Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Chicago, IL

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FXUS63 KLOT 201916

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Chicago/Romeoville, IL
216 PM CDT Thu Oct 20 2016

1126 AM CDT

While the main precipitation shield is slowly shifting southeast,
there is some lake wind convergence in northwest Indiana that is
contributing to some lake effect rain showers. Forecast soundings
upstream depict -2C temps at 925 below a temperature inversion.
The deeper cold layer will arrive later tonight and therefore
there will be continued lake effect showers and even
thunderstorms tonight as lake induced equilibrium levels reach
25000 feet. Models vary how far west these will get, but some
hints that more of Lake County Indiana and possibly far eastern
Illinois south of Chicago will see some rain showers before the
axis shifts more towards Porter and points west through the day

Otherwise it looks and feels like Autumn, especially at the
lakefront where 8-10 ft waves combine with the clouds and temps in
the 50s. Expect waves will increase similarly across northwest
Indiana as some full fetch north winds continue.



342 AM CDT

Today through Friday night...

Short term forecast concerns focus on lingering rain across the
southeastern part of the forecast area today, along with cooler
temperatures and breezy north winds. Lake effect showers are
expected to develop tonight and persist through Friday for
northwest Indiana, while gradually decreasing cloudiness and
diminishing winds across the Illinois portion of the forecast area
will support areas of frost late tonight and again late Friday

Early morning surface analysis depicts weak surface low pressure
across Arkansas and the Bootheel of Missouri, along a nearly
stationary frontal boundary which extends through the Ohio Valley.
The low is progged to deepen a bit today as it continues to track
along the boundary into far western Pennsylvania by this evening,
in response to a fairly vigorous mid-level short wave propagating
across the region. Deep forcing for ascent, including low level
frontogenetic forcing within the elevated baroclinic zone north
of the surface front, persistent height falls with the advancing
short wave trough, and upper divergence in the right entrance
region to the upper level jet streak, will continue to produce
light to moderate rain across parts of downstate IL and much of
Indiana through the day. For the WFO LOT cwa, rainfall is expected
to remain generally southeast of a roughly Pontiac to Chicago
line, with the steadiest rain and greatest rainfall amounts across
the southeastern tier of cwa counties. Rain will diminish and move
east/southeast late in the day, as the initial mid-level trough
axis passes across the area. A secondary upper trough will dig
southeast from the Northern Plains to the western Great Lakes
through tonight, providing a push of colder air into the region
tonight and Friday. This colder air will lead to increasing lake-
induced instability over Lake Michigan tonight, which combined
with a long northerly fetch of moderately strong winds is expected
to lead to development of lake effect rain showers which will
affect mainly northwest Indiana overnight and Friday. Model
forecast soundings continue to depict fairly impressive
thermodynamic profiles over the south end of the lake, with lake
surface to 850 mb delta-T values approaching 18C by early Friday,
and several hundred J/kg of lake-induced SBCAPE. Given this
environment, isolated thunder and isolated waterspouts are
possible, with the greatest convergence focused just east of Gary
across northern Lake and Porter counties through Friday morning.
The low level flow gradually backs more northwesterly Friday
afternoon, which should shift the convergence axis and the best
chances for lake effect showers east of the cwa during the

Farther west, at least partial clearing is expected later today
and tonight along with gradually diminishing winds as weak surface
high pressure ridging approaches the Mississippi Valley from the
west. Combined with drier air, (sub-freezing surface dew points),
this will likely allow for overnight lows dipping to the lower and
middle 30`s across north central Illinois and the development of
areas of frost by sunrise Friday. Considered frost advisory
headlines, though the prospect of continued patchy cloud cover
within secondary upper trough and light but persistent north-
northwest wind late tonight, think it best to defer to day shift
which will have a better look at regional features this afternoon
to make that decision. The surface ridge axis moves across the
area Friday night, which will again present the potential for
frost/freeze conditions by sunrise Saturday with perhaps better
low level conditions, despite slightly warmer temperatures
developing aloft.




Friday night through Thursday...

216 pm...Forecast concerns include frost potential Friday night/
Saturday morning and an unsettled pattern for the middle of next

A ridge of high pressure will be moving across the area Friday
night into Saturday morning. This will allow for light/calm winds
with temps likely to tank during Friday evening. However...there
will be some weak warm air advection aloft overnight as well as
the potential for some cloud cover. How much these affect frost
formation is uncertain but as long as clouds do not become
overcast...expect at least patchy frost over much of the area with
temps in the mid/upper 30s much of the area. Possible another frost
advisory may be needed.

As the high departs Saturday...winds will turn to the southwest
and temps will begin to moderate reaching into the lower 60s
Saturday. Temps could potentially warm into the upper 60s to lower
70s on Sunday on breezy west/southwest winds. Low pressure will
move across the northern Great Lakes Sunday afternoon into Sunday
evening. Still some timing differences regarding when a trailing
cold front will arrive which may affect high temps. This front
pushes southeast of the area Sunday night with high temps back
into the lower 60s Monday and Tuesday.

Another low will move across the region Wednesday/Wednesday night
next week with the gfs/ecmwf in better agreement today. Possible
precip may develop along a warm front Tuesday afternoon into
Tuesday night with the location of that warm front likely
nearby...possibly southern WI. As the low approaches Wednesday...
winds may become breezy/gusty with a period of showers/
thunderstorms Wednesday into Wednesday night. cms


For the 18Z TAFs...


- MVFR Cigs
- Occasionally gusty NE to NNW winds
- Lake effect showers and possibly t-storms across the lake/NW IN.

MVFR cigs blanket much of the area but some clearing is arriving
from the northwest. Expect a slow upward climb and then at least
some partial scattering of the clouds as the afternoon continues.
The main near term concern is that winds will be occasionally
gusty to the upper teens/low 20s and varying between NNE and NNW,
with a trend toward the NNW direction.

Convergence will set up over the lake tonight which should then
maintain a NW wind tonight into Friday for the NE Illinois
terminals. The pattern is favorable for lake effect rain showers
and even isolated thunderstorms across the lake and into NW
Indiana, depending on where the convergence axis sets up. Think
some of this will impact GYY tonight. The axis of lake effect
rain showers will shift east of the area Saturday with some
continued breezy NW winds but more clearing expected.



232 AM CDT

A cold front is moving down the lake this morning, with brisk
northerly winds behind it, and these will continue through Friday
night. Gusts/speeds will be up to 25 kt on the north half and up
to 30 kt today through this evening on the south half and near
shore waters, followed by up to 25 kt for the entire lake Friday
night before easing late. Much colder air moving over the still
mild lake waters will result in sufficient instability for the
potential of waterspouts and thunderstorms tonight through Friday

West and southwest winds will return Saturday into Saturday
evening, with continued uncertainty in wind direction Saturday
night into Sunday, especially on the north half. A weak low
pressure area will then cross the lake Sunday afternoon or
evening, setting the stage for another period of brisk northerly
winds into Monday, though likely of shorter duration. Strong high
pressure will spread into the region on Monday afternoon, causing
winds to diminish quickly.

A Small Craft Advisory is in effect this morning through Friday
morning for the Illinois near shore waters and mid this morning
through Friday afternoon for the Indiana waters. The advisory may
need to be extended for a portion of the Indiana near shore into
Friday night to account for waves slowly subsiding.



LM...Small Craft Advisory...INDIANA NEARSHORE WATERS UNTIL 4 AM Saturday.

     Small Craft Advisory...ILLINOIS NEARSHORE WATERS UNTIL 4 PM Friday.




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