Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Goodland, KS

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FXUS63 KGLD 061123
AFDGLD

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Goodland KS
423 AM MST Tue Dec 6 2016

.SHORT TERM...(Today through Wednesday morning)
Issued at 338 AM MST Tue Dec 6 2016

Latest upper air analysis has a closed low digging south over the
Northern Plains within a long wave trough over the western half of
the CONUS.  Further west a short wave trough was moving on shore
over the Pacific Northwest.  These two troughs will be responsible
for bringing snow to the Tri-State Area tonight and tomorrow.

Main focus will be snowfall amounts and wind chills for the forecast.

Today will be dry and much cooler than yesterday as dry zonal flow
will setup over the Tri-State Area.  Winds will be light as a
surface highs moves through.

Tonight through Wednesday morning snow will move in from the west.
Two bands of frontogenesis will develop during the mid evening, one
near the Highway 36 corridor and another over Kit Carson and
Cheyenne Counties in Colorado.  The band of frontogenesis over the
north will move very little during the evening while it strengthens.
Overnight this band will slide east-southeast.  This movement will
cause the band to train over the northern half of the forecast area.
As the band shifts eastward it will weaken as the left exit and
right entrance regions of the couple 500mb jet streak shift
southeast of the Tri-State Area.  The band of frontogenesis over the
southwest part of the area peaks by midnight then weakens as it
moves southeast.

Am expecting the highest snowfall amounts to occur during the late
evening through the first half of the overnight period when the
large scale lift and frontogenesis are strongest.  Most of the snow
during the night will occur under the northern band where the
environment will be saturated the deepest.  Very little snow will be
expected under the southern band due to a much more shallow
saturated layer to work with.

During the morning the lift will shift southeast ahead of the
approaching 500mb trough axis.  While the frontogenesis will be
weaker, it will be deeper.  The majority of the snow for Wednesday
will occur before mid morning.  After mid morning the frontogenesis
will exit the Tri-State Area.  There will be some lingering snow in
the afternoon, but am not expecting much if any accumulation.

Regarding confidence for snowfall amounts, have fairly high
confidence snowfall amounts around 3 inches will occur over the
northern half of the Tri-State Area.  Have low confidence of
snowfall reports of six inches or greater.  Confidence decreases
regarding the snowfall amounts being 3-4 inches or 2-3 inches.
Looking at SREF ensemble the members snowfall amounts are well
spread for Goodland, Imperial, McCook and Hill City, with no clear
grouping discernible.  SREF members for Akron group in the 3-4 inch
range.  This spread of snowfall amounts from zero up to eight or ten
inches lowers confidence for a specific range of snowfall to
forecast.  In addition the model blend qpf and snowfall has had a
continued downward trend for the last few nights.  Am concerned this
downward trend will continue today causing snowfall amounts to be
more in the 2-3 inch range.  There has also been some shifting in
the placement of the frontogenesis band over the last couple of
nights which lowers confidence regarding where the band of snow will
develop.  CIPS analysis continues to show snowfall amounts more in
the 2-3 inch range.  With all this in mind decided to not issue an
advisory since confidence was not quite high enough that 3-4 inches
of snow would occur over the Tri-State Area.

Considering impacts with this snow event, am expecting the overall
impact to be minor.  The highest snowfall rates will occur during
the late evening, into the overnight hours.  This snow will be very
fluffy since the precipitable water values are around 25% of normal
for this time of year.  Winds will gust 20 to 25 mph for the
southwest edge of the higher snowfall amounts, with lighter winds
expected where the majority of the higher snowfall amounts will
occur. Overall expect the blowing snow to have a low impact. Roads
will become snowpacked tonight, but travel impacts will be more of
an inconvenience. Wind chills will fall to the single digits above
and below zero late tonight into early Wednesday morning.

.LONG TERM...(Wednesday through Monday)
Issued at 338 AM MST Tue Dec 6 2016

Drastically cooler temperatures continue Wednesday and Thursday.
Highs both days will be very similar. Lows will be coldest
Wednesday night, falling below zero for most of the Tri- State
Area. Wind chills will fall to 15 and 20 below zero by Thursday
morning.

As we head into the weekend, temperatures begin to modify and slowly
warm due to the region being influenced by a more zonal flow. Two
areas of interest for this period will be Saturday night and Sunday
night. For Saturday night, a shortwave trough and associated surface
front swing through the region bringing a slight chance of
precipitation to areas mainly north of I-70. Precip should start out
as light rain in the evening, quickly changing to light snow or
flurries overnight. Little to no accumulation is expected at this
time. Model soundings show sufficient moisture levels aloft for this
to occur, but may not be enough to overcome the dry layer at the
surface.

Temps on Sunday should predominately be in the upper 30s to lower
40s behind the front.  For Sunday night, model disagreement ensues
and confidence is low. Euro is advertising another shortwave trough
moving through the region, whereas the GFS shows no sign of it.
Chose to stick with the blended output.

&&

.AVIATION...(For the 12Z TAFS through 12Z Wednesday morning)
Issued at 417 AM MST Tue Dec 6 2016

VFR to MVFR conditions forecast for the TAFs. A surface high will
move through today causing the winds to turn from the northwest to
the southeast or east. Conditions deteriorate after 6z as snow
intensifies and winds increase. During this time there will be
some blowing snow for KGLD. Conditions will begin to improve
Wednesday morning.

&&

.GLD WATCHES/WARNINGS/ADVISORIES...
KS...NONE.
CO...NONE.
NE...NONE.
&&

$$

SHORT TERM...JTL
LONG TERM...JTL/SME
AVIATION...JTL



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