Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS St. Louis, MO

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FXUS63 KLSX 032357

Area Forecast Discussion...Updated Aviation
National Weather Service Saint Louis MO
557 PM CST Sat Dec 3 2016

.SHORT TERM...  (Through Late Sunday Afternoon)
Issued at 322 PM CST Sat Dec 3 2016

Light rain was trying to spread northward into southeastern MO late
this afternoon, well north of a low pressure system along the Gulf
Coast region.  An initially dry atmosphere in the lower layers
around 850 mb, on the western periphery of the surface ridge
centered over northern IL will slow the onset of precipitation this
evening, but parts of southeast MO and southwest IL should
eventually experience some light rain later this evening as the
boundary layer saturates. More significant will be a band of
precipitation which will move through much of the area, particularly
northeast MO and west central IL late tonight and Sunday morning
ahead of a northern stream shortwave. Most of the forecast soundings
indicate that much of the precipitation will be in the form of
liquid rain, but some of the model soundings do drop the freezing
level low enough late tonight and early Sunday morning that the rain
may mix with or even change over to a brief period of light snow,
mainly across northeast MO and west central IL.  May see very minor
snow accumulation, less than one inch in this region, mainly on
grassy areas. Roads should be warm enough that any snow would melt
on impact and not accumulate or create hazardous driving conditions.
Any snow should change over to liquid rain by late Sunday morning as
the boundary layer warms.  This rain will shift east of the forecast
area by late afternoon.


.LONG TERM...  (Sunday Night through Next Saturday)
Issued at 322 PM CST Sat Dec 3 2016

The synoptic pattern at the start of the long term period will
feature split flow aloft, with the progressive/zonal northern stream
located across the north-central CONUS, and an upper-level low
lifting out of the Southern Plains.  This regime will transition into
a broad trough across much of the CONUS by the end of next week,
allowing significantly colder temperatures to enter the region.

There will be a couple systems to focus on this period.  The first
will be associated with the ejecting southern stream trough which
will help induce a surface low across the AR/LA/TX region by Monday
night.  Despite a favorable surface low track, mid-level deformation
and associated frontogenetical vertical circulation noted on forecast
cross-sections, it appears that the low-levels are going to remain
too warm for much in the way of wintry precip. Can`t completely
rule out a few flakes trying to mix in across central and northeast
MO Monday night into Tuesday morning, but this looks mostly to be a
cold rain event.

A strong PV anomaly will then dive from the eastern Pacific into the
Central Plains Wednesday into Wednesday night, digging out a trough
across much of the central CONUS.  With the PNA finally going
negative, it appears this digging trough will have access to plenty
of cold air that has been bottled up across northwestern Canada
and northern Alaska. The surface front will have pushed well south of
the region by the time the upper-level ascent from the PV anomaly
arrives, thus expect a light band of precipitation to set up in the
postfrontal cold airmass.  This will bring a band of light snow,
possibly mixed with a few rain drops initially, to portions of
central/eastern MO and western IL.  Too early to speculate on any
light accumulations (if any), but QPF with this system looks rather
light 0.1"-0.2".

The coldest airmass of the season will arrive behind this system for
Thursday into Friday.  Highs will likely not make it out of the 20s
Thursday afternoon, with temperatures Friday morning in the 10-15
degree range.  These temperatures coupled with a northwest breeze
will cause wind chills to dip to around 0 at times late Thursday
into early Friday.



.AVIATION...  (For the 00z TAFs through 00z Sunday Evening)
Issued at 534 PM CST Sat Dec 3 2016

Two distinct areas of precipitation will spread into the area
tonight. The first stretching from eastern TX across the lower MS
Valley is moving northeast, while another region was located from
IA into KS and will expand and bodily move east. These two areas
of precipitation will eventually merge during the late evening and
overnight hours, with the greatest coverage and longevity of any
precipitation on Sunday morning. Present indications are the
precipitation will be predominately rain, however could mix with
or change to snow at times impacting KUIN. VFR flight conditions
this evening will give way to MVFR after the onset of steadier
precipitation and then IFR. Flight conditions will gradually
improve on Sunday afternoon as precipitation exits east and low-
level flow becomes more westerly.


VFR flight conditions are expected this evening with flight
conditions lowering to MVFR during the overnight hours with the
onset of rain. I may be a bit slow in the start of rain at 10z,
however rain moving in from the south will be encouterning a good
deal of low level dry air. There are some indications that some
light rain or sprinkles may occur as early as 05-06z but my
confidence was not real high on this scenario. Flight conditions
will lower to IFR on Sunday morning with steadier rain continuing
until early afternoon. Flight conditions will gradually
improve late Sunday afternoon as precipitation exits east and
low-level flow becomes more westerly.





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