Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Indianapolis, IN

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FXUS63 KIND 281856

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Indianapolis IN
256 PM EDT Sat Mar 28 2020

The LONG TERM Section has been updated below.


Issued at 309 AM EDT Sat Mar 28 2020

Two rounds of thunderstorms will progress through the region
today. The first round, this morning, will bring a threat of
heavy rain and flash flooding to north central Indiana. The
second, this evening into the overnight hours, will produce
numerous thunderstorms with a slight risk of some reaching severe
criteria. All modes of severe weather are possible tonight
including isolated tornadoes. After this system passes through
late tonight, high winds will be a concern over most of central
Indiana with the largest threat to the north. Calmer and drier
conditions are expected for the start of next week.


.NEAR TERM /Today and Tonight/...

Issued at 351 AM EDT Sat Mar 28 2020

As of 07Z, a stationary boundary is positioned over south central
Indiana. A significant temperature gradient is situated along
this boundary with temperatures in the upper 60s towards the south
and upper 40s in our northern counties. Cloud cover and scattered
rain showers remain north of the boundary, slowing its
progression northward.

Ongoing convection over central Illinois will move over this
boundary and become elevated as is approaches the Indiana border.
WSW winds within the low-level jet and a west to east oriented
boundary will position the northern portions of our CWA in an area
of continuous convective initiation over the morning hours.
Multiple rounds of precipitation with rain rates between 1 to 1.5
in/hr are possible within the strongest bands. This will cause a
narrow swath of rainfall totals greater than 1 inch over a short
period of time. With this in mind, flash flooding is a possibility
and a Flash Flood Watch has been issued over north central
Indiana to depict this threat. Some thunderstorms this morning
could become severe if they can maintain themselves north of the
boundary. Lapse rates near 8C/km in the mid-levels will provide
plenty of instability for strong updrafts within long-lived
cells, allowing for the possibility of large hail growth. However,
storms with hail greater than or equal to 1 inch should be

As the low pressure system over Kansas moves eastward, the LLJ will
shift more southerly, pushing the boundary north and placing most of
central Indiana in the warm sector. Temperatures within the warm
sector should reach the mid to upper 70s by late afternoon.
Convective allowing models have had a difficult time
understanding the extent of this morning`s convection, which will
have a large impact on the northward progression of the boundary.
Increases in cloud cover and rain would cool surface temperatures
and suppress the boundary farther south. Monitoring this
progression will be impeccable in understanding the convective
event later today.

Within the warm sector, cloud cover should break slightly as
dewpoint depressions within the mid-levels increase towards 10C.
This should help destabilize the boundary layer. Mid-level
instability will be sufficient for convective development during
the afternoon, but without a significant source of lift convective
initiation could be limited. However, continued monitoring of
developing convection this afternoon and evening will be needed
as the main ingredients are present for the possibility of
severe thunderstorms and isolated tornadoes. For now, expect
broken cloud decks throughout the afternoon, with the occasional
thunderstorm if air parcels are able to reach the LFC.

As the low pressure system approaches Indiana, the LLJ will
increase, and along with a cold front, will provide the proper lift
for convection. Significant wind shear exists within the enhanced
LLJ, and any convective cells could produce a mesocyclone.
Current CAMs show supercell like structures over central Illinois
tomorrow afternoon. How quickly this front and enhanced LLJ
approaches central Indiana will have a large impact of the extent
of severe weather today and if these potential supercells can
prosper over the CWA. As the day progresses, instability and
upper-level support weakens ahead of the front and could impede
convective growth and limit severe outcomes, helping explain the
reduced risk over central Indiana, compared to central Illinois.
All severe weather outcomes are possible this afternoon and
tonight, including isolated tornadoes. The greatest risk for
tornadoes will be towards the north, near the boundary, where low
level SRH is enhanced due to backing of the surface winds.


.SHORT TERM /Sunday through Monday Night/...

Issued at 309 AM EDT Sat Mar 28 2020

Within the short term, the main threat will be an increase of winds
and wind gusts throughout the day on Sunday. A wrapped-up surface
low with steep pressure gradients will pass north of central
Indiana sunday afternoon and evening. Sustained winds up to 25 mph
with gusts between 35 and 40 mph are possible. Strongest winds
will be towards the north where the pressure gradients are

In the wake of the previous day`s cold front, temperatures will
drop with afternoon highs in the mid 50s. Some lingering showers
are possible, however they will be limited and weak. Any rain on
Sunday after 12z shouldn`t exceed 1/10 an inch over any specific
area. Overnight lows Sunday night should be in the low 40s.

For Monday, a surface ridge will move in, clearing out skies and
reducing surface winds. Sunny conditions will allow for diurnal
heating and afternoon temperatures in the upper 50s. High pressure
through all levels will keep conditions clear and calm Monday
night with lows in the upper 30s.


.LONG TERM /Tuesday Night through Saturday/...
Issued at 254 PM EDT Sat Mar 28 2020

Ensembles indicate the potential for a couple of systems to affect
the area during the extended, in a generally progressive flow.

The first trough is expected to be in the process of passing off
to the east of the local area Tuesday night. Will keep some chance
PoPs for rain for Tuesday night to cover any lingering activity
with this trough.

There may be a relative lull in the precipitation threat by
Wednesday and Thursday, as some upper ridging moves in for a time,
before the next trough moves into the western Great Lakes by next
Saturday. It appears from the ensembles that the best threat for
precipitation with this system will be in the Friday to Saturday
time frame.


.AVIATION /Discussion for 28/18Z TAF Issuance/...

Issued at 1244 PM EDT Sat Mar 28 2020

VFR conditions to deteriorate to IFR at times.

An active weather pattern is expected for today as widespread
thunderstorms impact the terminals. Rain and thunder has begun and
will continue off and on through the day. Thunderstorms may have
strong winds at times, but with little to no confidence in exact
timing, will have to handle gusty winds with amendments. Storms
will continue through 06Z before ending shortly thereafter.
Gradient winds will be on the increase tomorrow with gusts in
excess of 30-40 mph by the afternoon.




NEAR TERM...Updike
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