Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Greer, SC

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000
FXUS62 KGSP 200000
AFDGSP

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Greenville-Spartanburg SC
700 PM EST Thu Jan 19 2017

.SYNOPSIS...
A warm front will lift north across the region tonight and tomorrow
bringing more rain to the area. A more significant low pressure
system is expected to track across the region this weekend, bringing
showers and thunderstorms for Saturday, Sunday, and Monday. Drier
high pressure is expected to build back over the region by the
middle of next week.

&&

.NEAR TERM /THROUGH FRIDAY/...
As of 645 PM EST: The better precipitation shield lifting northeast
ahead of the advancing upper wave had reached central TN and eastern
AL early this evening. Although spotty shower activity will be
possible across the western Carolinas and northeast GA through late
evening, the mesoscale models have the more solid band of showers
arriving in the southwest part of the forecast area just before
midnight and then spreading east across the remainder of the
forecast area through daybreak Friday. The deep forcing associated
with the increasingly negative tilt upper trough will then lift
quickly east of the Interstate 77 area Friday morning. Regarding
instability, dewpoints continue in the 30s and 40s this evening and
any surface based instability currently appears relegated well to
the southwest across the GA/AL line. Still anticipate some low end
CAPE arriving with the main wave and isolated to scattered thunder
will be advertised for the southeast half during the early morning
hours. There thus remains a very small concern about strong to
severe storms early Friday with the passage of the main short wave
and its surface low reflection along the I-85 corridor. The best 35
to 40 kt low level jet will transit the region between 06Z and 11Z
to briefly heighten the low end risk.

Once the wave passes Friday morning, the upper ridge re-asserts
itself in the afternoon. The general absence of forcing and the
shallow moisture suggest a lull in the action through the afternoon
hours, so precip chances are allowed to diminish down into the
slight chance range. Temps will be tricky again in the afternoon,
with warm advection likely into northeast GA, but lingering
cloudiness over the NW Piedmont delaying the warmup in that
location. Have stuck close to the raw blend of models, but expect
another tough outcome like the past few days.

&&

.SHORT TERM /FRIDAY NIGHT THROUGH SUNDAY NIGHT/...
As of 230 PM Thu: Deepening low pressure will move northeastward
through the central Plains Friday night. The lull in active weather
over our area will continue through this time, until a warm front
associated with that low approaches the area during the day Saturday,
as well as weak DPVA resulting from a shortwave. This brings another
somewhat remarkable plume of moisture overhead, with PWAT
standardized anomalies of +2-3 SD. Abundant cloud cover seems likely
to limit destabilization in what would otherwise be an environment
that would make us a bit uneasy about convection, with favorable
lapse rates aloft and a modest LLJ crossing the area resulting in 40
kt of effective shear by afternoon, per NAM and EC.

A shortwave entering the Desert Southwest Saturday morning will shift
eastward and deepen into a cutoff low over TX/OK Saturday night, with
a strong surface reflection. This will set the stage for another
round of significant weather across the Southeast. Ahead of the main
low, a shortwave is depicted swinging from the western Gulf Coast up
into the Carolinas by midday Sunday. The LLJ and moisture advection
reamplify ahead of that feature. The little shortwave, combined with
the continued approach of the main low, cools the mid and upper
levels and leads to much more significant instability despite max
temps similar to those Saturday. Also, upper level winds become
anomalously strong. Sunday still appears to bear a notable severe
weather risk for at least the lower Piedmont; if the NAM and GFS are
correct in predicting several hundred joules of CAPE for the majority
of the CWFA, the threat area may be larger than that currently
depicted on SPC Day 4 outlook. Shear parameters are basically
through-the-roof on the NAM, less so on the GFS but still
significant. As an example, SHERBE peaks above 1 on the GFS and close
to 2 on the NAM. NAM would also suggest a tornado threat due to
exceedingly high 0-1km SRH values. Damaging winds would be the most
likely severe weather, though low freezing levels suggest marginally
severe hail is also possible with the stronger updrafts.

In addition to any severe threat, we are anticipating at least a
small possibility of flooding. Area streamflows are below normal, but
with repeated rounds of rainfall poorly drained areas and smaller
streams could rise with time. Late Saturday night and Sunday morning
is when we will have the best overlap of deep moisture and forcing,
so any t-storms that develop in that period might cause some
localized flash flooding, but that too does not look particularly
likely.

&&

.LONG TERM /MONDAY THROUGH THURSDAY/...
AT 200 PM EST Thursday...On Monday morning evening a deep upper low
will be closed off over the Carolinas, with ridging to the east and
west. This low moves off the East Coast on Tuesday, while the ridge
upstream approaches the crosses the MS River Valley. On Wednesday
the ridge moves off the East Coast, while a positively tilted upper
trough extends from the Great Lakes to NM. By Thursday the model
solutions diverge, with the GFS still showing a positive tilt to the
trough from Eastern Canada to the Southern Rockies, while the ECMWF
is less less progressive in the north, and more so in the south,
resulting in a trough from the Great Lakes to TX.

At the surface, on Monday morning a low pressure system will be over
the central Carolinas, with a band of low level Atlantic moisture
sweeping around behind it over the Western Carolinas and Georgia.
The low moves off the East Coast on Monday night, ending
precipitation everywhere but the NC Mountains neat the TN Border.
Temperatures and vertical profiles support an all liquid event.
Precipitation should end on Tuesday morning as a Gulf surface ridge
moves over the area. Rainfall may return as early as Tuesday evening
as Gulf Moisture ahead of another front reaches the Southern
Appalachian. Although Gulf Moisture is greatest on Wednesday morning
as the front approaches from the west, weakening gulf inflow will
somewhat limit precipitation amounts. As the front moves south of
our area on Thursday, precipitation should diminish. Temperatures
will run above normal.

&&

.AVIATION /00Z FRIDAY THROUGH TUESDAY/...
At KCLT and Elsewhere: VFR conditions this evening will gradually
deteriorate from the southwest overnight with the approach of a
strong upper level shortwave and associated deeper moisture.
Anticipate a transition down into MVFR with the onset of the better
shower coverage from 06Z to 08Z, with IFR conditions in moderate
showers become increasingly possible from 08Z through daybreak.
There remains a small thunderstorm threat, but instability is
currently lacking across the region so no mention will be made in
the TAF for the overnight hours. Easterly flow may adjust from ENE
to ESE from time to time early but quickly adjust to SW by late
Friday morning as the showers taper off. Although mid and upper
levels will dry quickly behind the departing wave on Friday, low
levels will remain moist.  Thus, expect slow improvement from MVFR
early to VFR by mid to late afternoon in most places.

Outlook: The very unsettled pattern will continue through the
weekend, bringing periods of rain and/or restrictions. Heavy rain
showers and perhaps thunderstorms are possible Sunday.

Confidence Table...

            00-06Z        06-12Z        12-18Z        18-00Z
KCLT       High 100%     High  83%     Med   76%     High  84%
KGSP       High 100%     Med   77%     Med   73%     High  93%
KAVL       High  97%     Med   69%     Med   78%     High 100%
KHKY       High 100%     High  86%     Med   77%     High  81%
KGMU       High 100%     Med   69%     Med   73%     High  95%
KAND       High  99%     Med   70%     Med   76%     High  90%

The percentage reflects the number of guidance members agreeing
with the scheduled TAF issuance flight rule category. Complete hourly
experimental aviation forecast consistency tables and ensemble forecasts
are available at the following link:

www.weather.gov/gsp/aviation

&&

.GSP WATCHES/WARNINGS/ADVISORIES...
GA...None.
NC...None.
SC...None.

&&

$$
SYNOPSIS...JPT
NEAR TERM...HG/PM
SHORT TERM...Wimberley
LONG TERM...JAT
AVIATION...HG/PM


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