Soaring Guidance
Issued by NWS Pueblo, CO

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000
UXUS97 KPUB 021137
SRGPUB

Soaring Forecast
National Weather Service Pueblo, Colorado
0437 MST Monday, March 2, 2015

This forecast is for Monday, March 2, 2015:

If the trigger temperature of 51.0 F/10.6 C is reached...then
   Thermal Soaring Index....................... Poor
   Maximum rate of lift........................ 0 ft/min (0.0 m/s)
   Maximum height of thermals.................. 8999 ft MSL (2241 ft AGL)

Forecast maximum temperature................... 41.0 F/5.5 C
Time of trigger temperature.................... None
Time of overdevelopment........................ None
Middle/high clouds during soaring window....... Broken/overcast opaque middle
Surface winds during soaring window............ 20 mph or less
Height of the -3 thermal index................. 8633 ft MSL (1875 ft AGL)
Thermal soaring outlook for Tuesday 03/03...... Fair

Wave Soaring Index............................. Not available

Remarks...

Sunrise/Sunset.................... 06:30:08 / 17:51:27 MST
Total possible sunshine........... 11 hr 21 min 19 sec (681 min 19 sec)
Altitude of sun at 12:11:02 MST... 43.97 degrees

Upper air data from numerical model forecast valid on 03/02/2015 at 0500 MST

Freezing level.................. 9382 ft MSL (2624 ft AGL)
Additional freezing level....... 10577 ft MSL (3819 ft AGL)
Convective condensation level... 15090 ft MSL (8332 ft AGL)
Lifted condensation level....... 11137 ft MSL (4380 ft AGL)
Lifted index.................... +10.8
K index......................... +8.3

Height  Temperature  Wind  Wind Spd  Lapse Rate  ConvectionT  Thermal  Lift Rate
ft MSL  deg C deg F   Dir   kt  m/s  C/km F/kft  deg C deg F   Index    fpm  m/s
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000  -61.6 -78.9   255   73   37   1.8   1.0      M     M       M      M    M
 45000  -58.9 -74.0   250   97   50  -0.0  -0.0      M     M       M      M    M
 40000  -59.2 -74.6   250  113   58  -0.2  -0.1      M     M       M      M    M
 38000  -57.2 -71.0   245  114   59   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 36000  -53.8 -64.8   245  111   57   5.7   3.1      M     M       M      M    M
 34000  -50.1 -58.2   245  107   55   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 32000  -45.2 -49.4   245  101   52   8.2   4.5      M     M       M      M    M
 30000  -39.7 -39.5   245   95   49   8.1   4.5   30.8  87.4    19.8      M    M
 29000  -37.2 -35.0   245   94   48   8.1   4.5   30.1  86.2    19.5      M    M
 28000  -34.8 -30.6   245   93   48   8.1   4.5   29.5  85.2    19.3      M    M
 27000  -32.4 -26.3   245   91   47   6.8   3.7   29.0  84.2    19.1      M    M
 26000  -30.5 -22.9   245   89   46   6.4   3.5   27.6  81.7    18.2      M    M
 25000  -28.6 -19.5   250   86   44   6.4   3.5   26.4  79.4    17.4      M    M
 24000  -26.7 -16.1   250   84   43   6.6   3.6   25.3  77.5    16.7      M    M
 23000  -24.6 -12.3   250   78   40   6.9   3.8   24.1  75.4    15.9      M    M
 22000  -22.6  -8.7   250   72   37   6.9   3.8   23.1  73.6    15.3      M    M
 21000  -20.5  -4.9   250   66   34   6.6   3.6   22.2  71.9    14.6      M    M
 20000  -18.5  -1.3   255   63   33   6.5   3.6   20.9  69.7    13.8      M    M
 19500  -17.6   0.3   255   62   32   6.5   3.6   20.4  68.7    13.3      M    M
 19000  -16.6   2.1   255   61   31   6.4   3.5   19.8  67.7    12.9      M    M
 18500  -15.6   3.9   255   60   31   5.9   3.2   19.3  66.8    12.6      M    M
 18000  -14.9   5.2   255   58   30   4.8   2.7   18.5  65.3    11.9      M    M
 17500  -14.2   6.4   255   56   29   4.8   2.7   17.7  63.9    11.2      M    M
 17000  -13.4   7.9   255   54   28   5.6   3.1   16.9  62.5    10.6      M    M
 16500  -12.6   9.3   255   50   26   5.6   3.1   16.2  61.2     9.9      M    M
 16000  -11.8  10.8   255   47   24   6.3   3.4   15.6  60.0     9.4      M    M
 15500  -10.8  12.6   250   43   22   6.7   3.7   15.0  59.1     8.9      M    M
 15000   -9.3  15.3   250   39   20   7.0   3.8   14.3  57.8     8.3      M    M
 14500   -8.3  17.1   250   44   23   7.0   3.9   13.9  57.0     7.9      M    M
 14000   -7.3  18.9   245   50   26   7.1   3.9   13.5  56.2     7.5      M    M
 13500   -6.3  20.7   245   54   28   7.2   3.9   13.0  55.4     7.1      M    M
 13000   -5.2  22.6   245   57   30   7.7   4.2   12.6  54.7     6.7      M    M
 12500   -4.0  24.8   245   57   29   8.6   4.7   12.4  54.3     6.5      M    M
 12000   -3.0  26.6   240   58   30   6.5   3.6   12.0  53.6     6.2      M    M
 11750   -2.4  27.7   240   57   29   7.5   4.1   11.8  53.2     6.0      M    M
 11500   -1.9  28.6   240   55   28   7.5   4.1   11.6  52.9     5.8      M    M
 11250   -1.4  29.5   240   54   28   7.3   4.0   11.4  52.6     5.6      M    M
 11000   -0.8  30.6   240   52   27   8.5   4.6   11.3  52.3     5.4      M    M
 10750   -0.2  31.6   240   51   26   7.2   4.0   11.2  52.1     5.3      M    M
 10500    0.2  32.4   240   49   25   4.3   2.4   10.8  51.5     5.0      M    M
 10250    0.6  33.1   240   48   25   7.5   4.1   10.5  50.9     4.7      M    M
 10000    1.0  33.8   240   47   24  -2.2  -1.2   10.2  50.3     4.3      M    M
  9750    0.3  32.5   235   44   23  -7.6  -4.2    8.8  47.8     3.0      M    M
  9500    0.1  32.2   235   42   22  -2.4  -1.3    7.7  45.9     2.0      M    M
  9250   -0.2  31.6   235   40   21  -3.1  -1.7    6.7  44.1     1.0      M    M
  9000   -0.6  30.9   230   38   20 -13.0  -7.1    5.6  42.0    -0.1    277  1.4
  8750   -2.0  28.4   230   35   18 -19.6 -10.8    3.4  38.0    -2.2    312  1.6
  8500   -3.2  26.2   220   32   16 -16.2  -8.9    1.3  34.4    -4.2    341  1.7
  8250   -4.4  24.1   215   29   15 -15.8  -8.7   -0.7  30.8    -6.2    370  1.9
  8000   -5.5  22.1   210   26   14 -13.8  -7.6   -2.5  27.5    -8.0    394  2.0
  7750   -6.4  20.5   205   24   12 -11.4  -6.3   -4.2  24.4    -9.6    415  2.1
  7500   -7.1  19.2   195   21   11  -8.6  -4.7   -5.7  21.8   -11.1    428  2.2
  7250   -7.7  18.1   185   17    9  -5.6  -3.1   -6.9  19.6   -12.3    437  2.2
  7000   -7.9  17.8   185   15    8  -1.4  -0.8   -7.3  18.8   -12.7    437  2.2
  6750      M     M     M    M    M     M     M      M     M       M      M    M

 * * * * * * Numerical weather prediction model forecast data valid * * * * * *

           03/02/2015 at 0800 MST          |       03/02/2015 at 1100 MST
                                           |
K index... -2.8  LI... +3.7                | K index... +5.6  LI... +2.9
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M                      | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... M
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -61.8 -79.2  255  74 38   1.8   1.0 | -62.5 -80.5  250  77 40   1.9   1.0
 45000 -59.0 -74.2  250 101 52  -0.3  -0.2 | -59.7 -75.5  250 103 53   0.0   0.0
 40000 -60.1 -76.2  245 113 58  -0.7  -0.4 | -59.8 -75.6  240 110 57  -0.1  -0.1
 38000 -58.0 -72.4  245 115 59   6.5   3.6 | -57.4 -71.3  240 113 58   6.6   3.6
 36000 -54.1 -65.4  240 114 59   6.5   3.6 | -53.5 -64.3  240 116 60   6.6   3.6
 34000 -50.0 -58.0  240 111 57   8.3   4.6 | -49.3 -56.7  240 115 59   7.7   4.2
 32000 -45.0 -49.0  240  95 49   8.3   4.6 | -44.7 -48.5  235 105 54   7.8   4.3
 30000 -39.3 -38.7  240  81 42   8.6   4.7 | -39.3 -38.7  235  90 46   8.7   4.8
 29000 -36.8 -34.2  240  77 40   8.6   4.7 | -36.7 -34.1  235  81 42   8.7   4.8
 28000 -34.2 -29.6  240  74 38   8.6   4.7 | -34.0 -29.2  235  72 37   8.7   4.8
 27000 -31.6 -24.9  240  71 37   7.4   4.0 | -31.5 -24.7  235  65 33   8.0   4.4
 26000 -29.5 -21.1  240  74 38   7.0   3.8 | -29.1 -20.4  240  70 36   7.9   4.3
 25000 -27.5 -17.5  245  78 40   7.0   3.8 | -26.7 -16.1  240  76 39   7.9   4.3
 24000 -25.4 -13.7  245  82 42   6.6   3.6 | -24.4 -11.9  240  82 42   7.3   4.0
 23000 -23.7 -10.7  245  78 40   5.5   3.0 | -22.5  -8.5  240  81 41   6.1   3.3
 22000 -22.1  -7.8  250  74 38   5.5   3.0 | -20.7  -5.3  240  78 40   6.1   3.3
 21000 -20.4  -4.7  250  69 36   5.8   3.2 | -19.0  -2.2  240  76 39   4.8   2.7
 20000 -18.6  -1.5  250  66 34   6.0   3.3 | -17.7   0.1  240  72 37   4.1   2.2
 19500 -17.7   0.1  250  64 33   6.0   3.3 | -17.1   1.2  240  70 36   4.1   2.2
 19000 -16.8   1.8  250  62 32   6.0   3.3 | -16.5   2.3  240  69 35   4.1   2.3
 18500 -15.9   3.4  250  60 31   6.0   3.3 | -15.9   3.4  240  67 34   4.6   2.5
 18000 -15.0   5.0  250  58 30   5.9   3.2 | -15.1   4.8  240  63 32   5.9   3.2
 17500 -14.2   6.4  250  56 29   5.9   3.2 | -14.2   6.4  240  59 30   5.8   3.2
 17000 -13.2   8.2  250  53 27   6.8   3.7 | -13.3   8.1  240  55 29   6.8   3.7
 16500 -12.2  10.0  250  47 24   6.8   3.7 | -12.3   9.9  240  52 27   6.9   3.8
 16000 -11.2  11.8  250  42 22   6.6   3.6 | -11.3  11.7  240  49 25   6.9   3.8
 15500 -10.3  13.5  250  37 19   6.5   3.5 | -10.3  13.5  240  50 26   6.9   3.8
 15000  -8.8  16.2  245  32 16   7.0   3.8 |  -8.8  16.2  240  51 26   7.3   4.0
 14500  -7.7  18.1  250  37 19   7.1   3.9 |  -7.7  18.1  240  53 27   7.4   4.0
 14000  -6.7  19.9  250  43 22   6.4   3.5 |  -6.6  20.1  240  56 29   7.4   4.0
 13500  -5.8  21.6  250  50 26   5.9   3.2 |  -5.5  22.1  240  57 29   7.3   4.0
 13000  -4.9  23.2  250  57 29   5.7   3.1 |  -4.5  23.9  240  57 30   7.3   4.0
 12500  -4.2  24.4  245  57 29   5.3   2.9 |  -3.4  25.9  240  56 29   7.1   3.9
 12000  -3.3  26.1  245  56 29   6.9   3.8 |  -2.4  27.7  240  54 28   6.7   3.7
 11750  -2.8  27.0  245  55 29   7.2   4.0 |  -1.9  28.6  240  53 27   6.4   3.5
 11500  -2.3  27.9  245  55 28   7.4   4.1 |  -1.5  29.3  240  52 27   6.3   3.5
 11250  -1.8  28.8  240  54 28   7.4   4.1 |  -1.0  30.2  240  52 27   6.3   3.5
 11000  -1.3  29.7  240  53 27   8.5   4.6 |  -0.6  30.9  240  51 26   6.0   3.3
 10750  -0.6  30.9  240  51 26   8.9   4.9 |  -0.2  31.6  240  50 26   5.8   3.2
 10500  -0.0  32.0  240  50 26   8.1   4.4 |   0.3  32.5  240  48 25   5.8   3.2
 10250   0.6  33.1  240  48 25   9.8   5.4 |   0.7  33.3  240  47 24   6.3   3.4
 10000   1.2  34.2  240  47 24   3.9   2.1 |   1.1  34.0  240  45 23   4.3   2.4
  9750   1.2  34.2  240  44 23   2.0   1.1 |   1.4  34.5  240  43 22   3.7   2.0
  9500   1.6  34.9  240  43 22   5.6   3.1 |   1.7  35.1  235  40 21   4.7   2.6
  9250   2.0  35.6  235  41 21   7.0   3.8 |   2.0  35.6  235  38 20   6.0   3.3
  9000   2.3  36.1  235  39 20  -3.6  -2.0 |   2.4  36.3  235  36 18  -0.2  -0.1
  8750   1.4  34.5  235  36 18 -13.5  -7.4 |   2.0  35.6  235  33 17  -4.6  -2.5
  8500   0.6  33.1  230  33 17  -9.6  -5.3 |   1.8  35.2  230  30 15  -1.1  -0.6
  8250  -0.2  31.6  230  30 15 -12.0  -6.6 |   1.7  35.1  230  27 14  -3.3  -1.8
  8000  -1.4  29.5  225  26 13 -22.0 -12.1 |   1.1  34.0  225  24 12 -16.0  -8.8
  7750  -3.1  26.4  220  22 11 -19.0 -10.4 |  -0.3  31.5  220  20 10 -13.5  -7.4
  7500  -3.9  25.0  210  18  9  -6.8  -3.8 |  -0.7  30.7  210  16  8   0.9   0.5
  7250  -4.4  24.1  195  13  7  -5.5  -3.0 |  -0.6  30.9  195  13  7   0.5   0.3
  7000  -4.7  23.5  190  12  6  -3.8  -2.1 |  -0.6  30.9  190  12  6  -0.2  -0.1
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M

           03/02/2015 at 1400 MST          |       03/02/2015 at 1700 MST
                                           |
K index... -3.7  LI... +3.0                | K index... -3.9  LI... +4.5
CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.0                   | CAPE... 0.0  CIN... -0.3
                                           |
Height Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate | Temperature  Wnd WndSpd  Lapse Rate
ft MSL deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft | deg C deg F  Dir kt m/s  C/km F/kft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 50000 -62.8 -81.0  250  77 40   2.7   1.5 | -62.9 -81.2  245  78 40   2.5   1.4
 45000 -58.9 -74.0  245 103 53   0.6   0.3 | -59.1 -74.4  245 106 55   0.2   0.1
 40000 -58.6 -73.5  240 119 61   0.1   0.1 | -59.1 -74.4  240 128 66  -0.0  -0.0
 38000 -56.7 -70.1  240 123 63   5.9   3.2 | -56.8 -70.2  240 130 67   6.6   3.6
 36000 -52.7 -62.9  235 124 64   5.9   3.2 | -52.8 -63.0  235 127 66   6.6   3.6
 34000 -48.6 -55.5  235 123 63   9.0   4.9 | -48.5 -55.3  230 124 64   9.6   5.3
 32000 -43.2 -45.8  235 115 59   9.1   5.0 | -42.7 -44.9  230 114 59   9.6   5.2
 30000 -38.2 -36.8  235 108 55   6.7   3.7 | -37.3 -35.1  230 106 54   6.1   3.3
 29000 -36.2 -33.2  235 104 54   6.6   3.6 | -35.4 -31.7  230 107 55   6.4   3.5
 28000 -34.2 -29.6  240 101 52   6.6   3.6 | -33.0 -27.4  235 108 56   6.4   3.5
 27000 -32.3 -26.1  240  97 50   6.8   3.8 | -31.1 -24.0  235 110 56   6.5   3.6
 26000 -30.1 -22.2  240  94 48   7.3   4.0 | -29.1 -20.4  235 105 54   6.6   3.6
 25000 -27.9 -18.2  240  91 47   7.3   4.0 | -27.1 -16.8  235 101 52   6.6   3.6
 24000 -25.7 -14.3  240  88 45   7.5   4.1 | -25.2 -13.4  235  97 50   6.6   3.6
 23000 -23.7 -10.7  235  86 44   6.5   3.6 | -23.2  -9.8  235  93 48   6.3   3.4
 22000 -21.3  -6.3  235  83 43   6.5   3.6 | -21.3  -6.3  235  89 46   6.3   3.5
 21000 -19.4  -2.9  235  81 42   4.9   2.7 | -19.4  -2.9  235  85 44   6.0   3.3
 20000 -18.1  -0.6  235  78 40   4.5   2.5 | -17.7   0.1  235  83 43   5.6   3.1
 19500 -17.4   0.7  235  76 39   4.5   2.5 | -16.9   1.6  235  82 42   5.7   3.1
 19000 -16.8   1.8  235  75 39   4.5   2.5 | -16.0   3.2  235  81 42   5.7   3.1
 18500 -16.1   3.0  240  73 38   5.1   2.8 | -15.2   4.6  240  80 41   5.7   3.1
 18000 -15.2   4.6  235  59 31   5.8   3.2 | -14.3   6.3  240  79 41   6.3   3.4
 17500 -14.4   6.1  230  45 23   5.4   3.0 | -13.4   7.9  240  78 40   6.2   3.4
 17000 -13.3   8.1  230  39 20   9.3   5.1 | -12.5   9.5  240  77 40   6.2   3.4
 16500 -12.0  10.4  230  42 22   8.9   4.9 | -11.5  11.3  240  76 39   6.1   3.4
 16000 -10.6  12.9  230  45 23   8.9   4.9 | -10.6  12.9  245  75 39   6.1   3.3
 15500  -9.3  15.3  230  47 24   8.9   4.9 |  -9.8  14.4  245  74 38   5.8   3.2
 15000  -8.0  17.6  235  49 25   8.5   4.7 |  -8.9  16.0  245  74 38   5.8   3.2
 14500  -6.9  19.6  235  50 26   7.3   4.0 |  -8.1  17.4  245  73 38   6.1   3.3
 14000  -5.8  21.6  235  51 26   7.3   4.0 |  -7.2  19.0  245  72 37   6.0   3.3
 13500  -4.8  23.4  240  53 27   6.0   3.3 |  -6.2  20.8  245  71 36   6.9   3.8
 13000  -3.9  25.0  240  54 28   6.1   3.3 |  -5.2  22.6  245  68 35   7.0   3.8
 12500  -3.0  26.6  240  55 29   6.3   3.5 |  -4.2  24.4  245  65 34   7.8   4.3
 12000  -2.2  28.0  245  57 29   4.3   2.3 |  -3.1  26.4  245  62 32   6.5   3.5
 11750  -1.9  28.6  245  59 30   4.7   2.6 |  -2.6  27.3  245  59 31   6.2   3.4
 11500  -1.5  29.3  245  59 30   5.9   3.3 |  -2.2  28.0  245  57 29   6.7   3.7
 11250  -1.0  30.2  245  59 30   5.9   3.2 |  -1.7  28.9  245  55 28   6.8   3.7
 11000  -0.6  30.9  245  58 30   6.2   3.4 |  -1.2  29.8  245  53 27   6.9   3.8
 10750  -0.1  31.8  245  58 30   6.2   3.4 |  -0.7  30.7  240  51 26   7.0   3.8
 10500   0.3  32.5  245  56 29   5.6   3.1 |  -0.2  31.6  240  49 25   6.1   3.4
 10250   0.7  33.3  245  55 28   5.6   3.1 |   0.2  32.4  240  47 24   5.6   3.1
 10000   1.0  33.8  245  53 27   5.5   3.0 |   1.0  33.8  235  44 22   6.2   3.4
  9750   1.4  34.5  240  51 26   6.5   3.6 |   1.5  34.7  235  42 22   5.4   3.0
  9500   1.9  35.4  240  49 25   6.2   3.4 |   1.8  35.2  230  40 20   4.1   2.2
  9250   2.6  36.7  240  43 22   6.5   3.6 |   2.1  35.8  230  38 19   5.1   2.8
  9000   2.9  37.2  235  40 21  -0.3  -0.1 |   2.4  36.3  225  36 18   2.6   1.4
  8750   2.5  36.5  235  37 19  -3.6  -2.0 |   2.4  36.3  225  34 17   0.6   0.3
  8500   2.5  36.5  230  34 17   0.9   0.5 |   2.5  36.5  220  31 16   0.7   0.4
  8250   2.4  36.3  230  31 16  -1.9  -1.1 |   2.5  36.5  220  29 15   3.1   1.7
  8000   2.0  35.6  225  27 14 -11.1  -6.1 |   2.5  36.5  215  27 14  -9.4  -5.1
  7750   1.0  33.8  220  21 11 -10.4  -5.7 |   1.2  34.2  210  22 11 -17.7  -9.7
  7500   0.8  33.4  210  16  8   5.9   3.2 |   0.6  33.1  205  16  8   3.2   1.8
  7250   0.6  33.1  195  11  6 -27.0 -14.8 |  -0.1  31.8  190  11  5 -44.3 -24.3
  7000     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
  6750     M     M    M   M  M     M     M |     M     M    M   M  M     M     M
________________________________________________________________________________

This product is issued twice per day, once by approximately 0630 MST/0730 MDT
(1330 UTC) and again by approximately 1830 MST/1930 MDT (0130 UTC).  It is not
continuously monitored nor updated after its initial issuance.

The information contained herein is based on rawinsonde observation and/or
numerical weather prediction model data taken near the Air Force Academy
in Colorado Springs, Colorado at

                   North Latitude:  38 deg 58 min 48.000 sec
                   West Longitude: 104 deg 49 min 12.000 sec
                   Elevation: 6572 feet (2003 meters)

and may not be representative of other areas along the Front Range of the
Colorado Rocky Mountains.  Note that some elevations in numerical weather
prediction models differ from actual station elevations, which can lead to
data which appear to be below ground.  Erroneous data such as these should
not be used.

The content and format of this report as well as the issuance times are subject
to change without prior notice.  Comments and suggestions are welcome and should
be directed to one of the addresses or phone numbers shown at the bottom of this
page.  To expedite a response to comments, be sure to mention your interest in
the soaring forecast.

DEFINITIONS:

CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) - An integrated measure of the
     energy available for convective development, also known as the positive
     area on a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  Larger
     values are indicative of greater instability and the possibility of
     stronger convective activity, including thunderstorms.  Values around or
     greater than 1000 suggest the possibility of severe weather should
     convective activity develop.

CIN (Convective Inhibition) - An integrated measure of the amount of energy
     needed to initiate convective activity, also known as the negative area on
     a thermodynamic diagram.  Units are Joules per kilogram.  The more negative
     this number, the more energy is required to initiate convection.  This
     inhibitive energy can be overcome through surface heating, cooling aloft,
     lifting mechanisms (orographic, frontal, gravity waves, etc.)

Convective Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average saturation mixing ratio in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass,
     if heated sufficiently from below, will rise dry adiabatically until it
     just becomes saturated.  It estimates the base of cumulus clouds that are
     produced by surface heating only.

Convection Temperature (ConvectionT) - The surface temperature required to make
     the airmass dry adiabatic up to the given level.  It can be considered a
     "trigger temperature" for that level.

Freezing Level - The height where the temperature is zero degrees Celsius.

Height of Stable Layer - The height (between 12,000 and 18,000 feet above
     mean sea level) where the smallest lapse rate exists.  The location and
     existence of this feature is important in the generation of mountain
     waves.

K Index - A measure of stability which combines the temperature difference
     between approximately 5,000 and 18,000 feet above the surface, the amount
     of moisture at approximately 5,000 feet above the surface, and a measure
     of the dryness at approximately 10,000 feet above the surface.  Larger
     positive numbers indicate more instability and a greater likelihood of
     thunderstorm development.  One interpretation of K index values regarding
     soaring in the western United States is given in WMO Technical Note 158
     and is reproduced in the following table:

          below -10    no or weak thermals
           -10 to 5    dry thermals or 1/8 cumulus with moderate thermals
            5 to 15    good soaring conditions
           15 to 20    good soaring conditions with occasional showers
           20 to 30    excellent soaring conditions, but increasing
                       probability of showers and thunderstorms
           above 30    more than 60 percent probability of thunderstorms

Lapse Rate - The change with height of the temperature. Negative values indicate
     inversions.

Lifted Condensation Level - The height to which an air parcel possessing the
     average dew point in the lowest 4000 feet of the airmass and the forecast
     maximum temperature must be lifted dry adiabatically to attain saturation.

Lifted Index (LI) - The difference between the environmental temperature at a
     level approximately 18,000 feet above the surface and the temperature of
     an air parcel lifted dry adiabatically from the surface to its lifted
     condensation level and then pseudoadiabatically thereafter to this same
     level.  The parcel`s initial temperature is the forecast maximum
     temperature and its dew point is the average dew point in the lowest 4000
     feet of the airmass.  Negative values are indicative of instability with
     positive values showing stable conditions.

Lift Rate - An experimental estimate of the strength of thermals.  It is
     computed the same way as the maximum rate of lift but uses the actual
     level rather than the maximum height of thermals in the calculation.
     Also, none of the empirical adjustments based on cloudiness and K-index
     are applied to these calculations.

Maximum Height of Thermals - The height where the dry adiabat through the
     forecast maximum temperature intersects the environmental temperature.

Maximum Rate of Lift - An estimate of the maximum strength of thermals.  It
     is computed from an empirical formula which combines the expected maximum
     height of thermals with the difference in the environmental temperatures
     between the maximum height of thermals and the temperature 4,000 feet
     above the ground.  After this computation, further empirical adjustments
     are made based on the value of the K-index and the amount and opacity of
     middle and high level cloudiness expected between the time of trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment.

Middle/High Clouds - The amount and opacity of middle (altostratus, altocumulus)
     or high (cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus) clouds.  Broken means that
     between 60% and 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud, with overcast
     conditions occurring when more than 90% of the sky is covered by the cloud.
     Thin implies that the clouds are predominantly transparent, meaning that
     some sunlight is reaching the ground, in contrast to opaque which suggests
     that little sunlight is reaching the ground.

Potential Height of Wave - The minimum of the following two heights:
     1. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind direction changes by 30 degrees or more
     2. Level above the height of stable layer (or 14,000 feet if none exists)
        where the wind speed no longer increases with height

PVA/NVA - Positive vorticity advection (PVA)/negative vorticity advection (NVA)
     on the 500 millibar isobaric surface (approximately 18,000 feet above mean
     sea level).  Weak PVA has been shown to assist in mountain wave soaring.

Soaring Window - The time between the time the trigger temperature is reached
                 and the time of overdevelopment.

Thermal Index - The difference between the environmental temperature and the
     temperature at a particular level determined by following the dry adiabat
     through the forecast maximum temperature up to that level.  Negative values
     are indicative of thermal lift.

Thermal Soaring Index - An adjective rating (for sailplanes) based on the
     computed maximum rate of lift, and the wind speed and middle and high
     cloud cover expected during the soaring window (the time of the trigger
     temperature and the time of overdevelopment) according to the following:

                 Maximum rate of lift        Adjective Rating
                      >= 800 fpm                 Excellent
                 >= 400 and < 800 fpm              Good
                 >= 200 and < 400 fpm              Fair
                       < 200 fpm                   Poor

Time of Overdevelopment - The time one or more of the following phenomena,
     which essentially shut off thermal lift, is expected to occur:
     1. formation of broken to overcast convective cloud cover
     2. formation of scattered to numerous downbursts
     3. initiation of widespread precipitation

Time of Trigger Temperature - The time the surface temperature is expected to
     reach the trigger temperature.

Trigger Temperature - The surface temperature required to make the first 4000
     feet of the atmosphere dry adiabatic.

Wave Soaring Index - An empirical, adjective rating (for sailplanes) which
     attempts to combine a variety of phenomena important in mountain wave
     soaring into a single index number.  Objective points are assigned to
     these phenomena: wind speed and direction at 14,000 ft MSL, the static
     stability in the 12,000-18,000 ft MSL layer, the wind speed gradient above
     the stable layer, jet stream location and frontal and upper trough
     movements.

042613


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