Point Forecast Matrices
Issued by NWS Sterling, VA

Home | Current Version | Previous Version | Text Only | Print | Product List | Glossary On
Versions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
784
FOUS51 KLWX 171733
PFMLWX

POINT FORECAST MATRICES
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BALTIMORE MD/WASHINGTON DC
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

VAZ054-172100-
REAGAN NATIONAL AIRPORT-ARLINGTON VA
38.86N  77.03W ELEV. 66 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      52          48          57          39          54
TEMP                   50 52 52 53 52 51 49 53 55 54 49 45 43 42 40 46 52 53 46
DEWPT                  48 51 50 51 51 49 46 44 43 40 39 38 38 37 36 37 39 40 38
RH                     93 96 93 93 96 93 89 71 64 59 68 76 82 82 85 71 61 61 73
WIND DIR                S  S  S SW SW  W NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW  W  N
WIND SPD                8  8  8  9  8  6  8 12 14 13 10  8  6  5  5  6  5  5  3
CLOUDS                 OV OV B2 B2 B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC
POP 12HR                     90          30           5           5           0
QPF 12HR                   0.03           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  C  C  S  S
OBVIS                  PF          PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          38    48      42    54      42    51      44    56
TEMP          41 40 47 46   44 44 52 49   46 43 50 48   46 46 54 51
DEWPT         38 38 42 43   42 42 44 43   41 40 42 42   43 45 49 48
PWIND DIR        SE    SE      NE    NE       E     E       E    SE
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      GN    GN
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2 OV   B2 B2 B2 B2   B2 B2 B2 B2   OV OV OV B2
POP 12HR         10    70      30    10      20    30      60    70
RAIN                 C  L    C  C          S  S  C  C    L  L  L  L

$$
MDZ013-172100-
BALTIMORE/WASHINGTON AIRPORT-ANNE ARUNDEL MD
39.19N  76.67W ELEV. 154 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      50          45          55          37          53
TEMP                   46 50 48 50 50 49 47 50 54 52 47 43 41 40 39 45 51 52 45
DEWPT                  45 47 47 48 48 46 44 43 42 40 38 36 36 36 35 37 38 38 37
RH                     96 89 96 93 93 89 89 77 64 63 71 76 82 85 85 73 61 59 73
WIND DIR                S  S  S SW SW  W  W NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW  W  W
WIND SPD                5  5  5  6  6  6  6 11 14 13 10  8  6  5  5  6  5  5  3
CLOUDS                 OV OV OV B2 B1 B1 B1 B2 B1 B1 B1 SC SC B1 SC SC SC FW SC
POP 12HR                     90          30          10           5           0
QPF 12HR                   0.06           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  C  C  S  S
OBVIS                  PF          PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          35    48      40    52      39    50      42    54
TEMP          39 38 46 45   43 42 50 46   43 41 49 46   44 44 52 49
DEWPT         36 36 42 42   41 40 43 41   39 39 41 40   41 42 48 46
PWIND DIR         W    SE       E     E       E     E       E     E
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      GN    GN
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2 OV   B2 B2 B2 B1   B2 B2 B2 B2   OV OV OV B2
POP 12HR         10    70      30    10      20    30      60    70
RAIN                 C  L    C  C          S  S  C  C    L  L  L  L

$$
MDZ011-172100-
BALTIMORE INNER HARBOR-BALTIMORE CITY MD
39.28N  76.61W ELEV. 20 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      49          45          55          38          52
TEMP                   45 49 48 48 49 48 47 51 53 52 47 45 42 42 40 45 51 52 46
DEWPT                  44 46 46 47 47 46 43 42 42 39 38 36 36 36 35 36 38 38 38
RH                     96 89 93 96 93 93 86 71 66 61 71 70 79 79 82 70 61 59 73
WIND DIR               SE SE  S SW  W  W  W  W NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW  W  W
WIND SPD                5  5  5  4  5  6  6 11 14 12 10  8  6  5  5  6  5  5  3
CLOUDS                 OV OV OV B2 B1 B1 B1 B2 B1 B2 B1 SC SC B1 SC SC SC FW SC
POP 12HR                     90          30          10           5           0
QPF 12HR                   0.06           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  C  C  S  S
OBVIS                  PF          PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          37    47      41    52      40    49      42    53
TEMP          40 39 46 45   43 43 51 47   44 41 48 46   44 44 52 49
DEWPT         36 36 41 41   41 40 43 41   39 38 41 40   41 42 47 46
PWIND DIR        NW    SE      NE    NE       E     E       E     E
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      GN    GN
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2 OV   B2 B2 B2 B1   B2 B2 B2 B2   B2 OV OV B2
POP 12HR          5    70      30    10      20    30      60    70
RAIN                 C  L    C  C          S  S  C  C    L  L  L  L

$$
WVZ052-172100-
MARTINSBURG AIRPORT-BERKELEY WV
39.41N  77.98W ELEV. 558 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      51          43          53          35          52
TEMP                   46 50 47 47 46 46 45 49 51 50 45 42 39 38 37 45 50 52 43
DEWPT                  45 48 46 45 43 41 40 41 39 37 36 34 34 33 33 37 37 37 35
RH                     96 93 96 93 89 83 82 74 63 61 70 73 82 82 85 73 61 56 73
WIND DIR               SE  S  S SW  W  W  W  W NW NW NW NW NW NW NW  W  W  W  E
WIND SPD                6  6  5  5  5  5  6 11 14 13  9  6  4  4  3  5  4  4  2
CLOUDS                 OV B2 B2 B2 B1 B2 B2 B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 SC B1 SC SC SC SC SC
POP 12HR                    100          30          10           5           0
QPF 12HR                   0.06           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  C  C  S  S
OBVIS                  PF          PF PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          34    45      38    54      39    49      40    52
TEMP          37 37 44 42   40 41 52 47   44 41 48 45   43 42 50 47
DEWPT         34 35 41 40   39 38 43 41   39 39 41 40   40 40 46 45
PWIND DIR         E    SE      SW     S       E     E       E     E
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      GN    GN
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2 OV   B2 B2 B2 B1   B2 B2 B2 OV   OV OV OV B2
POP 12HR         10    70      30    20      30    40      70    70
RAIN                 C  L    C  C  S  S    C  C  C  C    L  L  L  L

$$
VAZ506-172100-
WASHINGTON DULLES AIRPORT-LOUDOUN VA
38.96N  77.45W ELEV. 321 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      52          46          55          36          53
TEMP                   49 52 51 52 51 49 47 51 54 52 46 43 41 39 38 45 51 52 44
DEWPT                  48 50 49 50 49 47 44 43 42 39 37 37 36 35 35 37 39 39 37
RH                     96 93 93 93 93 93 89 74 64 61 71 79 82 85 89 73 63 61 76
WIND DIR                S  S  S SW SW  W NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW  W  W  E
WIND SPD                8  9  9  9  6  5  6 12 16 13 10  8  5  4  4  5  5  4  2
CLOUDS                 OV B2 B2 B2 B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC
POP 12HR                     90          20          10           0           0
QPF 12HR                   0.05           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  S  S  S  S
OBVIS                  PF          PF PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          36    47      40    53      40    50      42    54
TEMP          39 39 46 44   42 42 51 47   44 42 49 46   44 44 52 49
DEWPT         37 37 43 42   41 41 44 42   41 40 42 42   42 44 49 47
PWIND DIR        SE    SE       N     E       E     E       E    SE
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      GN    GN
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2 OV   B2 B2 B2 B2   B2 B2 B2 B2   OV OV OV B2
POP 12HR         10    70      30    20      20    40      70    70
RAIN                 C  L    C  C  S  S    S  S  C  C    L  L  L  L

$$
VAZ037-172100-
CHARLOTTESVILLE AIRPORT-ALBEMARLE VA
38.14N  78.45W ELEV. 640 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      56          47          57          35          55
TEMP                   52 55 53 53 52 51 49 52 56 55 47 43 40 39 37 46 53 54 46
DEWPT                  49 50 50 51 50 46 43 42 40 38 36 35 34 33 33 36 38 38 37
RH                     89 83 89 93 93 83 80 69 55 53 65 73 79 79 85 68 57 54 71
WIND DIR                S  S  S SW SW SW  W  W NW NW NW NW  W NW  N SW SW  S  S
WIND SPD                9 10 10  9  8  5  5  9 11  9  5  3  2  2  2  3  3  3  2
CLOUDS                 OV OV OV OV SC B1 B1 SC SC FW FW FW FW FW SC SC SC SC SC
POP 12HR                     90          10           5           0           5
QPF 12HR                   0.03           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C
OBVIS                  PF    PF PF PF PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          37    49      40    57      42    51      43    57
TEMP          40 40 47 46   43 43 55 50   47 43 50 47   45 45 55 50
DEWPT         37 39 44 44   41 40 47 44   42 41 44 43   43 45 50 45
PWIND DIR         S    SE      SW     W       E     E       E    SE
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT
AVG CLOUDS    SC B2 OV B2   B2 B2 B1 B1   B2 B2 B2 OV   OV OV B2 B2
POP 12HR         30    70      20    10      30    50      70    70
RAIN                 L  C    S  S          C  C  C  C    L  L  L  L
RAIN SHWRS        C

$$
MDZ003-172100-
HAGERSTOWN AIRPORT-WASHINGTON MD
39.71N  77.73W ELEV. 705 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      49          42          50          35          51
TEMP                   43 49 46 46 45 44 44 47 49 47 43 41 39 38 37 43 48 50 43
DEWPT                  43 46 44 45 43 41 40 41 39 37 36 35 34 33 33 36 36 36 34
RH                    100 89 93 96 93 89 86 79 68 68 76 79 82 82 85 76 63 58 70
WIND DIR                S  S  S SW  W  W  W  W NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW  W  W NW
WIND SPD                6  8  5  5  5  5  8 11 14 13  9  6  4  4  4  5  4  4  2
CLOUDS                 OV OV OV B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 SC SC FW SC
POP 12HR                    100          20          10           5           0
QPF 12HR                   0.07           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  S  S  S  S
OBVIS                  PF          PF PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          34    44      38    51      39    47      40    50
TEMP          38 36 43 42   40 40 49 46   43 40 46 44   42 42 49 46
DEWPT         34 34 40 39   39 38 41 40   38 38 39 39   39 39 44 44
PWIND DIR         E    SE      SE     S       E     E       E     E
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      GN    GN
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2 OV   B2 B2 B2 B2   B2 B2 B2 B2   OV OV OV B2
POP 12HR         10    70      30    20      30    40      70    70
RAIN                 C  L    C  C  S  S    C  C  C  C    L  L  L  L

$$
MDZ017-172100-
PATUXENT RIVER NAS MD
38.29N  76.41W ELEV. 39 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      51          48          55          39          49
TEMP                   49 51 50 52 52 51 50 52 53 53 47 45 43 42 41 45 48 49 43
DEWPT                  46 47 48 49 50 49 47 45 43 41 39 38 37 36 36 38 39 39 37
RH                     89 86 93 89 93 93 89 77 69 64 74 76 79 79 82 76 71 68 79
WIND DIR                S  S  S SW SW  W NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW  N NW NW NW SW
WIND SPD                9  9 10 10 10  9  8 11 13 13 11 10  9  9  8  8  6  4  2
CLOUDS                 OV OV OV OV B2 B2 B1 B1 B1 B1 SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC
POP 12HR                     80          30           5           5           0
QPF 12HR                   0.03           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  C  C  S  S
OBVIS                  PF          PF PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          37    47      41    50      40    50      43    55
TEMP          40 39 46 45   43 42 49 46   43 42 49 47   45 45 53 50
DEWPT         37 38 43 42   41 41 44 41   39 40 43 41   43 45 50 46
PWIND DIR         S    SE      NE    NE       E     E       E    SE
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      GN    GN
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2 OV   B2 B2 B2 B1   B2 B2 B2 B2   B2 OV OV B2
POP 12HR         10    70      30    10      20    30      60    70
RAIN                 C  L    C  C          S  S  C  C    L  L  L  L

$$
WVZ502-172100-
PETERSBURG WV
38.99N  79.15W ELEV. 963 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      60          45          50          35          54
TEMP                   55 59 56 54 52 48 47 47 48 46 43 40 38 37 37 43 51 53 44
DEWPT                  51 52 51 48 45 42 40 39 37 36 35 35 34 33 33 36 38 39 36
RH                     86 78 83 80 77 80 76 74 65 68 73 82 85 85 85 76 61 59 73
WIND DIR                S  S SW SW  W  W  W  W  W NW NW  W  W  W  W  W SW SW SE
WIND SPD                8  8  6  9 10  8  6 10 11 10  5  5  3  4  3  3  3  3  2
CLOUDS                 B2 B2 B1 SC SC SC B1 B1 SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC
POP 12HR                     90          20          10           5           5
QPF 12HR                   0.04           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  S  S  S  S


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          36    49      40    57      41    51      42    51
TEMP          39 40 47 46   43 43 55 50   46 43 50 47   45 43 50 45
DEWPT         35 37 43 42   41 41 46 44   42 41 44 42   42 42 45 42
PWIND DIR        SE    SE       S     S      SE    SE       E    SE
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT
AVG CLOUDS    SC B2 OV B2   B2 B1 B1 B1   B1 B2 B2 B2   OV OV OV B2
POP 12HR         30    70      20    20      20    50      70    70
RAIN                 L  C    S  S  S  S    S  S  C  C    L  L  L  L
RAIN SHWRS        C

$$
MDZ014-172100-
ANNAPOLIS MD
38.99N  76.49W ELEV. 7 FT
1233 PM EST TUE JAN 17 2017

DATE             TUE 01/17/17            WED 01/18/17            THU 01/19/17
EST 3HRLY     04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19 22 01 04 07 10 13 16 19
UTC 3HRLY     09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00 03 06 09 12 15 18 21 00

MAX/MIN                      49          45          54          39          50
TEMP                   46 49 48 49 50 49 48 51 54 52 47 44 43 42 41 45 49 49 44
DEWPT                  44 46 46 48 48 47 44 43 42 40 38 37 37 37 36 37 38 38 38
RH                     93 89 93 96 93 93 86 74 64 63 71 76 79 82 82 73 66 66 79
WIND DIR                S  S  S  S SW  W NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW  W  W
WIND SPD                8  8  8  8  8  6  8 11 13 12 10  9  6  6  5  6  6  5  3
CLOUDS                 OV OV B2 B2 B1 B1 B1 B1 B1 B2 B1 SC SC B1 SC SC SC SC SC
POP 12HR                     90          30          10           5           0
QPF 12HR                   0.04           0           0           0           0
SNOW 12HR                 00-00       00-00       00-00
RAIN SHWRS              C  C  C  C  S  S
OBVIS                  PF          PF


DATE          FRI 01/20/17  SAT 01/21/17  SUN 01/22/17  MON 01/23/17
EST 6HRLY     01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19   01 07 13 19
UTC 6HRLY     06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00   06 12 18 00

MIN/MAX          37    47      41    51      40    50      43    54
TEMP          40 40 46 45   43 43 50 46   43 42 49 47   45 45 53 50
DEWPT         37 37 42 41   42 41 43 41   40 39 41 40   41 43 48 46
PWIND DIR        SW    SE      NE    NE       E     E       E     E
WIND CHAR        LT    LT      LT    LT      LT    LT      GN    BZ
AVG CLOUDS    SC B1 B2 OV   B2 B2 B2 B1   B2 B2 B2 B2   B2 OV OV B2
POP 12HR          5    70      30    10      20    30      60    70
RAIN                 C  L    C  C          S  S  C  C    L  L  L  L

$$



USA.gov is the U.S. government's official web portal to all federal, state and local government web resources and services.