Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Sioux Falls, SD

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FXUS63 KFSD 190405

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Sioux Falls SD
1105 PM CDT Fri Aug 18 2017

.SHORT TERM...(This evening through Saturday)
Issued at 234 PM CDT Fri Aug 18 2017

A 75-85 knot jet was diving south into the central Dakotas early
this afternoon. This was aiding the development of a mid and upper
level circulation over northeast SD into west central MN. At the
surface winds were turning to the northwest west of Interstate 29
while a southwest winds was in place along and east of the
Interstate. Suspect that storms will develop along this pre frontal
trough of sorts by 20z to 21z in an environment that was marginally
favorable for severe weather. Afternoon CAPE values will likely be
around 2000 J/kg with about 35 knots of deep layer shear, the
majority of this shear was above about 2 km. But, with the very
light wind field ahead of the inverted trough the enhanced
stretching potential is increasing so maybe a few funnels will be
possible with the stronger updrafts. Hail will be the most likely
severe weather scenario with the freezing level at about 10000 feet.
Most of this activity will be east of the area by about 0z so
looking at a window of about 4 hours or so of possible
thunderstorms. After a few initial strong updrafts expect activity
to become more multi cellular and not as strong.

After the convection dissipates and moves east high pressure will
settle in, but the low level air mass will remain fairly moist. This
does support the potential for fog, especially along and east of
Interstate 29. Will have fog in the forecast from about 8z through

After the fog burns off on Saturday morning the day should prove to
be very nice, with southerly winds increasing from west to east.
Lows Saturday morning will be in the lower to mid 50s with highs on
Saturday from near 80 in southwest MN to near 90 in central SD.

.LONG TERM...(Saturday night through Friday)
Issued at 234 PM CDT Fri Aug 18 2017

Several periods of active weather through the medium and extended
portions of the forecast, with the main concerns focused on Sunday
night and again Monday evening.

A compact wave is expected to cross Nebraska late Saturday
afternoon, sparking convection Saturday evening across central
Nebraska.  Models are a bit over the place with the northern extent
of this activity, but as the LLJ increases could see elevated
storms, or perhaps the stratiform area of an MCS drift northward
into the overnight hours.

A frontal boundary drifts into the area Sunday and stalls as a
stationary boundary by late Sunday afternoon.  Strong instability,
but marginal shear builds along this boundary Sunday afternoon.
Soundings continue to show some issues with capping for surface
based storms late Sunday afternoon. However, as the LLJ increases in
the late evening hours, should see a substancial increase in
elevated convection overnight, with a good potential for one or more
organized MCS moving through the area.  There remains a severe
weather threat with evening development.  Prior discussions made the
valid assessment that most of the effective shear is top heavy in
the soundings, but there would be sufficient MUCAPE lifted off the
700 MB level to force strong hailers into the early overnight hours.

Eclipse Day Outlook: Big question marks on the degree cloud cover
and lingering showers into Monday morning, especially over
Minnesota/Iowa counties.  Most models are showing a brief window
where clouds may scatter late in the morning. The problem is that we
may also see a very quick CU field develop by the beginning of the
eclipse, with a good deal of ACCAS and high level cirrus. Growing
confidence that we`ll have to view this eclipse in the local area
through some type of cloud cover. Will continue to advertise a drop
in the diurnal trend as the peak eclipse takes place, edging 5-7
degrees off temperatures. A unique forecast for sure for later in
the day, as it`s a rare event to be able to forecast convective
redevelopment and the impacts of an eclipse on that development as
models have no idea that an eclipse will be taking place.

That said, a fairly strong wave moves into the Northern Plains late
in the afternoon and should trigger fairly widespread convection
into the overnight hours. Mid-level lapse rates increase and
effective shear grows, so we could be looking at another potential
strong to severe event into Monday evening/overnight. It will be
interesting to see how quickly we will recover temperatures and if
the eclipse will have a bigger impact on CU development or stratus

Tuesday-Thursday: Large scale troughing moves into the northeastern
US by Tuesday, bringing high pressure into the central CONUS.  A
continuation of cool temperatures and dry conditions persist into
next weekend.


.AVIATION...(For the 06Z TAFS through 06Z Saturday night)
Issued at 1103 PM CDT Fri Aug 18 2017

With light winds overnight, MVFR/IFR fog may develop generally in
areas from the Interstate 29 corridor and eastward, including
KFSD and KSUX. Any fog that develops will dissipate after 13Z on
Saturday, leading to VFR conditions through the remainder of the
TAF period.




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