Public Information Statement
Issued by NWS Little Rock, AR

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NOUS44 KLZK 082002

Public Information Statement
National Weather Service Little Rock AR
200 PM CST Fri Dec 8 2017

December 3rd through the 8th is Winter Weather Awareness Week
in Arkansas. The purpose of this week is to remind people
what winter weather can bring, and how to deal with
hazardous winter conditions. Now is the time to prepare
for the upcoming winter season.

Todays topic is the cold of winter.

When Arkansans think of winter weather, usually a picture of
falling snow and temperatures in the 20s and lower 30s comes to mind.
However, winter weather can be not only dangerous, but possibly
deadly in some cases.

Winter storms are considered deceptive killers because most deaths
are indirectly related to the storm itself. Traffic accidents on icy
roads account for a vast majority of deaths. Heart attacks caused by
people shoveling snow and hypothermia from prolonged exposure to the
cold are also consequences of severe winter weather.

An important factor this winter will be energy costs. Prices for
natural gas and propane could cause some people to heat their homes
inadequately in an effort to avoid large energy bills. If too little
heat is used, hypothermia will become a greater threat than usual.

In case of power outages, gasoline or diesel powered generators must
not be used indoors. Carbon monoxide, a colorless and odorless gas,
can build up in enclosed areas such as houses and garages and result
in death.


Frostbite is damage to body tissue caused by that tissue being frozen.
It causes a loss of feeling and a white or pale appearance in
extremities, such as fingers, toes, earlobes or the tip of the nose.
If symptoms are detected, get medical help immediately. If you must
wait for help, begin to treat the affected area by warming it slowly.


Wind chill is based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin caused
by the combined effects of wind and cold. As the wind increases, heat
is carried away from the body, driving down the body temperature.
Remember that animals are affected by wind chill as well.

                     W I N D    C H I L L    C H A R T
:WIND:                       TEMPERATURE                           :
:CALM: 35   30   25   20   15   10    5     0   -5  -10   -15   -20:
:  5 : 31   25   19   13    7    1   -5   -11  -16  -22   -28   -34:
: 10 : 27   21   15    9    3   -4  -10   -16  -22  -28   -35   -41:
: 15 : 25   19   13    6    0   -7  -13   -19  -26  -32   -39   -45:
: 20 : 24   17   11    4   -2   -9  -15   -22  -29  -35   -42   -48:
: 25 : 23   16    9    3   -4  -11  -17   -24  -31  -37   -44   -51:
: 30 : 22   15    8    1   -5  -12  -19   -26  -33  -39   -46   -53:
: 35 : 21   14    7    0   -7  -14  -21   -27  -34  -41   -48   -55:

The wind speed used in the wind chill formula is calculated for the
average height of the human face, or about 5 feet above the ground. In
contrast, wind in most weather observations in the United States is
measured about 33 feet above the ground. The formula also uses updated
heat transfer theory, which factors heat loss from the body to its
surroundings during cold and windy conditions. In arriving at the
formula, testing was actually done on people in a chilled wind tunnel.
Sensors attached to the people measured heat loss from their bodies.

At a wind chill of 18 degrees below zero, frostbite can develop on
exposed skin within 30 minutes.

An important thing to remember about wind chill is that it was
designed to apply to living beings only. For example, a metal water
pipe in air that is 35 degrees will attain a temperature of 35 degrees,
as will the water inside. The wind may be blowing at 20 mph producing a
wind chill of zero degrees, but the pipe and the water will remain at
35 degrees.


Hypothermia is just a complicated word for lower-than-normal body
temperature. Hypothermia can be brought on in many ways including
exposure to periods of bitterly cold weather or immersion in cold lake
or river water. Remember that hypothermia is the actual lowering of
body temperature. Hypothermia is the most dangerous and life-threatening
result of exposure to extremely cold air.

Some of the warning signs associated with hypothermia are uncontrollable
shivering, memory loss, disorientation, incoherence, slurred speech,
drowsiness, and apparent exhaustion. A good way to detect hypothermia is
to take the persons temperature. If it is below 95 degrees fahrenheit,
seek medical care immediately.

If medical care is not available, begin warming the person slowly by
warming the body core first with either your own body heat or warm dry
clothes and blankets. Do not warm the extremities such as arms and legs
first as this could push the cold blood toward the heart and can lead to
heart failure.

Issues such as hypothermia can be diminished by wearing the proper
clothing when planning to be out in the cold weather for an extended time.

Wear several layers of loose-fitting, light weight, warm clothing. If you
become too warm, layers can be removed to avoid heat build-up and
perspiration. Outer garments should be tightly woven, water repellent
and hooded. Try to keep your mouth covered to protect your lungs, and
keep your hands in mittens, not gloves, to protect your fingers. Overall,
the best rule is to try to stay dry.

Finally, be sure to check on the elderly. High heating costs could cause
some older people to set the thermostat too low, leading to hypothermia.
Remember, elderly people often have more difficulty with their sense of
warm and cold.


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