Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Northern Indiana

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FXUS63 KIWX 072257

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Northern Indiana
657 PM EDT Tue Apr 7 2020

Issued at 110 PM EDT Tue Apr 7 2020

Partly cloudy skies can be expected through the remainder of the
day with a lull in thunderstorms activity. It will be warm this afternoon
high temperatures into the 70s. Scattered showers and thunderstorms
are expected to redevelop this evening. Some of these thunderstorms
may be severe this evening into the early overnight hours. Another
system will bring a likelihood of more rain for Wednesday evening.
Colder air will build in behind this system with windy conditions
developing for later Wednesday night into Thursday.


Issued at 636 PM EDT Tue Apr 7 2020

Forecast mostly remains on track. Latest hi-res guidance shows
that the initiation time could be closer to 01-02z than at 00Z.
Also seeing dewpoints dropping slightly across the area back
towards the mid-50s after reaching to the 60 degree mark earlier
this afternoon. Regardless, elevated instability of around 1000
J/kg as seen on the Valparaiso University sounding and continued
deep layer shear around 50kt will be sufficient for storm
organization and severe weather.

Hail continues to be the primary hazard, and storms upstream have
already proven capable of delivering, 2.5 inches in Jackson, WI
at 4:16 pm CDT and 1.5 inches in Whitehall, MI at 6:30 EDT.

So far, surface observations and VWPs near the front have not
shown the advertised backing of winds which does introduce some
uncertainty into the potential for tornadic development. Something
to keep an eye on over the next couple hours is a quick shift in
surface winds back out of the south or southeast as winds
decouple given the loss of daytime heating.

Straightening of the hodograph over night continues to show
storms taking on a more liner mode which will increase the
potential for damaging wind gusts.


.SHORT TERM...(This Evening through Wednesday)
Issued at 220 PM EDT Tue Apr 7 2020

Strong to severe thunderstorms still in play for this
evening/tonight. Surface analysis indicating warm front has surged
north of the CWA and extends westward back to frontal wave in
western WI. This has our area in a capped warm sector as elevated
mixed layer spreads eastward in wake over overnight/morning
convection. As skies continue to clear this afternoon expect
continued destabilization beneath the mid-level cap as surface
based CAPE already approaching 2000J/kg over much of the CWA.
Frontal wave/weak surface low will track eastward into central
lower Michigan by 00Z Wed and is expected to be focus for
convective initiation over southern lower Michigan. Forecast
soundings in the vicinity of frontal wave have some turning in
the low levels and with effective shears forecast around
45kts...combined with steep mid-level lapse rates and increasing
boundary layer moisture all point toward potential for discrete
cells early on. This along with mid-level dry layer would be
supportive of large hail and cant rule out possible tornado. Flow
becomes more unidirectional with time and favors transition to
more linear convection that will bring damaging wind potential as
system continues eastward across the area. Low amplitude mid-level
flow suggests a short window for thunderstorms tonight with
majority of HREF members having convection exiting SE CWA around
06Z. Weak surface ridging builds behind this system providing dry
weather for Wednesday and with little change in airmass expect
temperatures to reach into the mid 60s for highs.


.LONG TERM...(Wednesday Night through Tuesday)
Issued at 220 PM EDT Tue Apr 7 2020

Strong northern stream upper low moving across Ontario to begin
the forecast period will drag surface cold front across the area
Wednesday night. Very limited instability ahead of this front and
lacking in gulf moisture return will have just low chance for
thunder and fast moving front not expected to bring much in the
way of rainfall either. Strong surface gradient in the wake of
this system will bring windy conditions for Thursday. Forecast
soundings indicating mixing depths reaching 7-9Kft bringing
potential for sustained 35-40kt gusts Thursday afternoon. Surface
high pressure then builds into the TN valley providing dry and
cool conditions Friday and Saturday with highs around 10F below
normal Friday then moderating back near normal for Saturday.
Strengthening southern stream jet dynamics this weekend will have
upper low over the southwest US moving eastward...with both
deterministic solutions and ensemble means showing some degree of
interaction/phasing with the northern stream. Low confidence
patten with respect to details on timing/placement of resulting
surface low track...but in terms of sensible weather impacts for
our area look for precip chances to return Saturday night...and
given model and ensemble member differences...not surprising to
see blend yielding off and on low chance POPs on into the
beginning of next week.


.AVIATION...(For the 00Z TAFS through 00Z Wednesday Evening)
Issued at 636 PM EDT Tue Apr 7 2020

Main change to the existing TAFs was to change the tempo mention for
both KFWA and KSBN to prevailing to capture expected convection.
Outside of convection, ceilings should hold to VFR until after the
passage for a cold front later tonight between 04z and 09z from
north to south. Behind the front, low stratus will be possible
through sunrise. This stratus will likely persist for several hours
past sunrise, but KFWA should be able to return to VFR around midday
given less moisture.

When convection affects the terminals, expect degraded ceilings and
visby as well as strong wind gusts. Have taken ceilings/visby down
to IFR for KSBN and MVFR for FWA, but temporary lower conditions are


LM...Gale Watch from Thursday morning through Friday morning for




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