Area Forecast Discussion
Issued by NWS Louisville, KY

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FXUS63 KLMK 291507

1107 AM EDT Mon Sep 29 2014

...Forecast Update...
Issued 1050 AM EDT Mon Sep 29 2014

Most of the fog has dissipated so will remove from the forecast.
Skies will become mostly sunny throughout the rest of the day with
highs in the lower 80s.

Issued 755 AM EDT Mon Sep 29 2014

Updated the forecast to include patchy fog with patchy dense fog in
a few areas.  Observations across the region reveal fog mainly in
areas where it rained yesterday and in typical fog prone locations.
Some observations and webcams indicated fog was dense at times in a
few locations.  Thus, issued an SPS for patchy dense fog through
10am.  Fog should dissipate by mid morning.

.SHORT TERM (Now through Tuesday)...
Issued at 305 AM EDT Mon Sep 29 2014

Low-amplitude upper pattern continues to be a slow-moving one as it
remains disconnected from the stronger westerly flow well to the
north. Weak trof axis will push east of the lower Ohio Valley today,
giving way to shortwave ridging that will persist into the middle of
the week. Warm and dry conditions will be the rule, leaving us with
mainly a temp and fog forecast.

Daytime temps both today and Tuesday will run several degrees above
normal. Will favor the slightly warmer GFS MOS given how max temps
have overachieved lately. Favorable radiational cooling conditions
tonight will allow temps to drop very close to seasonal normals.
Given the very weak low-level flow, and forecast mins several
degrees below this afternoon`s forecast dewpoints, fog seems to be a
good bet toward daybreak Tuesday. The ability of NW winds this
afternoon to mix down dry air will make all the difference in fog
potential. Will go with areas of fog in the grids and zones, but
will let the day crew evaluate whether dense fog will need to be

.LONG TERM (Tuesday Night through Sunday)...
Issued at 245 AM EDT Mon Sep 29 2014

The synoptic pattern at the start of the long term period will
feature a weak ridge over the Ohio Valley, with a strong upstream
trough located over the western CONUS.  This trough will build into
the region through the long term period, marking a pattern shift
from the warm and dry weather to a cooler/wetter regime by the end
of the work week.

Tuesday night through at least Wednesday night will continue to
feature benign weather as the upper-ridge remains in place.  This
regime will make for temperatures continuing to run above normal, as
highs top out in the low to mid 80s on Wednesday, with lows in the
50s and lower 60s.

Clouds will begin to increase on Thursday as the system approaches
from the west.  Warm-air advection associated with the warm conveyor
belt (30-40 kt low-level jet) of this system will spark a few
showers/storms a early as Thursday afternoon across portions of
southern IN, spreading into portions of Kentucky late Thursday
afternoon/evening.  Mid-level lapse rates look quite poor during
this timeframe which will limit overall instability and deep-layer
shear will be on the order of about 30 knots.  Therefore, do not
expect any significant severe weather out of these storms Thursday.

The cold front and associated upper-level kinematics will sweep
through the region overnight Thursday into Friday.  Dprog/dt shows
the trend has been to speed this system up, now pushing the bulk of
the precip through overnight Friday.  Given the timing, guidance
suggests instability along the front will be waning as it pushes
in.  Given surface moisture/temperature advection will not be that
strong ahead of the front, it appears we should decouple enough to
limit the potential for surface-based storms.  Therefore, while a
few bouts of gusty winds may be possible, think these storms will be
on the decline and becoming elevated as they push in, carrying just
a locally heavy rainfall threat.

Precipitation will push out by early Friday afternoon.  Will have to
continue to monitor the timing of fropa, as the slower GFS suggests
the atmosphere could destabilize early Friday afternoon over far
eastern portions of the FA before the front clears the area.  Given
the overall quicker trend in guidance, will lean away from this
solution for now.

In the wake of the front, much cooler air will push into the
region.  Highs Saturday will struggle to get out of the middle 60s.
Overnight lows Saturday night will be dependent on clouds/location
of the surface ridge.  However, if ideal radiational conditions can
be realized, lows in the upper 30s will certainly be possible in
some locations.


.AVIATION (12Z TAF Update)...
Issued at 645 AM EDT Mon Sep 29 2014

Weak surface gradient in place means that fog will be the main
challenge, initially in BWG and again toward daybreak Tuesday in BWG
and LEX.

BWG has been up and down multiple times, from MVFR to below field
mins and back. Will most likely initialize that with a TEMPO for the
first hour, but will need to be an issuance time decision. SDF and
LEX have had enough mid-level cloud cover to preclude fog formation
and will initialize VFR.

Light northerly flow later this morning and through the afternoon
will drag slightly drier air into the region. However, we are
setting up for perhaps an even more significant fog event on Tuesday
morning. Low-level winds remain quite weak, skies will be clear most
of the night, and min temps are forecast to dip a few degrees below
this afternoon`s dewpoints. MOS guidance is hitting fog hard in BWG,
and with good agreement between the GFS and NAM MOS, will take
visibilities to MVFR after midnight, and sock in with VLIFR a couple
hrs before daybreak. LEX should not be as foggy, but still expect to
go MVFR for a few hrs. Heat island effects should keep SDF




Short Term.....RAS
Long Term......KJD
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