   8.0   4.4
 17000 -13.3   8.1  320  20 10   8.4   4.6 | -13.0   8.6  295  20 10   7.6   4.2
 16500 -12.1  10.2  320  20 10   8.5   4.6 | -11.8  10.8  295  19 10   7.6   4.2
 16000 -10.8  12.6  315  18 10   8.4   4.6 | -10.7  12.7  290  18  9   7.4   4.0
 15500  -9.5  14.9  310  17  9   8.5   4.7 |  -9.6  14.7  290  17  9   7.5   4.1
 15000  -8.4  16.9  310  16  8   7.0   3.8 |  -8.6  16.5  285  17  9   6.4   3.5
 14500  -7.4  18.7  310  16  8   6.8   3.7 |  -7.2  19.0  285  17  9   6.3   3.4
 14000  -6.0  21.2  310  17  9   4.4   2.4 |  -6.4  20.5  290  18  9   4.0   2.2
 13500  -5.4  22.3  315  17  9   4.9   2.7 |  -5.8  21.6  295  18  9   4.3   2.4
 13000  -4.8  23.4  315  18  9   2.3   1.3 |  -5.3  22.5  300  18  9   2.9   1.6
 12500  -4.5  23.9  320  18  9   2.5   1.4 |  -4.8  23.4  305  19 10   3.0   1.6
 12000  -4.2  24.4  320  17  9   1.7   0.9 |  -4.4  24.1  310  19 10   3.6   2.0
 11750  -4.1  24.6  320  17  9   1.3   0.7 |  -4.1  24.6  315  19 10   3.8   2.1
 11500  -4.0  24.8  320  17  9   1.2   0.7 |  -3.9  25.0  315  19 10   3.6   2.0
 11250  -3.9  25.0  320  17  9   2.1   1.2 |  -3.6  25.5  315  19 10   4.0   2.2
 11000  -3.7  25.3  320  16  8   4.0   2.2 |  -3.2  26.2  320  19 10   6.0   3.3
 10750  -3.3  26.1  325  16  8   4.4   2.4 |  -2.7  27.1  320  19 10   7.0   3.8
 10500  -3.0  26.6  325  15  8   4.3   2.4 |  -2.2  28.0  320  18  9   7.0   3.9
 10250  -2.7  27.1  325  15  8   4.2   2.3 |  -1.7  28.9  325  18  9   5.8   3.2
 10000  -2.4  27.7  330  15  8   4.5   2.5 |  -1.3  29.7  325  18  9   5.1   2.8
  9750  -2.0  28.4  335  14  7   6.4   3.5 |  -0.9  30.4  330  17  9   7.3   4.0
  9500  -1.5  29.3  335  14  7   7.1   3.9 |  -0.3  31.5  330  16  8   7.9   4.4
  9250  -1.0  30.2  340  14  7   6.5   3.5 |   0.2  32.4  330  15  8   6.1   3.3
  9000  -0.5  31.1  340  13  7   5.0   2.7 |   0.6  33.1  330  13  7   4.5   2.5
  8750  -0.1  31.8  345  12  6   8.8   4.9 |   1.0  33.8  330  10  5   6.6   3.6
  8500   0.6  33.1  345  11  6   7.7   4.2 |   1.5  34.7  320   8  4   5.9   3.2
  8250   0.8  33.4  340  10  5  -1.1  -0.6 |   1.7  35.1  315   7  3   1.7   0.9
  8000   0.7  33.3  335   9  5  -1.6  -0.9 |   1.8  35.2  300   5  3   1.6   0.9
  7750   0.5  32.9  330   8  4  -5.6  -3.1 |   1.9  35.4  285   4  2  -0.3  -0.2
  7500  -0.6  30.9  310   9  4 -25.3 -13.9 |   1.6  34.9  255   5  3  -3.6  -2.0
  7250  -3.1  26.4  300   8  4 -37.1 -20.4 |   1.2  34.2  260   5  2  -3.7  -2.0
  7000  -5.6  21.9  295   8  4 -28.5 -15.6 |   0.9  33.6  265   4  2  -3.6  -2.0
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           02/06/2016 at 1400 MST          |       02/06/2016 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... +0.1  LI... +278.0              | K index... +5.7  LI... +276.8
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.0                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -57.0 -70.6  295  33 17   0.2   0.1 | -56.4 -69.5  295  34 18   1.2   0.6
 45000 -56.6 -69.9  300  45 23   0.8   0.5 | -54.5 -66.1  295  43 22  -0.9  -0.5
 40000 -64.2 -83.6  285  61 31  -5.1  -2.8 | -61.1 -78.0  290  60 31  -4.4  -2.4
 38000 -63.8 -82.8  280  61 32   6.5   3.6 | -61.5 -78.7  285  64 33   3.6   2.0
 36000 -59.9 -75.8  280  55 28   6.6   3.6 | -59.4 -74.9  280  65 33   3.6   2.0
 34000 -55.8 -68.4  280  49 25   8.2   4.5 | -56.8 -70.2  280  65 33   8.6   4.7
 32000 -50.9 -59.6  285  45 23   8.1   4.5 | -51.9 -61.4  285  59 30   8.2   4.5
 30000 -45.9 -50.6  290  41 21   8.8   4.8 | -46.3 -51.3  285  53 28   9.0   4.9
 29000 -42.6 -44.7  290  40 20   8.8   4.8 | -43.6 -46.5  290  51 26   9.0   4.9
 28000 -40.0 -40.0  295  38 20   8.8   4.9 | -40.9 -41.6  290  48 25   9.0   4.9
 27000 -37.3 -35.1  300  37 19   8.8   4.8 | -38.2 -36.8  290  46 23   8.8   4.8
 26000 -34.7 -30.5  300  37 19   8.8   4.8 | -35.6 -32.1  290  43 22   8.8   4.8
 25000 -32.1 -25.8  305  36 19   8.8   4.8 | -33.0 -27.4  295  41 21   8.8   4.8
 24000 -29.5 -21.1  305  36 18   7.8   4.3 | -30.4 -22.7  295  39 20   8.2   4.5
 23000 -27.2 -17.0  305  34 18   7.5   4.1 | -28.0 -18.4  300  36 18   7.9   4.3
 22000 -25.0 -13.0  305  33 17   7.5   4.1 | -25.7 -14.3  305  32 17   7.9   4.3
 21000 -22.7  -8.9  305  31 16   7.8   4.3 | -23.3  -9.9  310  30 15   7.6   4.2
 20000 -20.4  -4.7  305  30 15   7.8   4.3 | -21.0  -5.8  315  28 15   7.6   4.2
 19500 -19.2  -2.6  310  29 15   7.8   4.3 | -19.9  -3.8  320  28 14   7.6   4.2
 19000 -18.1  -0.6  310  29 15   7.8   4.3 | -18.8  -1.8  320  27 14   7.6   4.2
 18500 -16.9   1.6  310  28 14   8.0   4.4 | -17.6   0.3  325  27 14   7.5   4.1
 18000 -15.7   3.7  310  27 14   8.0   4.4 | -16.5   2.3  325  27 14   7.5   4.1
 17500 -14.5   5.9  310  26 13   7.9   4.3 | -15.4   4.3  320  27 14   7.4   4.1
 17000 -13.4   7.9  310  25 13   7.5   4.1 | -14.4   6.1  320  26 14   7.2   3.9
 16500 -12.2  10.0  305  24 12   7.6   4.2 | -13.3   8.1  320  25 13   7.3   4.0
 16000 -11.2  11.8  305  23 12   6.1   3.3 | -12.3   9.9  315  25 13   6.5   3.6
 15500 -10.3  13.5  300  22 11   6.3   3.4 | -11.4  11.5  315  24 12   6.6   3.6
 15000  -9.4  15.1  295  22 11   5.2   2.9 | -10.4  13.3  315  24 12   6.2   3.4
 14500  -8.3  17.1  300  22 11   5.0   2.8 |  -9.1  15.6  320  23 12   6.2   3.4
 14000  -7.6  18.3  300  22 11   4.7   2.6 |  -8.3  17.1  325  23 12   4.4   2.4
 13500  -6.9  19.6  305  22 11   4.7   2.6 |  -7.6  18.3  335  23 12   4.3   2.4
 13000  -6.2  20.8  310  22 11   5.0   2.7 |  -6.8  19.8  340  23 12   7.3   4.0
 12500  -5.4  22.3  320  22 12   4.7   2.6 |  -5.7  21.7  345  24 12   7.2   4.0
 12000  -4.5  23.9  325  23 12   8.0   4.4 |  -4.5  23.9  350  25 13   8.5   4.6
 11750  -3.9  25.0  325  23 12   7.8   4.3 |  -3.9  25.0  350  26 13   8.9   4.9
 11500  -3.3  26.1  330  24 12   8.1   4.4 |  -3.2  26.2  350  27 14   9.0   5.0
 11250  -2.7  27.1  330  24 12   7.2   4.0 |  -2.5  27.5  350  27 14   8.1   4.5
 11000  -2.2  28.0  335  24 12   6.9   3.8 |  -2.0  28.4  350  27 14   6.4   3.5
 10750  -1.7  28.9  330  24 12   7.5   4.1 |  -1.5  29.3  345  27 14   6.1   3.3
 10500  -1.1  30.0  330  23 12   7.6   4.2 |  -1.1  30.0  345  28 14   6.4   3.5
 10250  -0.6  30.9  330  23 12   6.5   3.6 |  -0.6  30.9  340  28 14   5.7   3.1
 10000  -0.2  31.6  330  21 11   4.8   2.7 |  -0.3  31.5  335  26 13   4.8   2.7
  9750   0.1  32.2  325  18  9   4.5   2.4 |   0.1  32.2  335  24 12   4.9   2.7
  9500   0.4  32.7  320  17  9   4.1   2.3 |   0.4  32.7  330  22 11   4.7   2.6
  9250   0.7  33.3  310  15  8   5.2   2.9 |   0.8  33.4  320  20 11   6.3   3.5
  9000   1.1  34.0  305  14  7   5.2   2.8 |   1.3  34.3  320  19 10   7.5   4.1
  8750   1.5  34.7  300  12  6   8.2   4.5 |   1.8  35.2  320  17  9   7.9   4.3
  8500   2.2  36.0  295  11  6   9.0   4.9 |   2.4  36.3  320  16  8   8.0   4.4
  8250   2.6  36.7  290  10  5   4.2   2.3 |   3.0  37.4  320  14  7   6.5   3.6
  8000   2.8  37.0  285   9  4   1.9   1.1 |   3.4  38.1  320  13  7   5.7   3.1
  7750   3.0  37.4  275   7  4   6.0   3.3 |   3.8  38.8  315  12  6   7.2   4.0
  7500   3.4  38.1  260   6  3   0.7   0.4 |   4.0  39.2  320  10  5  -4.8  -2.6
  7250   2.9  37.2  255   5  3  -8.6  -4.7 |   3.0  37.4  315   9  4 -18.0  -9.9
  7000   2.4  36.3  250   4  2  -1.5  -0.8 |   1.8  35.2  315   7  4  -9.9  -5.4
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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