BackflowIn hydrologic terms, the backing up of water through a conduit or channel in the direction opposite to normal flow. BaseflowIn hydrologic terms, streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel. This is also referred to as ground water flow, or dry-weather flow. Blocked FlowFlow approaching a mountain barrier that is too weak or too stable to be carried over the barrier.Channel InflowIn hydrologic terms, water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel.Critical FlowIn hydrologic terms, a condition of flow where the mean velocity is at one of the critical values; ordinarily at Belanger's critical depth and velocity. Another important usage is in reference to the Reynolds' critical velocities which define the point at which the flow changes from streamline or nonturbulent to turbulent flow. Downslope FlowA thermally driven wind directed down a mountain slope and usually occurring at night; part of the along-slope wind system.Dry Weather FlowIn hydrologic terms, streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel.
This is also referred to as baseflow, or ground water flow.Flow(abbrev. FLW) Wind. In meteorology, a qualitative reference of an air parcel(s) with respect to its direction of movement, sometimes specified at a certain height or pressure
elevation, e.g. westerly flow at 500 mb. In hydrology, the volumetric flow of water past a given point on a stream or river, usually in cubic feet per second (cfs)Flow Duration CurveIn hydrologic terms, a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percentage of time that specified discharges are equaled or exceeded.Flow SeparationThe process by which a separation eddy forms on the windward or leeward sides of bluff objects or steeply rising hillsides.Flow SplittingThe splitting of a stable airflow around a mountain barrier, with branches going around the left and right edges of the barrier, often at accelerated speeds.Flowing WellIn hydrologic terms, a well drilled into a confined aquifer with enough hydraulic pressure for the water to flow to the surface without pumping. Also
called an Artesian well.Ground Water FlowIn hydrologic terms, streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel.
This is also referred to as baseflow, or dry-weather flowGround Water OutflowIn hydrologic terms, the part of the discharge from a drainage basin that occurs through the ground water. The term "underflow" is often used to
describe the ground water outflow that takes place in valley alluvium (instead of the surface channel) and thus is not measure at a
gaging station.High Flow Magnitude (HFM)The magnitude of the maximum forecast streamflow conditions, measured in terms of annual exceedance probabilities.High Water FlowThe Office of Water Prediction (OWP) uses the term “high water” as an indicator of elevated flows for a given stream reach. This regionally varied threshold is used in many National Water Model (NWM) data services, such as maximum high flows, peak and high flow arrival times, rapid onset flooding, and flood inundation mapping. Filtering on flows that are greater than or equal to the high water threshold allows these services to focus on areas where flows are significant enough to monitor - where there is potential flooding, for example. High water thresholds are established for eleven clusters that categorize runoff efficiencies across the Continental United States (ConUS). Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands domains utilize the 2.0 year recurrence interval for the high water threshold.Hydraulic FlowAtmospheric flow that is similar in character to the flow of water over an obstacle.Inflow BandsBands of low clouds, arranged parallel to the low-level winds
and moving into or toward a thunderstorm. They may indicate the strength of the inflow of moist air
into the storm, and, hence, its potential severity. Spotters should be especially wary of inflow bands
that are curved in a manner suggesting cyclonic rotation; this pattern may indicate the presence of a
mesocycloneInflow JetsLocal jets of air near the ground flowing inward toward the base of a tornado.Inflow NotchA radar signature characterized by an indentation in the reflectivity pattern on the inflow side of the storm. The indentation often is V-shaped, but this term should not be confused with V-notch. Supercell thunderstorms often exhibit inflow notches, usually in the right quadrant of a classic supercell, but sometimes in the eastern part of an HP storm or in the rear part of a storm (rear inflow notch).Inflow StingerA beaver tail cloud with a stinger-like shape. InterflowIn hydrologic terms, the lateral motion of water through the upper layers until it enters a stream channel. This usually takes longer to reach stream
channels than runoff. This also called subsurface storm flow.Laminar FlowStreamline flow in which successive flow particles follow similar path lines and head loss varies with velocity to the first power.Meridional FlowLarge-scale atmospheric flow in which the north-south component (i.e., longitudinal, or along a meridian) is pronounced. The accompanying zonal (east-west) component often is weaker than normal. Compare with zonal flow.Minor Tidal OverflowMinor flooding caused by high tides that results in little if any damage. Offshore FlowOccurs when air moves from land to sea, and is usually associated with dry weather.Onshore FlowOccurs when air moves from sea to land, and is usually associated wtih increased moisture.OutflowAir that flows outward from a thunderstorm.Outflow BoundaryA storm-scale or mesoscale boundary separating thunderstorm-cooled air (outflow) from the surrounding air; similar in effect to a cold front, with passage marked by a wind shift and usually a drop in temperature. Outflow boundaries may persist for 24 hours or more after the thunderstorms that generated them dissipate, and may travel hundreds of miles from their area of origin.
New thunderstorms often develop along outflow boundaries, especially near the point of intersection with another boundary (cold front, dry line, another outflow boundary, etc.; see triple point).Outflow ChannelIn hydrologic terms, a natural stream channel which transports reservoir releases.Overland FlowIn hydrologic terms, the flow of rainwater or snowmelt over the land surface toward stream channels. After it enters a watercourse it becomes runoff.Peak Flow Arrival Time (PFAT)The time at which a stream reach is forecast to achieve its maximum flow within the forecast period.Return FlowSouth winds on the back (west) side of an eastward-moving surface high pressure system. Return flow over the central and eastern United States typically results in a return of moist air from the Gulf of Mexico (or the Atlantic Ocean).Sheet FlowIn hydrologic terms, flow that occurs overland in places where there are no defined channels, the flood water spreads out over a large area at a uniform
depth. This also referred to as overland flow. Split FlowA flow pattern high in the atmosphere characterized by diverging winds. Storms moving along in this type of flow pattern usually weaken.StreamflowIn hydrologic terms, water flowing in the stream channel. It is often used interchangeably with discharge. Subsurface Storm FlowIn hydrologic terms, the lateral motion of water through the upper layers until it enters a stream channel. This usually takes longer to reach stream
channels than runoff. This also called interflow.Terrain Forced FlowAn airflow that is modified or channeled as it passes over or around mountains or through gaps in a mountain barrier.UnderflowThe lateral motion of water through the upper layers until it enters a stream channel. This usually takes longer to reach stream
channels than runoff. This also called subsurface storm flow.Upslope FlowSame as Orographic Lifting; air that flows toward higher terrain, and hence is forced to rise. The added lift often results in widespread low cloudiness and stratiform precipitation if the air is stable, or an increased chance of thunderstorm development if the air is unstable.Zonal FlowLarge-scale atmospheric flow in which the east-west component (i.e., latitudinal) is dominant. The accompanying meridional (north-south) component often is weaker than normal. Compare with meridional flow.
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