Active Dark Filament (ADF)
In solar-terrestrial terms, an Active Prominence seen on the Disk.
Adirondack Type Snow Sampling Set
In hydrologic terms, a snow sampler consisting of a 5-foot fiberglass tube, 3 inches in diameter, with a serrated-edge steel cutter at one end and a twisting handle at the other. This sampler has a 60-inch snow depth capacity.
Alaska Current
A North Pacific Ocean current flowing counterclockwise in the Gulf of Alaska. It is the northward flowing (warm) division of the Aleutian Current
Arctic Sea Smoke
Steam fog, but often specifically applied to steam fog rising from small open water within sea ice.
Astronomical Dusk
This is the time at which the sun is 18 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time the sun no longer illuminates the sky.
Back Door Cold Front
A cold front moving south or southwest along the Atlantic seaboard and Great Lakes; these are especially common during the spring months.
Back-building Thunderstorm
A thunderstorm in which new development takes place on the upwind side (usually the west or southwest side), such that the storm seems to remain stationary or propagate in a backward direction.
Back-sheared Anvil
[Slang], a thunderstorm anvil which spreads upwind, against the flow aloft. A back-sheared anvil often implies a very strong updraft and a high severe weather potential.
A fire started to stop an advancing fire by creating a burned area in its path.
In hydrologic terms, the backing up of water through a conduit or channel in the direction opposite to normal flow.
(abbrev. BCKG)- A counterclockwise shift in wind direction (for example, south winds shifting to the east).
Backing Winds
Winds which shift in a counterclockwise direction with time at a given location (e.g. from southerly to southeasterly), or change direction in a counterclockwise sense with height (e.g. westerly at the surface but becoming more southerly aloft). The opposite of veering winds.

In storm spotting, a backing wind usually refers to the turning of a south or southwest surface wind with time to a more east or southeasterly direction. Backing of the surface wind can increase the potential for tornado development by increasing the directional shear at low levels.
The portion of power scattered back in the incident direction.
In hydrologic terms, a rod reading taken on a point of known elevation, a benchmark or a turning point. Backsights are added to the known elevation to arrive at the height of the instrument. With a known height of the instrument, the telescope can be used to determine the elevation of other points in the vicinity.
Backwater Curve
In hydrologic terms, the longitudinal profile of the surface of a liquid in a non-uniform flow in an open channel, when the water surface is not parallel to the invert owing to the depth of water having been increased by the interposition of an obstruction such as a dam or weir. The term is sometimes used in a generic sense to denote all water surface profiles; or for profiles where the water is flowing at depths greater than the critical.
Backwater Effect
In hydrologic terms, the effect which a dam or other obstruction has in raising the surface of the water upstream from it.
Backwater Flooding
Hydrologic terms, upstream flooding caused by downstream conditions such as channel restriction and/or high flow in a downstream confluence stream.
In hydrologic terms, the margins of a channel. Banks are called right or left as viewed facing in the direction of the flow.
Bank Storage
In hydrologic terms, water absorbed and stored in the void in the soil cover in the bed and banks of a stream, lake, or reservoir, and returned in whole or in part as the level of water body surface falls.
The water level, or stage, at which a stream, river or lake is at the top of its banks and any further rise would result in water moving into the flood plain.
Bankfull Stage
An established gage height at a given location along a river or stream, above which a rise in water surface will cause the river or stream to overflow the lowest natural stream bank somewhere in the corresponding reach. The term "lowest bank" is however, not intended to apply to an unusually low place or a break in the natural bank through which the water inundates a small area. Bankfull stage is not necessarily the same as flood stage.
Backing- A counterclockwise shift in wind direction (for example, south winds shifting to the east).
Beginning of the Breakup
In hydrologic terms, date of definite breaking, movement, or melting of ice cover or significant rise of water level.
(Abbrev. BM) - In hydrologic terms, a permanent point whose known elevation is tied to a national network. These points are created to serve as a point of reference. Benchmarks have generally been established by the USGS, but may have been established by other Federal or local agencies. Benchmarks can be found on USGS maps.
Best Track
A subjectively-smoothed representation of a tropical cyclone's location and intensity over its lifetime. The best track contains the cyclone's latitude, longitude, maximum sustained surface winds, and minimum sea-level pressure at 6-hourly intervals. Best track positions and intensities, which are based on a post-storm assessment of all available data, may differ from values contained in storm advisories. They also generally will not reflect the erratic motion implied by connecting individual center fix positions.
Black Ice
1. Slang reference to patchy ice on roadways or other transportation surfaces that cannot easily be seen.

2. In hydrologic terms, transparent ice formed in rivers and lakes.
A hypothetical "body" that absorbs all of the electromagnetic radiation striking it - it does not reflect or transmit any of the incident radiation. A blackbody not only absorbs all wavelengths, but emits at all wavelengths with the maximum possible intensity for any given temperature.
Blackbody Radiation
The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an ideal blackbody adhering to the radiation laws; it is the theoretical maximum amount of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths that can be emitted by a body at a given temperature.
Blocked Flow
Flow approaching a mountain barrier that is too weak or too stable to be carried over the barrier.
Bounded Weak Echo Region (BWER)
(Also known as a vault.) Radar signature within a thunderstorm characterized by a local minimum in radar reflectivity at low levels which extends upward into, and is surrounded by, higher reflectivities aloft. This feature is associated with a strong updraft and is almost always found in the inflow region of a thunderstorm. It cannot be seen visually.
Brackish Ice
In hydrologic terms, ice formed from brackish water.
Waves that break, displaying white water. Depends on wave steepness and bottom bathymetry.
In hydrologic terms, the time when a river whose surface has been frozen from bank to bank for a significant portion of its length begins to change to an open water flow condition. Breakup is signaled by the breaking of the ice and often associated with ice jams and flooding.
Breakup Date
In hydrologic terms, date on which a body of water is first observed to be entirely clear of ice and remains clear thereafter.
Breakup Jam
In hydrologic terms, an ice jam that occurs as a result of the accumulation of broken ice pieces.
Breakup Period
In hydrologic terms, the period of disintegration of an ice cover.
Bright Surge on the Disk (BSD)
In solar-terrestrial terms, a bright gaseous stream (surge) emanating from the chromosphere.
15 to 25 mph winds
Brisk Wind Advisory
A Small Craft Advisory issued by the National Weather Service for ice-covered waters.
Brocken Specter
An optical phenomenon sometimes occurring at high altitudes when the image of an observer placed between the sun and a cloud is projected on the cloud as a greatly magnified shadow. The shadow's head is surrounded by rings of color, called a glory.
Broken Level
A layer of the atmosphere with 5/8 to 7/8 sky cover (cloud cover).
A software tool used by forecasters to examine the vertical profile and other aspects of the atmosphere.
Bulk Richardson Number
A non-dimensional (i.e., no units) number relating vertical stability to vertical shear (generally, stability divided by shear). High values indicate unstable and/or weakly-sheared environments; low values indicate weak instability and/or strong vertical shear. Generally, values in the range of around 50 to 100 suggest environmental conditions favorable for supercell development.
This is a region-specific term used for Foehn Winds in the lee of the Rocky Mountains in the United States; Foehn Winds are warm, dry winds that occur in the lee of high mountain ranges. It is a fairly common wintertime phenomena in the mountainous west and in parts of Alaska. These winds develop in well-defined areas and can be quite strong.
Chinook Arch
A foehn cloud formation appearing as a bank of altostratus clouds east of the Rocky Mountains, heralding the approach of a chinook. It forms in the rising portion of standing waves on the lee side of the mountains. An observer underneath or east of the cloud sees an arch of clear air between the cloud's leading edge and the mountains below. The cloud appears to converge with the mountains to the north and south due to a perspective effect.
Civil Dusk
The time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time objects are distinguishable but there is no longer enough light to perform any outdoor activities.
Climate Outlook
A climate outlook issued by the CPC gives probabilities that conditions, averaged over a specified period, will be below-normal, normal, or above-normal.
Climatological Outlook
An outlook based upon climatological statistics for a region, abbreviated as CL on seasonal outlook maps. CL indicates that the climate outlook has an equal chance of being above normal, normal, or below normal.
Closed Basin Lake Flooding
Flooding that occurs on lakes with either no outlet or a relatively small one. Seasonal increases in rainfall cause the lake level to rise faster than it can drain. The water may stay at flood stage for weeks, months, or years.
Coastal/Lakeshore Flood Advisory
Minor flooding is possible (i.e., over and above normal high tide levels. Coastal/Lakeshore Flood Advisories are issued using the Coastal/Lakeshore Hazard Message (CFW) product.
Coastal/Lakeshore Flood Warning
Flooding that will pose a serious threat to life and property is occurring, imminent or highly likely. Coastal/Lakeshore Flood Warnings are issued using the Coastal/Lakeshore Hazard Message (CFW) product.
Coastal/Lakeshore Flood Watch
Flooding with significant impacts is possible. Coastal/Lakeshore Flood Watches are issued using the Coastal/Lakeshore Hazard Message (CFW) product.
Coastal/Lakeshore Flooding
(i) (Oceanic) Coastal Flooding is the inundation of land areas caused by sea waters over and above normal tidal action. This flooding may impact the immediate oceanfront, gulfs, bays, back bays, sounds, and tidal portions of river mouths and inland tidal waterways. (ii) Lakeshore Flooding is the inundation of land areas adjacent to one of the Great Lakes caused by lake water exceeding normal levels. Lakeshore flooding impacts the immediate lakefront, bays, and the interfaces of lakes and connecting waterways, such as rivers.
Convective Outlook
(sometimes called AC) - A forecast containing the area(s) of expected thunderstorm occurrence and expected severity over the contiguous United States, issued several times daily by the SPC. The terms approaching, slight risk, moderate risk, and high risk are used to describe severe thunderstorm potential. Local versions sometimes are prepared by local NWS offices.
A small stream of water which serves as the natural drainage course for a drainage basin of nominal, or small size. The term is a relative one as to size, some creeks in the humid section would be called rivers if they occurred in the arid portion.
Daily Flood Peak
In hydrologic terms, the maximum mean daily discharge occuring in a stream during a given flood event.
In hydrologic terms, the Dam Break Forecasting Model.
Dark Surge on Disk (DSD)
In solar-terrestrial terms, dark gaseous ejections visible in H-alpha.
Dense Smoke Advisory
An advisory for widespread or localized smoke reducing visibilities to regionally or locally defined limitations not to exceed 1 nautical mile.
The visible surface of the sun (or any heavenly body) projected against the sky.
Dry Crack
In hydrologic terms, a crack visible at the surface but not going right through the ice cover, and therefore it is dry.
Same as Civil Dusk; the time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time objects are distinguishable but there is no longer enough light to perform any outdoor activities.
In hydrologic terms, fill material, usually earth or rock, placed with sloping sides and usually with length greater than height. All dams are types of embankments
Excessive Heat Outlook
This CPC product, a combination of temperature and humidity over a certain number of days, is designed to provide an indication of areas of the country where people and animals may need to take precautions against the heat during May to November.
Excessive Rainfall Outlook (ERO)
A graphical product in which the Weather Prediction Center (WPC) forecasts the probability that rainfall will exceed flash flood guidance (FFG) within 40 kilometers (25 miles) of a point.
Same as Virga; streaks or wisps of precipitation falling from a cloud but evaporating before reaching the ground. In certain cases, shafts of virga may precede a microburst.
Flanking Line
A line of cumulus or towering cumulus clouds connected to and extending outward from the most active part of a supercell, normally on the southwest side. The line normally has a stair-step appearance, with the tallest clouds closest to the main storm
Flood Hazard Outlook (FHO)
A high Level graphical depiction and key messages highlighting the potential threat of inland flood hazards (flash, urban, small stream and riverine) and their associated impacts (catastrophic, considerable, and limited) for the next seven days.
Flood Potential Outlook
(ESF on AFOS) (FPO for Acronym): In hydrologic terms, An NWS outlook that is issued to alert the public of potentially heavy rainfall that could send area rivers and streams into flood or aggravate an existing flood.
Forward Flank Downdraft
The main region of downdraft in the forward, or leading, part of a supercell, where most of the heavy precipitation is.
Freak Wave
A wave of much greater height and steepness than other waves in the prevailing sea or swell system. See Rogue Wave.
Grams per Kilogram
General Environmental Meteorological Package (programming language)
Glacier Dammed Lake
In hydrologic terms, the lake formed when a glacier flows across the mouth of an adjoining valley and forms an ice dam.
Great Circle Track
A great-circle track is the shortest distance between two points on a sphere, and when viewed on a 2-dimensional map the track will appear curved. Swell waves travel along routes that mark out great circles.
Great Lakes Faxback
Dissemination systems housed at Weather Forecast Office (WFO) Cleveland by which Great Lakes customers request and receive hard copies of selected marine products.
Great Lakes Freeze-Up/Break-Up Outlook
(FBO) - A National Weather Service product to keep mariners informed of the projected freeze-up date or break-up date of ice on the Great Lakes.
Great Lakes Marine Forecast (MAFOR)
A National Weather Service coded summary appended to each of the Great Lakes Open Lakes forecasts.
Great Lakes Storm Summary
(GLS) - A National Weather Service forecast product providing updated information whenever a storm warning is in effect on any of the Great Lakes.
Great Lakes Weather Broadcast
(LAWEB) - A National Weather Service product containing an observation summary prepared to provide Great Lakes mariners with a listing of weather observations along or on the Lakes.
Ground Stroke
The current that propagates along the ground from the point where a direct stroke of lightning hits the ground.
Hail Spike
An area of reflectivity extending away from the radar immediately behind a thunderstorm with extremely large hail. In an area of large hail, radiation from the radar can bounce from hailstone to hailstone before being reflected back to the radar. The time delay between the backscattered radiation from the storm and the bounced and scattered radiation from the large hail causes the reflectivity from the hail to appear to come from a farther range than the actual storm.
Hazardous Weather Outlook
A narrative statement produced by the National Weather Service, frequently issued on a routine basis, to provide information regarding the potential of significant weather expected during the next 1 to 5 days.
Heat Stroke
A condition resulting from excessive exposure to intense heat, characterized by high fever, collapse, and sometimes convulsions or coma.
High Risk (of severe thunderstorms)
Severe weather is expected to affect more than 10 percent of the area. A high risk is rare, and implies an unusually dangerous situation and usually the possibility of a major severe weather outbreak.
Hinge Crack
In hydrologic terms, a crack caused by significant changes in water level.
Hook Echo
A radar reflectivity pattern characterized by a hook-shaped extension of a thunderstorm echo, usually in the right-rear part of the storm (relative to its direction of motion). A hook often is associated with a mesocyclone, and indicates favorable conditions for tornado development.
In hydrologic terms, a hillock of broken ice which has been forced upward by pressure
Hummocked Ice
In hydrologic terms, ice piled haphazardly one piece over another to form an uneven surface.
Joules per kilogram, unit commonly used to represent CAPE and CIN.
Jet Streak
Same as Jet Max; a point or area ("streak") of relative maximum wind speeds within a jet stream.
In hydrologic terms, an Icelandic term meaning glacier dammed lake outburst flood
Smoke- Smoke in various concentrations can cause significant problems for people with respiratory ailments. It becomes a more universal hazard when visibilities are reduced to ¼ mile or less.
Cold Air Mass
K Corona
In solar-terrestrial terms, of the white-light corona (that is, the corona seen by the eye at a total solar eclipse), that portion which is caused by sunlight scattered by electrons in the hot outer atmosphere of the sun.
A measure of the thunderstorm potential based on vertical temperature lapse rate, moisture content of the lower atmosphere, and the vertical extent of the moist layer. The temperature difference between 850 mb and 500 mb is used to parameterize the vertical temperature lapse rate. The 850 dew point provides information on the moisture content of the lower atmosphere. The vertical extent of the moist layer is represented by the difference of the 700 mb temperature and 700 mb dew point. This is called the 700 mb temperature-dew point depression. The index is derived arithmetically and does not require a plotted sounding.

K-index = (850 mb temperature - 500 mb temperature) + 850 mb dew point - 700 mb dew point depression
Katabatic Wind
A wind that is created by air flowing downhill.
A front where the warm air descends the frontal surface (except in the low layers of the atmosphere).
Keetch-Byrum Drought Index
An index used to gage the severity of drought in deep duff and organic soils.
Kelvin Temperature Scale
An absolute temperature scale in which a change of 1 Kelvin equals a change of 1 degree Celsius; 0ºK is the lowest temperature on the Kelvin scale. The freezing point of water is +273ºK (Kelvin) and the boiling point of +373ºK. It is used primarily for scientific purposes. It is also known as the Absolute Temperature Scale.
Kelvin Waves
Fluctuations in wind speed at the ocean surface at the Equator result in eastward propagating waves, known as Kelvin Waves. Kelvin Waves cause variations in the depth of the oceanic thermocline, the boundary between warm waters in the upper ocean and cold waters in the deep ocean. They play an important role in monitoring and predicting El Niño episodes.
Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves
Vertical waves in the air associated with wind shear across statically-stable regions. Can appear as breaking waves and as braided patterns in radar images and cloud photos.
The internationally recognized unit used by the Atmospheric Environment Service for measuring atmospheric pressure. Abbreviated kPa.
Kinetic Energy
Energy that a body has as a result of its motion. Mathematically, it is defined as one-half the product of a body's mass and the square of its speed (KE = 1/2 * mass * velocity squared).
An electron tube used as a low-power oscillator or a high-power amplifier at ultrahigh frequencies.
(abbrev. Kt) Unit of speed used in navigation, equal to 1 nautical mile (the length of 1 minute latitude) per hour or about 1.15 statute miles per hour, or 0.5 meters/sec).
Slang for lumpy protrusions on the edges, and sometimes the underside, of a thunderstorm anvil. They usually appear on the upwind side of a back-sheared anvil, and indicate rapid expansion of the anvil due to the presence of a very strong updraft. They are not mammatus clouds. See also cumuliform anvil and anvil rollover.
Kp Index
A 3-hourly planetary geomagnetic index of activity generated in Gottingen, Germany, based on the K Index from 12 or 13 stations distributed around the world
(Knot)- Unit of speed used in navigation, equal to 1 nautical mile (the length of 1 minute latitude) per hour or about 1.15 statue miles per hour, or 0.5 meters/sec).
Lake Breeze
A thermally produced wind blowing during the day from the surface of a large lake to the shore, caused by the difference in the rates of heating of the surfaces of the lake and of the land.
Lake Effect Snow
Snow showers that are created when cold, dry air passes over a large warmer lake, such as one of the Great Lakes, and picks up moisture and heat.
Lake Effect Snow Advisory
This product is issued by the National Weather Service when pure lake effect snow (this is where the snow is a direct result of lake effect snow and not because of a low pressure system) may pose a hazard or it is life threatening. The criteria for this advisory varies from area to area.
Lake Effect Snow Squall
A local, intense, narrow band of moderate to heavy snow squall that can extend long distances inland. It may persist for many hours. It may also be accompanied by strong, gusty, surface winds and possibly lightning. Accumulations can be 6 inches or more in 12 hours.
Lake Effect Snow Warning
This product is issued by the National Weather Service when pure lake effect snow (this is where the snow is a direct result of lake effect snow and not because of a synoptic storm or low pressure system) may pose a hazard or it is life threatening.
Lake Effect Storm
A fall or winter storm that produces heavy but localized precipitation as a result of temperature differences between the air over snow-covered ground and the air over the open waters of a lake.
Lakeshore Flood Advisory
See Coastal/Lakeshore Flood Advisory.
Lakeshore Flood Watch
Lakeshore Flooding
Lightning Stroke
Any of a series of repeated electrical discharges comprising a single lightning discharge (strike). Specifically, in the case of a cloud-to-ground discharge, a leader plus its subsequent return streamer.
(abbrev. LKLY) In probability of precipitation statements, the equivalent of a 60 or 70 percent chance.
Likely- In probability of precipitation statements, the equivalent of a 60 or 70 percent chance.
Lock & Dam (L&D)
Used in navigable rivers, lock and dams allow for large ships to move from one level of water to another.
Mackeral Sky
The name given to cirrocumulus clouds with small vertical extent and composed of ice crystals. The rippled effect gives the appearance of fish scales.
Moderate Risk (of severe thunderstorms)
Severe thunderstorms are expected to affect between 5 and 10 percent of the area. A moderate risk indicates the possibility of a significant severe weather episode. See high risk, slight risk, convective outlook.
Nautical Dusk
The time at which the sun is 12 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time, objects are no longer distinguishable.
Non-Uniform Sky Condition
A localized sky condition which varies from that reported in the body of the report.
Used for the measurement of total cloud cover. One okta of cloud cover is the equivalent of 1/8 of the sky covered with cloud.
Open Lakes Forecast
(GLF) - A National Weather Service marine forecast product for the U.S. waters within a Great Lake not including the waters covered by an existing Nearshore Waters Forecast (NSH). When the seasonal Nearshore forecast is not issued, the Open Lake forecast includes a forecast of nearshore waters.
An outlook is used to indicate that a hazardous weather or hydrologic event may develop. It is intended to provide information to those who need considerable lead time to prepare for the event.
A broad discussion of the weather pattern expected across any given area, generally confined to forecast periods beyond 48 hours.
Pancake Ice
In hydrologic terms, circular flat pieces of ice with a raised rim; the shape and rim are due to repeated collisions
Panhandle Hook
Low pressure systems that originate in the panhandle region of Texas and Oklahoma which initially move east and then "hook" or recurve more northeast toward the upper Midwest or Great Lakes region. In winter, these systems usually deposit heavy snows north of their surface track. Thunderstorms may be found south of the track.
Peak Discharge
In hydrologic terms, the rate of discharge of a volume of water passing a given location
Peak Flow Arrival Time (PFAT)
The time at which a stream reach is forecast to achieve its maximum flow within the forecast period.
Peak Gust
The highest instantaneous wind speed observed or recorded.
Peak Pulse
The amount of power transmitted by a radar during a given pulse. Note that because these pulses are widely spaced, the average power will be much smaller.
Peak Wind Speed
The maximum instantaneous wind speed since the last observation that exceeded 25 knots.
Public Severe Weather Outlook
These are issued when the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) in Norman, Oklahoma anticipates an especially significant and/or widespread outbreak of severe weather. This outlook will stress the seriousness of the situation, defines the threat area, and provides information on the timing of the outbreak. The lead time on this outlook is normally less than 36 hours prior to the severe weather event.
Rankine Vortex
Velocity profile for a symmetric circulation in which the inner core is in solid rotation and tangential winds outside the core vary inversely with radial distance from the center.
Rocky Mountains
Rear Flank Downdraft
A region of dry air subsiding on the back side of, and wrapping around, a mesocyclone. It often is visible as a clear slot wrapping around the wall cloud. Scattered large precipitation particles (rain and hail) at the interface between the clear slot and wall cloud may show up on radar as a hook or pendant; thus the presence of a hook or pendant may indicate the presence of an RFD.
Reference Mark
A relatively permanent point of known elevation which is tied to a benchmark.
Return Stroke
An electrical discharge that propagates upward along a lightning channel from the ground to the cloud.
Rex Block
A blocking pattern where there is an upper level high located directly north of a closed low.
A type of radiosonde that is shot into the atmosphere by a rocket, allowing it to collect data during its parachute descent from a higher position in the atmosphere than a balloon could reach.
Rockfill Dam
In hydrologic terms, an embankment dam of earth or rock in which the material is placed in layers and compacted by using rollers or rolling equipment.
Significant Weather Outlook
A narrative statement produced by the National Weather Service, frequently issued on a routine basis, to provide information regarding the potential of significant weather expected during the next 1 to 5 days.
Sky Condition
Used in a forecast to describes the predominant/average sky condition based upon octants (eighths) of the sky covered by opaque (not transparent) clouds.

Sky ConditionCloud Coverage
Clear / Sunny0/8
Mostly Clear / Mostly Sunny1/8 to 2/8
Partly Cloudy / Partly Sunny3/8 to 4/8
Mostly Cloudy / Considerable Cloudiness5/8 to 7/8
Fair (mainly for night)Less than 4/10 opaque clouds, no precipitation, no extremes of visibility/temperature/wind
A nationwide network of volunteer weather spotters who report to and are trained by the National Weather Service. These spotters report many forms of significant or severe weather such as Severe Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hail, Heavy Snow, or Flooding. Contact your local National Weather Service Forecast Office to learn about SKYWARN activities in your area.
Slight Risk
(of severe thunderstorms)- Severe thunderstorms are expected to affect between 2 and 5 percent of the area. A slight risk generally implies that severe weather events are expected to be isolated.
(abbrev. K) Smoke in various concentrations can cause significant problems for people with respiratory ailments. It becomes a more universal hazard when visibilities are reduced to ¼ mile or less.
Smoke Dispersal
Describes the ability of the atmosphere to ventilate smoke. Depends on the stability and winds in the lower layers of the atmosphere, i.e., a combination of mixing heights and transport winds.
Smoke Management
The use of meteorology, fuel moisture, fuel loading, fire suppression and burn techniques to keep smoke impacts from prescribed fires within acceptable limits.
Snow Pack
Same as Snowcover; the combined layers of snow and ice on the ground at any one time.
Snow Stake
A 1-3/4 inch square, semi-permanent stake, marked in inch increments to measure snow depth.
Snow Stick
A portable rod used to measure snow depth.
An agglomeration of snow crystals falling as a unit.
The total snow and ice on the ground, including both the new snow and the previous snow and ice which has not melted.
Very light rain showers. Precipitation measurement is a trace.
St Lawrence Freeze-Up Outlook
A National Weather Service forecast product to keep mariners informed of the projected freeze-up date of ice the St. Lawrence River.
Storm Tracking Information
This WSR-88D radar product displays the previous, current, and projected locations of storm centroids (forecast and past positions are limited to one hour or less). Forecast tracks are based upon linear extrapolation of past storm centroid positions, and they are intended for application to individual thunderstorms not lines or clusters. It is used to provide storm movement: low track variance and/or 2 or more plotted past positions signify reliable thunderstorm movement.
For any particular location, a hurricane strike occurs if that location passes within the hurricane's strike circle, a circle of 125 n mi diameter, centered 12.5 n mi to the right of the hurricane center (looking in the direction of motion). This circle is meant to depict the typical extent of hurricane force winds, which are approximately 75 n mi to the right of the center and 50 n mi to the left.
Synoptic Track
Weather reconnaissance mission flown to provide vital meteorological information in data sparse ocean areas as a supplement to existing surface, radar, and satellite data. Synoptic flights better define the upper atmosphere and aid in the prediction of tropical cyclone development and movement.
Texas Hooker
Same as Panhandle Hook - low pressure systems that originate in the panhandle region of Texas and Oklahoma which initially move east and then "hook" or recurve more northeast toward the upper Midwest or Great Lakes region. In winter, these systems usually deposit heavy snows north of their surface track. Thunderstorms may be found south of the track.
Tipping-Bucket Rain Gage
A precipitation gage where collected water is funneled into a two compartment bucket; 0.01, 0.1 mm, or some other designed quantity of rain will fill one compartment and overbalance the bucket so that it tips, emptying into a reservoir and moving the second compartment into place beneath the funnel. As the bucket is tipped, it actuates an electric circuit.
Turbulent Kinetic Energy
The path that a storm or weather system follows.
Tropical Weather Outlook
This outlook normally covers the tropical and subtropical waters, discussing the weather conditions, emphasizing any disturbed and suspicious areas which may become favorable for tropical cyclone development within the next day to two. In the Atlantic, the outlook is transmitted daily at 0530, 1130, 1730, and 2230 Eastern local time. In the eastern Pacific, it is transmitted daily at 0100, 0700, 1300, and 1900 Eastern local time. For the Central Pacific, transmission times are 1000 and 2200 UTC. Existing tropical and subtropical cyclones are mentioned, as are depressions not threatening land. Given for each system are its location, size, intensity, and movement. For the first 24 hours of a depression or tropical cyclone, the outlook includes a statement identifying the AFOS and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) headers for the advisory on it.
Turkey Tower
Slang for a narrow, individual cloud tower that develops and falls apart rapidly. The sudden development of turkey towers from small cumulus clouds may signify the breaking of a cap.
A medium-range (3 to 7 day) numerical weather prediction model operated by the United Kingdom METeorological Agency. It has a resolution of 75 kilometers and covers the entire northern hemisphere. Forecasters use this model along with the ECMWF and GFS in making their extended forecasts (3 to 7 days).
Vertically Stacked System
A low-pressure system, usually a closed low or cutoff low, which is not tilted with height, i.e., located similarly at all levels of the atmosphere. Such systems typically are weakening and are slow-moving, and are less likely to produce severe weather than tilted systems. However, cold pools aloft associated with vertically-stacked systems may enhance instability enough to produce severe weather.
The region of turbulence immediately to the rear of a solid body caused by the flow of air over or around the body.
Water Supply Outlook
A seasonal volume forecast, generally for a period centered around the time of spring snowmelt (e.g., April-July). The outlooks are in units of acre-feet and represent the expected volume of water to pass by a given point during a snowmelt season. The outlook categories include Most Probable, Reasonable Maximum, and Reasonable Minimum.
Weak Echo Region
(Abbrev. WER) - A WSR-88D radar product which displays reflectivity for up to 8 elevation angles for a radar operator selected location as a set presentation of a storm. The plains in this product are presented in an ascending order, lowest plain is lowest elevation angle selected. It is used to depict storm tilt and to identify Weak Echo Regions (WER) and Bounded Weak Echo Regions (BWER) in thunderstorms.
Wind Sock
A tapered fabric shaped like a cone that indicates wind direction by pointing away from the wind. It is also called a "wind cone."
X-Ray Background
In solar-terrestrial terms, a daily average background X-ray flux in the 1 to 8 angstrom range. It is a midday minimum designed to reduce the effects of flares.
Zoned Embankment Dam
In hydrologic terms, an embankment dam which is comprised of zones of selected materials having different degrees of porosity, permeability and density.

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