Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Boston, MA

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784 FXUS61 KBOX 221133 AFDBOX Area Forecast Discussion National Weather Service Boston/Norton MA 733 AM EDT Sat Jun 22 2024 .SYNOPSIS... Warm and muggy this weekend with more rounds of diurnal showers and thunderstorms. Some storms may again become severe and result in a localized flash flood threat. A cold front brings a short window of reprieve of drier and less humid weather Tuesday, possibly lingering into Wednesday, before heat and shower chances return Thursday. && .NEAR TERM /UNTIL 6 PM THIS EVENING/... 355 AM Update... Key Points... * Showers & T-Storms are expected to develop again Sat PM * Severe thunderstorms & localized flash flood risk again * Heat Advisories continued for CT and southwest MA Warm and muggy morning in progress with temps and dew pts in the 60s to lower 70s. This is resulting in lots of low clouds and areas of fog. However, strong late June sun will burn through this low level moisture and give way to partial sunshine this afternoon, especially across CT and RI. Thus, another warm and humid day with highs in the 80s to around 90 in CT and southwest MA. These very warm temps will combine with dew pts in the low to mid 70s, yielding heat indices into the mid 90s, with hottest conditions across CT into southwest MA, including the Greater Springfield area. Therefore, the heat advisory remains in effect for this region. Not quite as warm or humid across eastern MA, as the backdoor front from Friday has stalled across Worcester county and extending into southeast MA. On this relatively cooler side of the boundary, including metro Boston, note quite as warm and humid with highs 75- 80 and dew pts in the 60s. As for the risk of showers & thunderstorms today, this stalled boundary across Worcester county extending into southeast MA will serve as a focus for convection, providing low level convergence and differential heating. This combined with weak height falls today should help erode mid level cap and be sufficient for scattered convection to fire. Along and west of the stalled boundary is where the warm sector and greatest instability exist. Hence, this is where the strongest storms should reside. HREF MU-CAPE on the order of 1500-2000 j/kg and combined with steep low level lapse rates, storms will be capable of producing strong to damaging winds. In addition, despite high freezing and wet bulb zero heights, there may be sufficient instability for a low risk of large hail. Also, can`t rule of a low prob of an isolated tornado given low level helocity in vicinity of the stalled boundary, coupled with strong destabilization and modest deep layer shear of 25-30 kt. This is supported by much of the Machine Learning guidance as well as the HREF Updraft Helicity Swaths. Finally, very moist airmass remains in place, with dew pts of 70-75 this afternoon, PWATs up to 2 inches and deep unidirectional flow supporting risk of training cells and back building WNW into warm sector, will yield another day with the risk of flash flooding. 00z HREF has up to a 30% chance of rainfall exceeding 3 inches in 3 hours this afternoon and unfortunately in the same area as Friday`s heavy rains, eastern CT into western RI. Much of this forecast will hinge on how much morning clouds erode and gives way to partial afternoon sunshine and resulting strong destabilization. Some of the guidance keeps mostly cloudy conditions across the area, yielding less instability and hence lower probabilities of strong storms and severe weather, including flash flood threat. Something we will need to watch as the morning unfolds. && .SHORT TERM /6 PM THIS EVENING THROUGH 6 PM SUNDAY/... 355 AM update... Key Points... * Even warmer and more humid Sunday * Another round of PM thunderstorms, possibly strong with heavy rain too Saturday night... Given stronger deep layer shear (up to 30-35 kt), convection may linger a few hours after sunset. Otherwise, drying trends overnight with fog reforming. Another warm night, with lows in the 60s and remaining humid as dew pts remain in the 60s. Sunday... Lead short wave trough approaches from the west and induces a prefrontal trough. Strong low level WAA ahead of this feature, with 925 mb temps warming to +24C to +26C across SNE. This will easily support highs in the upper 80s to lower 90s away from the south coast. This combined with dew pts in the low 70s will yield hot and humid conditions with heat indices 95-100 across CT and southwest MA. Hence, heat advisory remains in effect. Although, gusty SW winds 15-20 mph with gusts up to 30 mph at times across RI and eastern MA will help take some of the edge off the heat and humidity. These hot temps and high dew pt air will yield 1500-2000 j/kg of CAPE and deep layer shear increasing up to 35 kt with approaching short wave trough. Also, RRQ of upper level jet streak will enhance QG forcing for ascent. Thus, sufficient synoptic scale lift combined with CAPE/Shear overlapping to support at least a few strong to severe storms. Heavy rainers too with PWATs up to 2 inches. && .LONG TERM /SUNDAY NIGHT THROUGH FRIDAY/... 355 AM update... Highlights: * Cold front brings another round of showers and thunderstorms Monday * Brief period of drier and less humid weather Tuesday Ensembles have robust northern stream trough impacting SNE with scattered showers and thunderstorms Monday. Mid level trough moves offshore Tue, providing a brief period of drier and less humid weather. Dew pts in the upper 50s are possible Tue, with highs in the 80s. Could be the pick of next week. Progressive pattern yields above normal heights and return to warmer than normal weather Wed with highs 85-90. Another northern stream trough arriving late Wed into Thu, will yield a risk of scattered showers/thunderstorms. By Friday or Sat, ensembles suggest subtropical ridge reinserts itself back into the Northeast and New England. && .AVIATION /11Z SATURDAY THROUGH WEDNESDAY/...
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Forecast Confidence Levels: Low - less than 30 percent. Moderate - 30 to 60 percent. High - greater than 60 percent. 12z TAF Update... Today...High Confidence on trends but lower on specific timing. Mainly IFR-LIFR conditions in low clouds and fog should improve to VFR across the distant interior by early afternoon. Along the coastal plain IFR/LIFR may briefly improve to some low end MVFR levels by midday...but if this happens it will be short- lived. Otherwise...the main concern will revolve around another round of showers & t-storms impacting the region this afternoon and early evening. A few of these will be capable of producing locally strong wind gusts and torrential rainfall. Greatest risk for these storms will be southwest of a Boston to Fitchburg line. Winds generally less than 10 knots. Tonight...High Confidence on trends but lower on specific timing. The bulk of the showers & t-storms will wind down after sunset...but can not rule out at least the low risk for a few showers and perhaps a t-storm or two overnight. Otherwise... high probability for widespread IFR/LIFR, just some uncertainty how quickly this spreads westward from eastern MA into the distant interior. Light and variable winds shifting to the south by daybreak Sunday. Sunday...High Confidence on trends, lower on exact timing and details. Widespread IFR/LIFR in low clouds and fog in the morning. Then gradually improving to VFR in the afternoon, except MVFR/IFR along the south coast. Thunderstorms, possibly strong to severe is possible late in the day across CT into western-central MA. KBOS TAF... Moderate Confidence in TAF Mainly IFR to low end MVFR today. Low chance for a shower or thunderstorm in the afternoon between 20z and 00z, but confidence is low at this time. Bulk of thunderstorm activity will be across western- central MA into CT and RI. KBDL TAF...Moderate Confidence in TAF. IFR this morning improving to MVFR/VFR this afternoon. Chance for thunderstorms again this afternoon anytime between 18z-00z, but higher confidence between 20z-22z. Outlook /Sunday Night through Wednesday/... Sunday Night: Mainly VFR, with local IFR possible. Windy with local gusts up to 30 kt. SHRA likely, isolated TSRA. Monday: Mainly VFR, with local MVFR possible. Breezy. Chance SHRA, isolated TSRA. Monday Night: VFR. Chance SHRA. Tuesday through Tuesday Night: VFR. Wednesday: VFR. Breezy. Slight chance SHRA, isolated TSRA.
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&& .MARINE... Forecaster Confidence Levels: Low - less than 30 percent. Medium - 30 to 60 percent. High - greater than 60 percent. 355 AM update... Through Sunday...High Confidence. *** SCA in effect for Sunday *** Saturday... Light/variable winds Saturday with low clouds and fog burning off this afternoon. Scattered thunderstorms expected this afternoon especially across the RI waters eastward to Cape Cod and Nantucket. A few strong storms possible. Saturday night... Early evening scattered thunderstorms dissipate by late evening. Then patchy fog reduce vsby. Light and variable winds become SW toward Sunday morning. Sunday... SW winds increase 15 to 25 kt, with some gusts possibly up to 30 kt at times. Low vsby in morning fog will improve during the afternoon. Outlook /Sunday Night through Wednesday/... Sunday Night: Moderate risk for Small Craft Advisory winds with gusts up to 30 kt. Areas of rough seas. Rain showers likely, isolated thunderstorms. Monday: Winds less than 25 kt. Areas of rough seas. Rain showers likely, isolated thunderstorms. Monday Night: Winds less than 25 kt. Local rough seas. Chance of rain showers. Tuesday: Winds less than 25 kt. Areas of seas approaching 5 ft. Tuesday Night: Winds less than 25 kt. Seas locally approaching 5 ft. Wednesday: Winds less than 25 kt. Areas of seas approaching 5 ft. && .BOX WATCHES/WARNINGS/ADVISORIES... CT...Heat Advisory until 7 PM EDT Sunday for CTZ002>004. MA...Heat Advisory until 7 PM EDT Sunday for MAZ010-011. RI...None. MARINE...Small Craft Advisory from noon to 8 PM EDT Sunday for ANZ230- 231-250-251. Small Craft Advisory from 8 AM Sunday to 8 AM EDT Monday for ANZ232>235-237-254>256. Small Craft Advisory from 10 AM to 8 PM EDT Sunday for ANZ236. && $$ SYNOPSIS...Nocera NEAR TERM...Nocera SHORT TERM...Nocera LONG TERM...Nocera AVIATION...Frank/Nocera MARINE...Nocera