Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Sioux Falls, SD

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000
FXUS63 KFSD 230408
AFDFSD

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Sioux Falls SD
1108 PM CDT FRI JUL 22 2016

.SHORT TERM...(This evening through Saturday)
Issued at 301 PM CDT Fri Jul 22 2016

A couple of areas of focus for tonight and Saturday. Watching
thunderstorms firing along an area of convergence in northeast South
Dakota and tracking southeast along the instability axis this
evening. These storms have become more surface based as they move
into the mid and upper 70s dewpoints across central and southern
South Dakota. Good bulk shear values, very steep lapse rates, and
strong instability will keep severe storms a threat into the highway
14 corridor, with additional development likely to the southwest of
this storm along the outflow boundary. The main threat will be large
hail to 2 inches and 70 mph wind gusts. The question will be how
long these storms can hold up given the somewhat weaker shear seen
closer to the I-90 corridor and the lower dewpoints across far
northeast South Dakota potentially advecting into storms. Models of
course are not handling this convection well, and the CAMS that do
depict this activity dissipate it near our northern border. Will
leave in a 20 to 40 percent chance in our north, extending to a 20
percent elsewhere where these is less certainty that storms will
propagate overnight.

Activity may lull in the late morning on Saturday, however concern
once again turns to an advancing cold front dropping into south
central South Dakota late morning and tracking through eastern south
Dakota in the afternoon. Temperatures will be tricky to forecast
given the still very warm temperatures aloft and the potential for
enhanced mixing with winds turning southwest ahead of the front.
Furthermore, clouds and earlier convection may prove to be a
limiter. Think there is strong enough potential for peak heating in
the James Valley in particular, so went ahead and upped highs here a
few more degrees into the mid and upper 90s and a degree or two
elsewhere. With dewpoints likely to remain in the 70s, heat index
values reach the century mark once again in most of southeast SD,
northeast NE and our far eastern Iowa counties. Went ahead and
extended the excessive heat warning in these locations. With
afternoon heating and the arrival of the front, isolated to
scattered storms again become possible in the highway 14 corridor
and much southeast SD in the afternoon. Shear is marginal and
becomes poor across our southeastern half of the region. Lapse rates
and elevated instability is good, but think that the bulk of
activity will hold off until late afternoon.

.LONG TERM...(Saturday night through Friday)
Issued at 301 PM CDT Fri Jul 22 2016

Storms lingering east of the James River early saturday evening will
decrease from the west Saturday night and should end in all of
southwest Minnesota and northeast Iowa by around 4am. Decent
lingering MUCAPE of 3000-5000 J/kg at the start of the evening as
the front pushes east could continue to bring a severe threat for a
few hours. Models appear to agree on the push of drier and stable
air getting all the way southeast through the area. Temperatures
and dew points will finally slip from the northwest as skies clear,
and temperatures by daybreak Sunday will fall to a much more
tolerable lower 60s northwest to around 70 southeast.

Sunday through Monday looks generally dry and mild, close to
midsummer normals, as the inflow of cooler stable air and the surface
ridge moving over the area provide mostly clear skies. The only
question deals with the previous potential of enough moisture and
instability return Sunday night as the front stalls to bring a small
threat of storms to the Sioux City area. That no longer looks like a
real threat. High temperatures will be in the 80s, except for a
little warming to a fairly dry 90 or two west of the James River on
Monday.

Monday night, as the wave bringing the drying moves east, the
flow aloft settles into a westerly regime, with some warming
mainly aloft, and a slow return of moisture and modest instability.
Hard to time weak waves will be the main trigger for scattered storm
initiation, and I have no quarrel with the extended guidance modest
chance of storms for the rest of the forecast period, through next
Friday. Strong ridging is held in the southern plains by the models,
so temperatures will generally stay near normal, with maybe a little
warming on nighttime lows. There could be a slight trend to cooling
later in the week, besides daytime cooling for clouds and storms, as
the upper flow starts to trend slightly to the west northwest. No
return to extreme heat highlights in any event.

&&

.AVIATION...(For the 06Z TAFS through 06Z Saturday night)
Issued at 1108 PM CDT Fri Jul 22 2016

Forecast period will feature spotty chances for convection over
the next 24 hours. Appears better chances through the overnight
hours will skirt around the northern and southern edges of the
forecast area, and thus have opted to leave mention of thunder
out of the TAFs at this time. Expect a break in convection during
the late morning-mid afternoon hours Saturday. Low chances return
as cold front moves into the the James River Valley late in the
day, and across the forecast area in the evening. Potential that
continued very warm airmass may limit coverage, so again difficult
to pinpoint timing/location and not carry any thunder in the TAFs
at this time.

&&

.FSD Watches/Warnings/Advisories...
SD...Excessive Heat Warning until 7 PM CDT Saturday for SDZ038-039-
     050-052>055-057>071.

MN...None.
IA...Excessive Heat Warning until 7 PM CDT Saturday for IAZ001-012-
     020-031.

NE...Excessive Heat Warning until 7 PM CDT Saturday for NEZ013-014.

&&

$$

SHORT TERM...
LONG TERM...
AVIATION...JH



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