Arctic Sea SmokeSteam fog, but often specifically applied to steam fog rising from small open water within sea ice. Cosmic RayAn extremely energetic (relativistic) charged particle.Dense Smoke AdvisoryAn advisory for widespread or localized smoke reducing visibilities to regionally or locally defined limitations not to exceed 1 nautical mile. Drought AssessmentsAt the end of each month, CPC issues a long-term seasonal drought assessment. On Thursdays of each week, the CPC together with NOAA National Climatic Data Center, the United States Department of Agriculture, and the National Drought Mitigation Center in Lincoln, Nebraska, issues a weekly drought assessment called the United States Drought Monitor. These assessments review national drought conditions and indicate potential impacts for various economic sectors, such as agriculture and forestry.Hazards AssessmentCPC's Hazards Assessment provides emergency managers, planners, forecasters and the public advance notice of potential hazards related to climate, weather and hydrological events.Marine Small Craft Thunderstorm AdvisoryA marine warning issued by Environment Canada
Atmospheric Environment Branch when the possibility of thunderstorms is greater than 40
percent.Marine Small Craft Wind WarningA marine warning issued by Environment Canada
Atmospheric Environment Branch for winds which are forecasted to be in the 20-33 knot range
inclusive.Photochemical SmogAir pollution containing ozone and other reactive chemical compounds formed by the reaction of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight.PlasmaAny ionized gas; that is, any gas containing ions and electrons.Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA)A continuous soil moisture accounting model with spatially lumped parameters that simulates runoff within a basin.SM1) Statute Miles
2) Sum total for monthSMAThe Soil Moisture Accounting Model.Small CraftThere is no precise definition for small craft. Any vessel that may be adversely affected by Small Craft Advisory criteria should be considered a small craft. Other considerations include the experience of the vessel operator, and the type, overall size, and sea worthiness of the vessel. See Small Craft Advisory.Small Craft Advisory(SCA) - An advisory issued by coastal and Great Lakes Weather Forecast Offices (WFO) for areas included in the Coastal Waters Forecast or Nearshore Marine Forecast (NSH) products. Thresholds governing the issuance of small craft advisories are specific to geographic areas. A Small Craft Advisory may also be issued when sea or lake ice exists that could be hazardous to small boats. There is no precise definition of a small craft. Any vessel that may be adversely affected by Small Craft Advisory criteria should be considered a small craft. Other considerations include the experience of the vessel operator, and the type, overall size, and sea worthiness of the vessel.
* Eastern (ME..SC, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario) - Sustained winds or frequent gusts ranging between 25 and 33 knots (except 20 to 25 knots, lower threshold area dependent, to 33 knots for harbors, bays, etc.) and/or seas or waves 5 to 7 feet and greater, area dependent.
* Central (MN..OH) - Sustained winds or frequent gusts (on the Great Lakes) between 22 and 33 knots inclusive, and/or seas or waves greater than 4 feet.
* Southern (GA..TX and Caribbean) - Sustained winds of 20 to 33 knots, and/or forecast seas 7 feet or greater that are expected for more than 2 hours.
* Western (WA..CA) - Sustained winds of 21 to 33 knots, and/or wave heights exceeding 10 feet (or wave steepness values exceeding local thresholds
* Alaska (AK) - Sustained winds or frequent gusts of 23 to 33 knots. A small craft advisory for rough seas may be issued for sea/wave conditions deemed locally significant, based on user needs, and should be no lower than 8 feet.
* Pacific - (HI, Guam, etc) - Sustained winds 25 knots or greater and seas 10 feet or greater; except in Guam and the northern Mariana Islands where it is sustained winds 22 to 33 knots and/or combined seas of 10 feet or greater.
"Frequent gusts"are typically long duration conditions (greater than 2 hours).
For a list of NWS Weather Offices by Region, refer to the following website: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/organization.php Small Craft Advisory for Hazardous Seas(SCAHS) - An advisory for wind speeds lower than small craft advisory criteria, yet waves or seas are potentially hazardous due to wave height, wave period, steepness, or swell direction. Thresholds governing the issuance of Small Craft Advisories for Hazardous Seas are specific to geographic areas.
* Eastern (ME..SC, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario) - Seas or waves 5 to 7 feet and greater, area dependent.
* Central (MN..OH) - Seas or waves greater than 4 feet
* Southern (GA..TX and Caribbean) - Seas 7 feet or greater that are expected for more than 2 hours.
* Western (WA..CA) - Criteria for wave heights and/or wave steepness are locally defined; refer to Western Region Supplement 12-2003, Marine Weather Services.
* Alaska (AK) - Seas or wave conditions deemed locally significant, based on user needs, and should be no lower than 8 feet.
* Pacific - (HI, Guam, etc) - Seas of 10 feet or greater. Small Craft Advisory for Rough Bar(SCARB) - An advisory for specialized areas near harbor or river entrances known as bars. Waves in or near such bars may be especially hazardous to mariners due to the interaction of swell, tidal and/or river currents in relatively shallow water. Thresholds governing the issuance of Small Craft Advisories for Rough Bar are specific to local geographic areas, and are based upon parameters such as wave steepness, wind speed and direction, and local bathymetry. Small Craft Advisory for Winds(SCAW) - An advisory for wave heights lower than small craft advisory criteria, yet wind speeds are potentially hazardous. Thresholds governing the issuance of small craft advisories are specific to geographic areas.
* Eastern (ME..SC, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario) - Sustained winds ranging between 25 and 33 knots (except 20 to 25 knots, lower threshold area dependent, to 33 knots for harbors, bays, etc.)
* Central (MN..OH) - Sustained winds or frequent gusts (on the Great Lakes) between 22 and 33 knots inclusive.
* Southern (GA..TX and Caribbean) - Sustained winds of 20 to 33 knots that are expected for more than 2 hours.
* Western (WA..CA) - Sustained winds of 21 to 33 knots.
* Alaska (AK) - Sustained winds or frequent gusts of 23 to 33 knots.
* Pacific - (HI, Guam, etc) Sustained winds 25 knots or greater; except in Guam where it is sustained winds of 22 to 33 knots.Small Craft Should Exercise CautionPrecautionary statement issued to alert mariners with small, weather sensitive boats. Small HailTechnically used to refer to snow pellets or graupel.Small Stream FloodingIn hydrologic terms, flooding of small creeks, streams, or runs.SmogOriginally smog meant a mixture of smoke and fog. Now, it means air that has restricted visibility due to pollution or pollution formed in the presence of sunlight--photochemical smog.Smoke(abbrev. K) Smoke in various concentrations can cause significant problems for people with respiratory ailments. It becomes a more universal hazard when visibilities are reduced to ¼ mile or less.Smoke DispersalDescribes the ability of the atmosphere to ventilate smoke. Depends on the stability and winds in the lower layers of the atmosphere, i.e., a combination of mixing heights and transport winds.Smoke ManagementThe use of meteorology, fuel moisture, fuel loading, fire suppression and burn techniques to keep smoke impacts from prescribed fires within acceptable limits.Smoothed Sunspot NumberAn average of 13 monthly RI numbers, centered on
the month of concern.SMW(Special Marine Warning) - A warning product issued for potentially hazardous weather conditions usually of short duration (up to 2 hours) producing sustained marine thunderstorm winds or associated gusts of 34 knots or greater; and/or hail 3/4 inch or more in diameter; and/or waterspouts affecting areas included in a Coastal Waters Forecast, a Nearshore Marine Forecast, or an Great Lakes Open Lakes Forecast that is not adequately covered by existing marine warnings. Also used for short duration mesoscale events such as a strong cold front, gravity wave, squall line, etc., lasting less than 2 hours and producing winds or gusts of 34 knots or greater.TransmitterThe radar equipment used for generating and amplifying a radio frequency (RF) carrier signal, modulating the carrier signal with intelligence, and feeding the modulated carrier to an antenna for radiation into space as electromagnetic waves. Weather radar transmitters are usually magnetrons or klystrons.Urban and Small Stream Flood AdvisoryThis advisory alerts the public to flooding which is generally only an inconvenience (not life-threatening) to those living in the affected area. Issued when heavy rain will cause flooding of streets and low-lying places in urban areas. Also used if small rural or urban streams are expected to reach or exceed bankfull. Some damage to homes or roads could occur.Urban and Small Stream FloodingFlooding of small streams, streets, and low-lying areas, such as railroad underpasses and urban storm drains. This type of flooding is mainly an inconvenience and is generally not life threatening nor is it significantly damaging to property.
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